# Cranberry Weather Summaries - Current Year

### 2016

## Weather as Recorded at the UMass Cranberry Station

### East Wareham

### Prepared by Carolyn DeMoranville

October was warm and a bit sunnier than average. Rainfall was above average for the first month since May, very welcome indeed if not yet enough to entirely break the drought. The temperature averaged 54.8 degrees, 2.1 degrees per day above average, warmer than 2015. Maximum temperature of 77.0 degrees was recorded on the 19th; a minimum temperature of 32.0 degrees was recorded on the 27th, the first freeze of the season. Daytime high temperatures averaged 63.7 degrees, 1.9 degrees above the norm. Evening low temperatures averaged 46.1 degrees, 2.4 degrees above the norm. This is the 7th year in a row of warmer than average daytime highs in October, 6 of the 7 years also had a nighttime low above the 30-year average. So far in 2016, all months, with the exception of April, have had above average temperatures.

Sunshine totaled 58% of the possible sunshine hours, 3 points above the norm and similar to 2015. The Blue Hills observatory had 12 days that were mostly clear (90% of possible) and 6 days with no sunshine. There were 9 days with fog in East Wareham this month. Year-to-date sunshine is running well above the norm (more than 200 hours above).

Precipitation totaled 6.03 inches, 1.89 inches above the 30-year average. The largest rainfall came on the 8-9th, 2.18 inches. Measurable rain was recorded on 8 days, 7 days of which had rainfall of 0.10 inches or greater. This was only the 3rd month with above average rainfall this year. Year-to-date rainfall for 2016 is 35.38 inches; 5.45 inches below average for East Wareham. Notably, our rainfall deficit for the year is less than it was this time last year. The big difference is that we started 2015 with high water tables after the 2014-2015 snows but started 2016 already in a deficit since 2015 came in at more than 6 inches below the norm.

## Weather as Recorded at the UMass Cranberry Station

**East Wareham**

**Prepared by Carolyn DeMoranville**

NOTE: Beginning in 2016, the temperature and rainfall data are compared to the 30 year average for the period 1981 to 2010.

September was warm with below average sunshine and continued dry conditions for most of the month. The temperature averaged 66.5°, 3.4 degrees per day above normal. Maximum temperature was 90.5° on the 9th; a minimum temperature of 41.0° was recorded on the 26th. Daytime high temperatures averaged 74.8°, which is 2.8 degrees above the norm. Evening temperatures averaged 58.9°, 4.3 degrees above the norm. There were 8 days with a maximum temperature above 80°. So far in 2016, all months, with the exception of April, have had above average temperatures.

Sunshine totaled 51% of the possible sunshine hours, 8 points below the norm. We recorded 13 sunny days in East Wareham and 4 days with morning fog. The Blue Hills Observatory (official site for sunshine hour data), recorded 12 sunny days and 10 days with fog.

Precipitation totaled 3.55 inches, 0.79 inches below normal, making this the fourth consecutive month of below average rain. We had measurable rain of 0.10 inches or greater on 7 days, and 3 days with spotty showers and drizzle with less than 0.10 inches recorded. The largest 24-hour rainfall was 1.58 inches on the 19th (recorded on the 20th), accounting for 45% of the month's total.

Year-to-date rainfall for 2016 is 29.35 inches, 7.34 inches below average for East Wareham but not as far below normal as 2015 at this time. However, we came into 2015 with high water tables after the snowy 2014-2015 winter. This year, after a low snowfall winter and four months of below average precipitation, the area remains in serious drought condition.

## Weather as Recorded at the UMass Cranberry Station

**East Wareham**

**Prepared by Carolyn DeMoranville**

NOTE: Beginning in July 2016, the temperature and rainfall data will be compared to the 30 year average for the period 1981 to 2010. The reports for January to June 2016 have been modified to reflect this new convention for the entire year, since often we refer to 'year to date' information. The data that have been corrected in those reports is highlighted in **bold**. It is worthy of note that compared to the 30 year averages from 1961 to 1990 (previous comparator), the average daily temperature was warmer in every month in the 1981-2010 data set compared to that in the older one.

August was a record warm, very dry and very sunny month. The temperature averaged 74.5 degrees, 4.0 degrees above normal, beating the old record of 73.7° from 2015 and 1937. There were 4 days of 90 or above temperature with another 11 days of 85-89°. The maximum temperature of 92.3 was recorded on the 14th. The minimum temperature of 55.4 degrees was recorded on the 23rd. Daytime high temperatures averaged 84.7 degrees, 5.9 degrees above the norm. Evening temperatures averaged 65.2 degrees, 3.5 degrees above the norm. There were 7 nights with temperatures of 70 or above and and only 6 nights with temperatures below 60.

Sunshine totaled 71% of the possible sunshine hours, which is 13 points above the norm. There were 14 days with 90% or greater of possible sunshine, and only one day with no sunshine.

Precipitation totaled 1.59 inches, 2.28 inches below normal. We had measurable precipitation on 6 days, with 5 of those have more than 0.1 inch. More than a third of the rain (0.61") was recorded on the 1st. Year-to-date, 2016 has received 32.35 inches of rain, 6.55 inches below the yearly average for East Wareham. Most of that deficit has occurred in the last 3 months.

