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Storage of Vegetable Crops

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A shrewd gardener always plans to grow more vegetables than can be eaten fresh. The surplus
of course can be preserved in a variety of ways for consumption during the winter months. Most
often these vegetables are processed via canning, freezing, or drying. These are the best ways
to handle the long term storage of highly perishable crops such as green beans, tomatoes,
peppers, and summer squash.

However, there are several vegetables which can be stored without any processing. These
include many root crops as well as pumpkins and winter squash. Though little or no processing
is involved, successful long term storage of these vegetable crops depends on their careful
harvest and post-harvest handling. Here are some suggestions for dry storage of selected
vegetable crops.

Carrots

Those best for winter storage are the ones harvested in late fall before the ground
freezes. They should be dug when the soil is dry. Cut off the carrot tops to within one-half inch
of the carrot root. Soil can be removed from the carrots with a quick rinse but the carrots should
not be scrubbed. Once they are dry, place the carrots in plastic bags perforated with small
holes. They'll keep best if stored in a cold (32 to 40 degrees F) and humid location.

Root cellars are ideal but few people have such storage facilities. A second refrigerator would
make sense, especially if similar root crops such as beets, horseradish, parsnips, radishes,
rutabagas, and kohlrabi are being stored. Radishes and kohlrabi will keep under these
conditions for about a month whereas the other crops can be stored for four months or more.

These root crops can also be "stored" right where they growing simply by placing a deep layer
of straw mulch over the plantings as the weather gets cold but before the ground freezes.

Potatoes

Late maturing varieties are best for storage. Another key to long term storage of
potatoes is proper handling at harvest time. First, potatoes to be stored should not be dug until
the tops have died and dried. When digging, be very careful to avoid bruising or cutting the
potatoes. Damaged potatoes should be set aside and used soon after harvest. Potatoes should
not be washed or scrubbed if they are to be stored but soil can be carefully brushed from the
tubers.

Once potatoes are dug, they need to be cured for a week or two in a warm (60 to 75 degrees F),
moist, and dark location. Curing will help heal any minor wounds. Once cured, potatoes should
be stored in a cooler location with temperatures near 45 degrees. Again, that=s difficult to
achieve in most homes, so pick the coolest corner of the basement. The location should be
humid and dark. The closer to these temperature and humidity requirements, the longer the
potatoes will keep in storage. That could be between 2 and 9 months.

Onions

Storage requirements for onions also apply to shallots and garlic. The best onions for
storage are those that have been harvested when fully mature, i.e. after the tops have flopped
and turned brown. The tops or leaves of stiff-necked garlic varieties do not flop, but they will turn
brown and should be harvested when at least half the leaves have browned.

Good curing is essential for long-term storage of onions. Curing involves exposing the onions to
mild temperatures in a dry, well-ventilated area. There are several ways to cure onions. One
method is spread the onions in a single layer over screens (these can be made by simply
attaching chicken wire to a wooden frame) in a shaded and well-ventilated area. This can be
outdoors but the onions should be covered with a tarp if rain threatens. Curing takes about two
to three weeks.

After onions have been cured, cut the tops back to a length of about one inch. DO NOT remove
the dry, scaly skins from onions, shallots, or garlic when storing.

Store the onions in a dry, well-ventilated location. For example, put onions in mesh bags (save
the ones in which oranges are often sold in supermarkets) and hang these bags in an attic or
garage. The closer to 32 degrees F, the longer the onions will keep; however, they should not
be exposed to freezing temperatures for long periods of time.

Yellow onions will keep in storage longer than white, red, and sweet varieties. That may be as
long as six or seven months.

Winter Squash and Pumpkins

Forget the images of Afrost on the pumpkin.@ If they are going
to keep in storage for any length of time, winter squash and pumpkins should be harvested
before being exposed to frost. Harvest winter squash and pumpkins when the rinds have
hardened and the fruit have developed a deep, solid color. Acorn squash are mature when a
yellow color has developed where the fruit are in contact with the ground. Leave about three
inches of stem attached to pumpkins and two inches attached to the fruit of winter squash. Don=t
bother storing any fruit if the stems have been completely removed. They won=t keep very long.
Cure pumpkins and winter squash at temperatures of 80 to 85 degrees F for seven to ten days.
Acorn squash do not need curing. After curing, store the fruit in a dry, airy location with
temperatures near 55 degrees F, 45 degrees F for acorn squash. In olden days, settlers would
store winter squash beneath their beds.

Apr 4, 2012