## Official Summer Season

The official summer (June, July and August) was very warm, dry, and sunny. The average temperature was 71.7 degrees, 2.5 degrees above the 30-year average for the 3-month period. All three months were above average in temperature, August setting a new record. Total rainfall for the season was 4.54 inches, 6.42 inches below the normal precipitation for this time of year; with all three months seeing below normal rainfall. Sunshine hours totaled 923 hours; this is 180 hours above the average for the three months, all of which were above normal. We had a maximum temperature of 95 degrees recorded on July 23rd and a minimum temperature of 51.8 degrees recorded on June 9th. There were 8 days of 90° or more, the last occurring on August 29th. We had no official heat wave this season.

## Crop Forecast

New England Agricultural Statistics Service released the United States forecast for the 2016 Cranberry crop. Overall production is predicted to be 8.59 million barrels, up slightly from 2015. With the exception of Wisconsin, all of the major growing regions anticipate lower crops than in 2015. The forecast for Massachusetts is for 2.07 million barrels.

## Weather as Recorded at the UMass Cranberry Station

**East Wareham**

**Prepared by Carolyn DeMoranville**

NOTE: Beginning this month, the temperature and rainfall data will be compared to the 30 year average for the period 1981 to 2010. The reports for January to June 2016 have been modified to reflect this new convention for the entire year, since often we refer to 'year to date' information. The data that have been corrected in those reports is highlighted in **bold**. It is worthy of note that compared to the 30 year averages from 1961 to 1990 (previous comparator), the average daily temperature was warmer in every month in the 1981-2010 data set compared to that in the older one.

July 2016 was warm, dry, and sunny. With 4 days of 90+ temperature, July’s temperature was 2.4 degrees above average and 1.1 degrees warmer than July 2015. The 90+ days were not consecutive, so there was no heat wave. An additional 11 days had maximum temperatures from 85 to 89°. As was reported for Boston, this is the 7th July in a row with above average temperature. Maximum temperature was 95 degrees, recorded on the 23rd, and a minimum temperature of 55.4 degrees was recorded on the 20th. Daytime high temperatures averaged 83.2 degrees, 3.2 degrees above the norm. Evening temperatures averaged 65.4 degrees, 2.5 degrees above the norm. For 2016, 6 of the 7 months have seen above average temperature.

Sunshine at the Blue Hills Observatory totaled 66% of the possible sunshine hours, 9 points above average, making this the sunniest July since 1993. We had 12 days with 90% or greater of possible sunshine, while on 4 days was there less than 10% sunshine. We had fog in East Wareham on 4 days.

We recorded 1.92 inches of rainfall, which is 1.4 inches below the average for July. A total of 1.32 inches of the rain came over the July 4th weekend, while the second half of the month saw only about a third of an inch. Rainfall was recorded on 5 days, with only 2 having over 0.10 inch. Year-to-date rainfall for 2016 is 28.48 inches, 4.27 inches below the average for East Wareham. While this deficit is less than that at this time in 2015, the period of June and July this year has seen only 42% of the normal rainfall. There was 1 thunderstorm recorded this month.

## Weather as Recorded at the UMass Cranberry Station

**East Wareham**

**Prepared by Carolyn DeMoranville**

NOTE: Beginning in July of this year, we began to use the 30 year average for the period 1981 to 2010 as the comparator for the temperature and rainfall data. The reports for January to June 2016 have been modified to reflect this new convention for the entire year, since often we refer to 'year to date' information. The data that have been corrected are in **bold**.

June was an extremely sunny month with above average temperature and well below average rainfall. The month was also characterized by noticeably low dew points. The mean temperature for the month was 66.7 degrees, **1.1** degrees above average. Maximum temperature was 85.1 degrees on the 30th; a minimum temperature of 51.8 degrees was recorded on the 9th. Daytime high temperatures averaged 76.8 degrees, 2.8 degrees above the norm. Evening temperatures averaged 57.7 degrees, 1 degree above the norm.

Sunshine was well above average with 69% of the possible sunshine recorded. This is 14 percentage points above the average for June sunshine, the 7th sunniest June on record at the Blue Hills Observatory. Ten days were rated as sunny (90% or greater of possible) with only 6 being cloudy.

Precipitation totaled 1.03 inches, which is **2.74** inches below the 30-year average. We had measurable precipitation on only 5 days, with 2 of those days having measurable precipitation of 0.10 inches or greater. The largest 24-hour rainfall was 0.46 inches on the 21st. Year-to-date rainfall for 2016 now stands at 22.29 inches, **2.87** inches below average. The high sunshine along with above average temperature, low dew points, and lack of rain led to very dry conditions - browning of plants was common.

The first half of 2016 has been warm and dry. Temperatures have averaged **1.78** degrees above normal for the first half of the year; all months but April were above average (April was right on the norm). Rainfall was **2.7 **inches below normal for this 6-month period. This is the third year in a row with below normal rainfall for the first 6 months. Sunshine has been above average for the period with only May below average.

## Weather as Recorded at the UMass Cranberry Station

**East Wareham**

**Prepared by Carolyn DeMoranville**

NOTE: Beginning in July of this year, we began to use the 30 year average for the period 1981 to 2010 as the comparator for the temperature and rainfall data. The reports for January to June 2016 have been modified to reflect this new convention for the entire year, since often we refer to 'year to date' information. The data that have been corrected are in **bold**.

May weather was about average in temperature but with less sunshine than is normal. Rainfall was above the 30-year average but mainly due to a single event at the end of the month. The temperatures for May averaged 56.2 degrees, **0.4** degrees above the 30-year average. The maximum temperature was 85.1 degrees on the 26th and a minimum temperature of 34.7 degrees was recorded on the 10th. Daytime high temperatures averaged 65.5 degrees, 0.6 degrees above the norm. Evening temperatures averaged 47.9 degrees, 0.9 degrees above the norm.

Based on data from the Blue Hills Observatory, sunshine totaled 47% of the possible sunshine hours, 5 percentage points below the norm. There were 6 days with 90% or better sunshine (similar to the last 2 years) but 9 days with no sunshine at all (there was only 1 last year but 12 in 2014). There were 5 days with fog in East Wareham.

Precipitation totaled 5.07 inch, **1.36** inches above the average rainfall for May in East Wareham. This is the first wet May in the last three years but the large total for 2016 is skewed by a large event on the 30th. There were 10 days with measurable precipitation, 8 with more than 0.1 inch. The largest 24-hour rainfall, accounting for almost 40% of the monthly total, was 1.94 inches on the 30th. Our total year-to-date rainfall is 21.26 inches, only **0.13** inches below the average in East Wareham.

## Official Spring Season

The official spring (March-May) had above average temperatures - 47.4 degrees, **1.1** degrees above average - primarily due to a warm March. Snowfall for the period totaled 7.8 inches (all in April), **1.6 **inches above average. Precipitation was 0.77 inches below normal at 12.94 inches. Sunshine for the spring was 634 hours, 51% of possible hours for the three month period and 2% above the norm. Sunshine during March was right on average, April was above the norm, and May was well below average.

## Weather as Recorded at the UMass Cranberry Station

**East Wareham**

**Prepared by Carolyn DeMoranville**

NOTE: Beginning in July of this year, we began to use the 30 year average for the period 1981 to 2010 as the comparator for the temperature and rainfall data. The reports for January to June 2016 have been modified to reflect this new convention for the entire year, since often we refer to 'year to date' information. The data that have been corrected are in **bold**.

April started out warm but turned quite cold from the 3rd to the 6th. In fact the night of the 5-6th was the coldest since February after 7.8 inches of snow on the 4th. A mild spell mid-month was followed by more cool temperatures. April, normally a wet, cloudy month, was very sunny in 2016, with only 7 days of measurable precipitation.

Overall, the temperature averaged 44.9 degrees, **1.2° below **the 30-year average. The maximum temperature was 75.2 degrees on the 22nd and a minimum temperature of 16.7 degrees was recorded on the 6th. Daytime high temperatures averaged 53.0 degrees, 1.9 degrees below the norm. Evening low temperatures averaged 36.1 degrees, 0.7 degrees below the norm.

Sunshine, recorded at the Blue Hills Observatory, totaled 60% of the possible sunshine hours, 11 points above the norm. There were 11 days with 90% or better sunshine and only 5 days with virtually no sunshine. We experienced heavy fog only on 2 days during the month of April.

Precipitation totaled 4.56 inches, which is **0.05** inches above normal. We had measurable precipitation on 7 days; 6 of those had 0.10 inches or greater rainfall. The largest 24-hour rainfall was 1.86 inches on the 3rd. Year-to-date rainfall for 2016 stands at 16.19 inches; this is 0.96 inches above last year’s total at this time but **1.49** inches below the normal average for this time of year. We did have 1 thunderstorm on the 7th.

We had 7.8 inches snowfall in April, **7** inches above average for the month. This brings the 2015 – 2016 season to a total of 38.4 inches of snow, just slightly above average. This is 47.6 inches less then the 2014-2015 season!

## Weather as Recorded at the UMass Cranberry Station

**East Wareham**

**Prepared by Carolyn DeMoranville**

**bold**.

March was warm, with below-average rainfall, no snowfall and average sunshine. The temperatures averaged 41.2 degrees, **4.2** degrees per day above the 30-year average, continuing the trend of above average temperatures since November 2015. The first three months of 2016 have averaged **3.4** degrees above normal. Maximum temperature for the month was 62.6 degrees on the 13th and a minimum temperature of 20.3 degrees was recorded on the 3rd. Daytime high temperatures averaged 49.1 degrees, 3.4 degrees above the norm. Evening temperatures averaged 33.5 degrees, 5.1 degrees above the norm.

Sunshine totaled 48% of possible sunshine hours, exactly the average. Sunshine data are from the Blue Hill Observatory where 179 sunshine hours were recorded for the month. Year-to-date sunshine for 2016 is a little above normal.

Precipitation totaled 3.31 inches. This is **2.08** inches below normal. We had measurable precipitation of 0.10 inches or greater on 9 days. The largest 24-hour rainfall was 1.43 inches from the 14th to the 15th. The monthly rainfall was spread out fairly evenly through the month. We have received a total of 11.63 inches of precipitation year-to-date, **1.44** inches below the average for East Wareham. We had no measurable snowfall during the month.

## Weather as Recorded at the UMass Cranberry Station

**East Wareham**

**Prepared by Carolyn DeMoranville**

**bold**.

February continued the warm trend for this winter, with above normal precipitation. The temperatures averaged 34.2 degrees, **3.2** degrees above normal. The maximum temperature was 62.6 degrees on the 25th and a minimum temperature of -8.5 degrees was recorded on the 14th. Daytime high temperatures averaged 43.6 degrees, 4.1 degrees above the norm. Evening temperatures averaged 24.6 degrees, 2.3 degrees above the norm. All but 9 nights had low temperatures of below 32 degrees; 1 night was 0 degrees, 1 night was in the single digits and 2 nights were below zero. While this month was not near record warm, it was well above average and 14.6 degrees warmer than February 2015.

Sunshine totaled 50% of the possible sunshine hours; 1 point above the norm. 7 days had 90% or better sunshine (3 with 100%) while 7 days had no sunshine. The sunshine hours are recorded at the Blue Hill Observatory in Milton, MA. Precipitation totaled 4.9 inches, **1.29** inches above the norm. We had measurable precipitation on 7 days, all 0.10 inches or greater. The largest 24-hour rainfall was 1.99 inches on the 4th. There were 2 days with measurable snowfall totaling 16.0 inches, **6.5** inches above normal for the month. The greatest snowfall for one storm came on the 8th and 9th with 9.0 inches during near blizzard conditions and strong winds. Year-to-date snowfall recorded in East Wareham is now 30.2 inches, 34.4 inches less than this time in 2015; the 2015-2016 season to date is 30.6 inches, **3.2 **inches above the seasonal average. Snowfall records go back to 1952 in East Wareham.

## Official Winter Season

The official winter in East Wareham (Dec. 2015 - Feb. 2016) was very warm, wet, and only slightly above average in snowfall. Sunshine (at Blue Hills) for the winter was 46% of possible, 2 points below the norm. The season's temperatures averaged 37.3 degrees, **5.8** degrees above normal and 8.6 degrees warmer than 2014-2015. The low mark was -8.5 degrees on Feb. 14th and the maximum was 65.3 degrees on Dec. 24th. The coldest daily high was 14.0 degrees on Feb. 14th. December was the warmest in our records (since 1926). The three-month winter season, with average temperature of 37.3° was also the warmest on record for East Wareham. Previous records were 37.1° in 1997-1998 and 36.7° in 2011-2012. December had well below average sunshine; January’s sunshine was well above the average; and February sunshine was just about average. Precipitation totaled 14.51 inches, **3.2** inches above average. Snowfall totaled 30.6 inches, **3.2** inches above normal. Much like December 2013 and 2014, December 2015 was the warmest of the three winter months, with the highest rainfall, lowest snowfall and with very low sunshine. February had the coldest temperatures and the most snowfall, and January had the least rainfall for the winter season.

## Weather as Recorded at the UMass Cranberry Station

**East Wareham**

**Prepared by Carolyn DeMoranville**

**bold**.

January, while not as warm as December, was another above average temperature month. Temperatures at the beginning and end of the month were particularly warm with more seasonable weather mid-month. We had above-average temperatures and sunshine with below average rainfall and above average snowfall. The average temperature was 32.1 degrees, **3.0** degrees above normal. The maximum temperature was 56.3 degrees on January 10th. A minimum temperature of 8.6 degrees was recorded on the 6th. Daytime high temperatures averaged 40.5 degrees, 2.8 degrees above the norm. Evening temperatures averaged 23.8 degrees, 3.5 degrees above the norm. Daytime high temperatures were 50 degrees or greater on 3 days. Evening temperatures were 32 degrees or below for all but 5 nights. There was 1 night with temperatures in the single digits.

The winter continues to be mild with the average temperature for the two winter months to date of 38.9 degrees, **7.1** degrees greater than the 30-year average and the warmest December/January average in our records (since 1928).

Precipitation totaled 3.42 inches. This is **0.65** inches below normal. We had measurable precipitation on 5 days; 3 of those days had less than 0.10 inches. The largest 24-hour rainfall was 1.41 inches from the 17th to the 18th. We had measurable snowfall of 0.1 inches or greater on 3 days, totaling 14.2 inches for the month, **3.4 **inches above average. The largest snowfall came during a 24-hour blizzard, on the 23rd and 24th of January, with 8.0 inches of snow, high winds and considerable drifting. So far this season we have recorded a total of 14.6 inches of snow.

Sunshine totaled 53% of the possible sunshine hours, 7 points above normal. There were 6 days with no sunshine and 8 days with 90% or better sunshine. Total sunshine for January 2016 was 7 points greater than that recorded in January 2015.

### 2015

## Weather as Recorded at the UMass Cranberry Station

### East Wareham

**Prepared by Carolyn DeMoranville**

Much like last year, December 2015 was very warm, cloudy and wet. However, this year we moved into record warmth. The temperature averaged 45.7 degrees, 13.9 degrees per day above the 30-year average! Maximum temperature was 65.3 degrees on the 24th; a minimum temperature of 24.8 degrees was recorded on the 1st. Daytime high temperatures averaged 53.0 degrees, 9.9 degrees above the norm. Evening temperatures averaged 38.5 degrees, 13.1 degrees above the norm. This was our warmest December in the 89 years of our record keeping; the 2015 December monthly average was 5.6° higher than the previous record (2001). Four of our five warmest Decembers have occurred in the past 14 years.

Precipitation totaled 7.09 inches, 2.66 inches above normal and 1.12 inches more than December 2014. We recorded 11 days with more than 0.1 inches of rain. The largest rainfall was 2.93 inches from the 22nd to the 24th. Total rainfall for 2015 was 43.74 inches, 6.58 inches below average for East Wareham and 13.24 inches less than the total rainfall for 2014. There was one day with measurable snow this month - 0.4 inches on the 29th. Normal snowfall for the month of December in East Wareham is 6.9 inches.

Sunshine for the month (recorded at the Blue Hills Observatory) was very low, totaling 34% of possible, 12 points below the norm. There were only two days with 90% or greater sunshine hours and 13 days with no sunshine at all. There were 17 days where we recorded foggy conditions in East Wareham.

## Year End Summary

The year 2015 had well-below average rainfall; the driest year since 2004. However, we also saw well above average snowfall at the beginning of the year with an annual total of 85.3 inches, the second highest total recorded at East Wareham since 1953. As a yearly average, temperature was near normal. However, this is deceiving - the first three months of 2015 were very cold, while the last two (especially December) were very warm; the other months were a bit above normal on average. Despite the very gloomy December, annual sunshine was only 4 points below the norm. Winter was cold and snowy, spring and summer were warm and dry, and we ended the year with very wet and warm conditions in December. Temperatures averaged 50.63 degrees, 0.75 degrees above the 30-year average in East Wareham. The average monthly temperature was above normal 8 out of 12 months. The maximum temperature of 92.3 degrees for the year was recorded on July 29th. The minimum temperature of -13.0 degrees was recorded on February 21st. We started the year with 24.3 inches of snow in January, 40.3 inches in February, and 20.3 inches in March; the total snowfall for the year was 85.3 inches, 49.2 inches above the yearly average.

The official winter in East Wareham (Dec. 2014 - Feb. 2015) was cold, wet and snowy, with below average sunshine, much like the 2013-2014 winter season. Snowfall for the winter of 2013- 2014 in East Wareham was 64.6 inches, all in January and February, 37.0 inches above normal. The official spring (March-May) had slightly below average temperatures - 45.8 degrees, 0.4 degrees below average. Snowfall for the period totaled 20.3 inches (all in March), 12.8 inches above average. Despite the above average snowfall, precipitation was 8.62 inches below normal due to extremely dry conditions in April and May. Total precipitation was 8.62 inches, 5.06 inches below average. The official summer (June, July and August) was warm, dry, and sunny. The average temperature was 70.2 degrees, 1.2 degrees above the 30-year average for the 3-month period. Both July and August were above average in temperature, August equaling the 1937 record. The official fall season, Sept. – Nov. 2015, was warm, dry, and well above average for sunshine. All three months had above average sunshine hours.

By the year’s end, precipitation totaled 43.74 inches, 6.58 inches below normal, with December being the wettest month with 7.09 inches of rainfall. The driest month was May with only 0.95 inches of rain. February gave us the greatest snowfall in 2015 with 40.3 inches, with a total of 85.3 for the year. July had the highest temperature recorded for the year.

Sunshine hours for the year of 2014 totaled 55% of the possible. There were eight months with high sunshine hours and three months with low sunshine hours; January was right on the norm. Possible sunshine for the year was just 4 points below normal.

Overall, we started 2015 very cold and snowy with below-average sunshine and well above-average snowfall. The year ended warm and wet, with well below-average sunshine and snowfall.

November was warm, somewhat dry, and very sunny. The temperature averaged 47.0 degrees, 4.5 degrees above normal. Maximum temperature was 70.7 degrees on the 16th; a minimum temperature of 21.2 degrees was recorded on the 24th.. Daytime high temperatures averaged 56.5 degrees, 3.9 degrees above the norm. Nighttime temperatures averaged 37.7 degrees, 3.1 degrees above the norm. November 2015 average temperature was almost 5 degrees warmer than that in November 2014.

Precipitation totaled 3.88 inches, 0.82 inches below normal. Measurable precipitation of 0.10 inches or more was recorded on 7 days. There were two major rain events this month, accounting for most of the total for the month: 1.85 inches from the 11-12th and 1.18 inches from the 22-23rd. Year-to-date rainfall for 2015 is 36.65 inches, 9.24 inches below the year-to-date average for East Wareham at this time of year. There was no snowfall recorded for the month of November in East Wareham. The average snowfall for November in East Wareham is 1.0 inch.

Sunshine totaled 54% of the possible, 7 point above average. There were 15 days with 90% or more sunshine, and only 6 days with near zero.

## Official Fall Season

The official fall season, Sept. – Nov. 2015, was warm, dry, and well above average for sunshine. All three months had above average sunshine hours. Temperatures averaged 55.7 degrees, 2.73 degrees above normal and warmer then 2013 or 2014. A maximum temperature of 89.6 degrees was recorded on the 8th of September and a minimum temperature of 21.2 degrees was recorded on the 24th of November. Rainfall totaled 12.22 inches, 1.18 inches below normal. Average snowfall for the fall season for East Wareham is 1.0 inch; we received no snow this season. Sunshine was 61% of the possible, 8 points above the norm for the fall season.

October weather was very similar to the norm, with close to average temperature and just above average sunshine. Rainfall was above average but mostly due to an end of September event with some of the rain recorded on the morning of October 1st. The temperature averaged 53.1 degrees, 0.5 degrees per day above average, similar to 2013 but cooler than 2014. Maximum temperature of 70.7 degrees was recorded on the 7th, the 12th, the 13th, and the 29th; a minimum temperature of 29.3 degrees was recorded on the 19th. The 19th saw the first freeze of the season; overnight lows on the 27th were also below freezing. Daytime high temperatures averaged 62.0 degrees, 0.1 degrees above the norm. Evening low temperatures averaged 44.7 degrees, 1.8 degrees above the norm. After three years of warmer than average daytime highs in October 2015 was almost exactly average.

Sunshine totaled 57% of the possible sunshine hours, 2 points above the norm and 13 points above 2014. We had 10 days that were mostly clear (90% of possible) and only 4 days with no sunshine. There were no days with fog in East Wareham this month. Year-to-date sunshine is running well above the norm.

Precipitation totaled 5.61 inches, 1.41 inches above the 30-year average. However, 1.60 inches were recorded on the morning of the 1st; most of that occurred on the previous day (Sept. 30th). Measurable rain was recorded on 8 days, 7 days of which had rainfall of 0.10 inches or greater. Year-to-date rainfall for 2015 is 32.77 inches; 8.42 inches below average for East Wareham. The largest 24-hour rainfall was 1.61 inches on the 28th to 29th. We have had 7 months with below average rainfall and 3 months with above average rainfall this year. There was one thunderstorm this month with brief hail.

September was very warm with above average sunshine and continued dry conditions for most of the month. The temperature averaged 67.0°, 4.1 degrees per day above normal. Maximum temperature was 89.6° on the 8th; a minimum temperature of 39.2° was recorded on the 20th. Daytime high temperatures averaged 77.4°, which is 5.4 degrees above the norm. Evening temperatures averaged 57.5°, 3.7 degrees above the norm. There were 13 days with a maximum temperature above 80°.

Sunshine totaled 70% of the possible sunshine hours, 14 points above the norm. We recorded 19 sunny days in East Wareham and 3 days with morning fog. The Blue Hills Observatory (official site for sunshine hour data), recorded 20 sunny days, the most in September since 1914. The 72% of possible sunshine for the period from August through September is a new record for that location.

Precipitation totaled 2.73 inches, 1.77 inches below normal, making this the third consecutive month of below average rain. The month started dry (first 9 days) and ended with 15 days of no rain until the last day of the month. We had measurable rain of 0.10 inches or greater on just 3 days, and 2 days with spotty showers and drizzle with less than 0.10 inches recorded. The largest 24-hour rainfall was 1.62 inches, including a thunderstorm, on the 10th (recorded on the 11th), accounting for 60% of the month's total. We recorded 0.8 inches on the 30th, the beginning of a 3.67 inch event starting that day, most of the rain from the event will be recorded in October.

Year-to-date rainfall for 2015 is 27.12 inches, 9.88 inches below average for East Wareham and 8.8 inches below the total rainfall at the same time in 2014.

2015 has thus far been a year of extremes with above average snow and below average temperatures for the first three months, and well above average sunshine and temperature and below average rain for the most recent three months.

August was a very warm, dry, and very sunny month. The temperature averaged 73.7 degrees, 3.4 degrees above normal, matching the record from 1937 and more than 5 degrees warmer than August 2014. Despite matching the record, there were no 90° days; the maximum for the month was 89.6° on the 2nd. However, there were 26 days with maximum temperature over 80° and 18 of those were above 85°. Daytime high temperatures averaged 84.0 degrees, 5.2 degrees above the norm. Evening temperatures averaged 64.8 degrees, 3.1 degrees above the norm. The minimum temperature of 55.4 degrees was recorded on the 10th. There were 4 nights with temperatures above 70 and and only 7 nights with temperatures below 60.

Sunshine at 315 hours totaled 73% of the possible sunshine hours, 15 points above the norm. This was the 2nd sunniest August on record at the Blue Hills Observatory. We had 20 clear days, and only one day with morning fog in East Wareham.

Precipitation totaled 2.60 inches, 1.34 inches below normal. We had measurable precipitation on 7 days, but only 4 of those had more than 0.05 inch. Virtually all of the rain was in three events - a thunderstorm on the morning of the 4th (0.51"), and steady rain on the 11th (1.54") and 22nd (0.46"). Year-to-date, 2015 has received 24.43 inches of rain, 8.06 inches below the yearly average for East Wareham.

## Official Summer Season

The official summer (June, July and August) was warm, dry, and sunny. The average temperature was 70.2 degrees, 1.2 degrees above the 30-year average for the 3-month period. Both July and August were above average in temperature, August equaling the 1937 record. Total rainfall for the season was 8.25 inches, 2.71 inches below the normal precipitation for this time of year; while June was about average, both July and August saw below normal rainfall. Sunshine hours totaled 816 hours; this is 73 hours above the average. June had below average sunshine but July and particularly August were above the norm. We had a maximum temperature of 92.3 degrees recorded on July 29th and a minimum temperature of 41.0 degrees recorded on June 4th. There were 6 days of 90° or more, the last occurring on July 29th. We had no official heat wave this season.

## 2015 Crop Forecast

New England Agricultural Statistics Service released the United States forecast for the 2015 cranberry crop on August 13. Overall production is predicted to be 8.41 million barrels, up slightly from 2014. All of the major growing regions anticipate better crops than in 2014 with the exception of New Jersey. The forecast for Massachusetts is for 2.114 million barrels.

July 2015 was warm, dry and sunny. With 5 days of 90+ temperatures, July's temperature was 1.3 degrees above average and 1.1 degrees warmer than July 2014, but cooler than the Julys from 2010-2013. Maximum temperature was 92.3 degrees, recorded on the 29th, and a minimum temperature of 52.7 degrees was recorded on the 5th. Daytime high temperatures averaged 82.6 degrees, 2.6 degrees above the norm. Evening temperatures averaged 63.6 degrees, 0.7 degrees above the norm.

Sunshine totaled 62% of the possible sunshine hours, 7 points above average and similar to the sunshine in July 2014. We had 6 days with 90% or greater of possible sunshine, while on only 2 days was there less than 10% sunshine.

We recorded 1.87 inches of rainfall, which is 1.44 inches below the average for July. Almost an inch of the rain came on the 1st, while the second half of the month saw less than a quarter inch fall. Rainfall was recorded on 9 days, with 5 having over 0.10 inch. Year-to-date rainfall for 2015 is 21.83 inches, 6.72 inches below the average for East Wareham. Three of the last four months have been substantially below normal in rainfall. There were 2 thunderstorms recorded this month.

June was a cloudy month with just below average temperature and average rainfall. The mean temperature for the month was 64.1 degrees, 1.2 degrees below average. Maximum temperature was 90.5 degrees on the 24th; a minimum temperature of 41.0 degrees was recorded on the 4th. Daytime high temperatures averaged 73.2 degrees, 0.8 degrees below the norm. Evening temperatures averaged 55.5 degrees, 1.2 degrees below the norm.

Sunshine was well below average with only 47% of the possible sunshine recorded. This is 8 percentage points below the average for June sunshine. Only 3 days were rated as sunny (for the entire day) with 13 being cloudy.

Precipitation totaled 3.78 inches, which is 0.07 inches below the 30-year average. We had measurable precipitation on 13 days, with 10 of those days having measurable precipitation of 0.10 inches or greater. The largest 24-hour rainfall was 1.17 inches on the 28th. Year-to-date rainfall for 2015 now stands at 19.92 inches, 5.38 inches below average, 2.93 inches below this time in 2014 and 11.14 inches below the total rainfall at this time in 2013.

Precipitation totaled 3.78 inches, which is 0.07 inches below the 30-year average. We had measurable precipitation on 13 days, with 10 of those days having measurable precipitation of 0.10 inches or greater. The largest 24-hour rainfall was 1.17 inches on the 28th. Year-to-date rainfall for 2015 now stands at 19.92 inches, 5.38 inches below average, 2.93 inches below this time in 2014 and 11.14 inches below the total rainfall at this time in 2013.

May was a warm and very dry month with well above average sunshine. The temperatures for May averaged 59.5 degrees, 3.7 degrees above the 30-year average. The maximum temperature was 79.7 degrees on the 17th and a minimum temperature of 39.2 degrees was recorded on the 2nd. Daytime high temperatures averaged 69.0 degrees, 4.1 degrees above the norm. Evening temperatures averaged 50.2 degrees, 3.2 degrees above the norm.

Sunshine totaled 65% of the possible sunshine hours, 13 percentage points above the norm. There were 7 days with 90% or better sunshine (only one more than last year) but only 1 day with no sunshine at all (there were 12 in 2014!). There were 3 days with fog in East Wareham.

Precipitation totaled 0.95 inch, 2.75 inches below the average rainfall for May in East Wareham. May 2014 was also drier than the 30-year norm but not as dry as May 2015. There were only 3 days with measurable precipitation. The largest 24-hour rainfall, accounting for more than half the monthly total, was 0.53 inches on the 19th. Our total year-to-date rainfall is 16.18 inches, 5.46 inches below the average in East Wareham.

## Official Spring Season

The official spring (March-May) had slightly below average temperatures - 45.8 degrees, 0.4 degrees below average. Snowfall for the period totaled 20.3 inches (all in March), 12.8 inches above average. Despite the above average snowfall, precipitation was 8.62 inches below normal due to extremely dry conditions in April and May. Total precipitation was 8.62 inches, 5.06 inches below average. Sunshine for the spring was above normal each month, coming in with 55% of possible hours for the three month period, a very rare occurrence. Sunshine during March and April was slightly above the norm, with May well above average.

April was cool, dry and sunny this year. The temperature averaged 46.4 degrees, 0.6 degrees above normal. The maximum temperature was 67.1 degrees on the 18th and a minimum temperature of 22.0 degrees was recorded on the 2nd. Daytime high temperatures averaged 54.6 degrees, 0.3 degrees below the norm. Evening low temperatures averaged 37.2 degrees, 0.4 degrees above the norm.

Sunshine totaled 51% of the possible sunshine hours, 2 points above the norm. We had 6 days with 90% or better sunshine and 13 days virtually no sunshine. We experienced heavy fog only on 1 day during the month of April.

Precipitation totaled 1.79 inches, which is 2.82 inches below normal. We had measurable precipitation on 11 days; 6 of those days had 0.10 inches or greater rainfall. The largest 24-hour rainfall was 0.35 inches on the 3rd. Year-to-date rainfall for 2015 stands at 15.23 inches; this is 2.66 inches below last year's total at this time and 2.58 inches below the normal average for this time of year. We did have 1 thunderstorm on the 21st.

We had 0.00 inches snowfall in April. This is 1.4 inches below average for the month and brings the 2014 – 2015 season at a total of 86.00 inches of snow. This is 27.10 inches more then the 2013-2014 season. In the 30 years from 1979 to 2010, we averaged 31.66 inches of snowfall during the winter season. Snowfall recorded during 2014-2015 in East Wareham was 86.00 inches, 54.34 inches above the average.

Overall, the month of March had extremely low temperatures, with above-average rainfall, snowfall and sunshine. The temperatures averaged 31.5 degrees, 5.5 degrees per day below the average and about 2.1 degrees colder than March 2014. Maximum temperature was 59.9 degrees on the 11th and a minimum temperature of -5.0 degrees was recorded on the 1st. This -5.0 minimum temperature ties the earlier record low set in March 1948. Daytime high temperatures averaged 41.3 degrees, 4.4 degrees below the norm. Evening temperatures averaged 21.8 degrees, 6.6 degrees below the norm and 1.6 degrees below 2014. Winds can be a big factor in March, yet this year we only had 1 day with damaging winds and 2 days with fog.

Sunshine totaled 50% of the possible sunshine hours, 2 points above the norm. Sunshine data are from the Blue Hill Observatory. Year-to-date sunshine for 2015 is a little below the normal at this time of year.

Precipitation totaled 5.91 inches. This is 0.56 inches above normal. We had measurable precipitation of 0.10 inches or greater on 12 days. The largest 24-hour rainfall was 1.57 inches on the 27th. The monthly rainfall was spread out evenly over all four weeks of the month. We have received a total of 13.44 inches of precipitation year-to-date, totaling 0.34 inches above the average for East Wareham. We had 7 days with measurable snowfall during the month, totaling 20.3 inches, which is 11.6 inches above average. March 2015 will be recorded as the 4th snowiest March in our records here in East Wareham since 1953. The 2014–2015 winter season snowfall recorded in East Wareham is now at 86.0 inches, 49.9 inches above the seasonal average and 2nd highest snowfall total for a season in the 62 years of record keeping on snowfall here in East Wareham. I would also like to note that this winter season we had snow cover starting back on January 27 and lasting until March 28, for a total of 61 consecutive days, with the deepest snow cover being between 25 and 30 inches during the first week of March.

February was extremely cold and cloudy, with above normal precipitation. The temperatures averaged 19.6 degrees, 11.3 degrees below normal. This was the second coldest February in the 89 years of record keeping in East Wareham, surpassed only by February 1934 with an average temperature of 17.0 degrees. The maximum temperature was 39.0 degrees on the 22nd and a minimum temperature of -13.0 degrees was recorded on the 21st. Daytime high temperatures averaged 30.3 degrees, 9.2 degrees below the norm. Evening temperatures averaged 8.8 degrees, 13.5 degrees below the norm. The monthly average was 8.7 degrees colder than February 2014. All night time low temperatures were below 32 degrees; 1 night was 31 degrees, 4 nights in the 20's, 9 nights in the teens, 8 night in the single digits and 6 nights with minus zero temperatures.

Sunshine totaled 43% of the possible sunshine hours; 7 points below the norm and 11 points lower than February 2014. 8 days had 90% or better sunshine while 8 days had no sunshine data recorded at all. The sunshine hours are recorded at the Blue Hill Observatory in Milton, MA.

Precipitation totaled 3.43 inches, 0.24 inches below the norm. We had measurable precipitation on 13 days of which 9 were 0.10 inches or greater. The largest 24-hour rainfall was 0.85 inches on the 22nd. There were 13 days with measurable snowfall totaling 40.3 inches, 31.6 inches above normal. This is a sets a new record for the highest monthly snowfall total for February, surpassing the past record of 31.0 inches in 1994. This is also the third years in a row with more than 22 inches of snowfall in February. The greatest snowfall for one storm came on the 14th and 15th with 15.0 inches during near blizzard conditions and strong winds. Year-to-date snowfall recorded in East Wareham is now 64.60 inches, 18.60 inches more than this time in 2014; the 2014-2015 season to date is 65.70 inches, 38.10 inches above the seasonal average. Snowfall records go back to 1952 in East Wareham. Also we can note that we have had 33 consecutive days with 10 plus inches of snow cover.

### Official Winter Season

The official winter in East Wareham (Dec. 2014 - Feb. 2015) was cold, wet and snowy, with below average sunshine, much like the 2013-2014 winter season. The season temperatures averaged 28.7 degrees, 2.6 degrees below normal and 1.2 degrees cooler than 2014. The low mark was -13.0 degrees on Feb. 21st and the high mark was 67.0 degrees on Dec. 1st. The coldest daily high was 19.0 degrees on Jan. 6th and Feb. 20th. The total sunshine hours were 41%, 6 points below normal. Both December and February had well below average sunshine while January's sunshine was a little above the average. Precipitation totaled 13.50 inches, 1.22 inches above average. Snowfall totaled 64.60 inches, 37.0 inches above normal. December 2014 turned out to be much like December 2013, being the warmest month, with the highest rainfall, lowest snowfall and with very low sunshine. January had highest sunshine hours, February had the coldest temperatures, least rainfall and the highest snowfall for the winter season.

January started with heavy rain followed by very cold temperatures. Then we had a 20-day stretch of seasonable weather to be followed with a strong blizzard and very cold temperatures again. We had below-average temperatures and rainfall with above-average sunshine and almost double the average snowfall. The average temperature was 27.3 degrees, 1.7 degrees below normal and 0.4 degrees below January 2014. The maximum temperature was 54.5 degrees on January 4th. A minimum temperature of 0.5 degrees was recorded on the 8th. Daytime high temperatures averaged 35.3 degrees, 2.4 degrees below the norm. Evening temperatures averaged 19.0 degrees, 1.3 degrees below the norm. Daytime high temperatures were above 50 degrees or greater on 3 days. Evening temperatures were 32 degrees or below for all but 1 night. There were 4 nights with temperatures in the single digits.

Precipitation totaled 4.10 inches. This is 0.08 inches below normal. We had measurable precipitation on 13 days; 5 of those days had less than 0.10 inches. The largest 24-hour rainfall was 0.94 inches on the 4th. We had measurable snowfall of 0.10 inches or greater on 9 days, totaling 24.30 inches for the month, 12.30 inches above average. This is the 6th largest snowfall recorded here in East Wareham for January in the 62 years of snowfall recordings. The largest snowfall came during the 36-hour blizzard, on the 26th and 27th of January, with 21.0 inches of snow, high winds up to 75 mph and considerable drifting. So far this season we have recorded a total of 25.40 inches of snow. There was also 1 day with heavy fog this month.

Sunshine totaled 46% of the possible sunshine hours, 2 points above the normal. There were 9 days with no sunshine and 8 days with 90% or better sunshine. Total sunshine hours for January 2015 was 2 points lower than the sunshine hours recorded in January 2014.