Woody ornamental insect and non-insect arthropod pests to consider, a selected few:
- Winter Moth: Operophtera brumata. The eggs of this insect, laid by the females who emerged in November of 2016 and were active through the winter months (mainly November through December when temperatures are above freezing) are currently present in the landscape and hidden in cracks and crevices of bark or beneath lichen on host plants such as oak, maple, apple, blueberry, crabapple, etc. Eggs are tiny and green when first laid, but quickly turn a red-orange color soon after. As the egg develops, it will turn blue in color, shortly prior to egg hatch. For more information about the life cycle and management of winter moth, please visit this newly updated (March, 2017) fact sheet: Winter Moth Identification and Management (https://ag.umass.edu/landscape/fact-sheets/winter-moth-identification-management).
According to reports, winter moth eggs have begun to hatch in Franklin, MA (Heather Faubert, University of Rhode Island) as of 4/6/2017. Heather Faubert also reports that winter moth eggs have (as of 4/7/2017) begun to hatch in additional locations in Rhode Island, including but not limited to sites being monitored in North Scituate, Kingston, and Little Compton. Heather mentions that the activity at the site in Little Compton is surprising due to its proximity to the ocean as such sites typically have later winter moth egg hatch due to the cooler spring temperatures experienced in coastal areas. As for coastal areas in Massachusetts, a report came from Larry Dapsis with Cape Cod Cooperative Extension on 4/11/2017 that he observed a single winter moth larva after checking 100 buds at a site in Dennis, MA. This may indicate the very beginning of winter moth egg hatch at this location, however this process takes time. Winter moth egg hatch on Cape Cod is typically delayed due to cooler temperatures and occurs after egg hatch begins in more inland locations. Sites he monitors in West Barnstable and Falmouth (as of 4/11/17) have not yet yielded any winter moth larvae, however Russell Norton with Cape Cod Cooperative Extension reports finding a couple of larvae in apple buds as of 4/12/17 in Falmouth. Please see the Cape Cod Region Report above. As of moments ago on 4/14/17, winter moth egg hatch was observed on the south facing side of a tree being monitored at a site in Hanson, MA. Winter moth eggs on the other sides of the same tree are still orange in color. See the Southeast Region Report above for more information. Winter moth eggs are still orange in color at the sites being monitored by the Elkinton Lab. Winter moth egg hatch is just beginning in the aforementioned parts of Massachusetts. We will continue to monitor egg development and will report any additional development reported by scouts in the next Landscape Message due April 21st. You may also visit the UMass Landscape, Nursery, and Urban Forestry Facebook page @UMassExtLandscape for announcements regarding winter moth activity.
Blueberry and apple growers looking to manage winter moth caterpillars early before damage to the buds can occur may consider an application of dormant oil just prior to egg hatch, when temperatures are above 40° F for at least 48 hours following application, which can help suffocate overwintering winter moth eggs if good coverage is achieved. Observe all precautions on the label regarding phytotoxicity and the environmental conditions required for increased effectiveness of the product. Once egg hatch occurs, before the tiny winter moth caterpillars wriggle their way into the expanding blueberry or apple buds (where they will be protected from insecticide applications until the buds open fully), a follow-up application of a product containing the active ingredient spinosad (which is effective by contact) can aid in protecting these crops.
For individuals managing winter moth in ornamental plants, depending on the active ingredient being used, waiting until host plant leaves open completely may be important for management, particularly if Bacillus thuringiensis Kurstaki (Btk) is the active ingredient of choice. Btk must be ingested by actively feeding, young caterpillars to be effective. Applying Btk to closed buds for winter moth management will not have the desired effect. Spinosad is also effective through contact on winter moth (including older caterpillars) once ornamental plant leaves have fully expanded, however it should not be applied to flowering plants as it is toxic to pollinators until it has dried (which can take 1-3 hours depending upon local environmental conditions). The Elkinton Lab has reported that the number of pupating winter moth in 2016 (at their study sites) was much lower than what has been observed in previous years. Reports from Hanson, MA indicate fewer winter moth eggs are present on monitored trees than in previous years. Hopefully this will translate into fewer caterpillars at least for some areas in Massachusetts this year, however one should not expect them (or the damage they cause) to completely disappear in 2017.
Winter moth is a non-native insect that was identified in Massachusetts for the first time in 2003 following persistent reports of defoliation in eastern areas of the state such as Cape Anne and on the North Shore near Cohasset, Hingham, and Rockland on the South Shore in the late 1990’s. For more detailed information about the history of this insect pest in North America and Massachusetts, please visit the newly updated (March, 2017) fact sheet: Winter Moth in Massachusetts: History and Biological Control (https://ag.umass.edu/landscape/fact-sheets/winter-moth-in-massachusetts-history-biological-control).
This fact sheet also includes updates regarding the progress of the work of Dr. Joseph Elkinton’s laboratory group at the University of Massachusetts and their efforts towards the biological control of winter moth using Cyzenis albicans, a tachinid fly. The fly parasitizes the caterpillars of winter moth specifically. In other areas, such as Nova Scotia where winter moth was also problematic, this fly used for biological control has been successful in reducing winter moth to a non-pest. C. albicans has been released across 41 sites in Massachusetts and has been established in at least 17 of those sites as evidenced through the recovery of flies in winter moth in subsequent years. In one site in Wellesley, these flies have been observed to be spreading from the initial release location and their populations have increased alongside an observed decrease in the winter moth population there. For more information, please visit the above mentioned fact sheet.
- Balsam Twig Aphid: Mindarus abietinus is active between 30-120 GDD’s, base 50°F. Inspect the needles of fir for “stem mothers” that will soon be reproducing. Young aphid feeding will lead to distorted foliage. Excessive amounts of honeydew are produced and cause needles to stick together. Monitor for the presence of reproducing females and treat with an oil application as weather permits.
- Cooley Spruce Gall Adelgid: Adelges cooleyi is active between 20-91 GDD’s, base 50°F. This insect can be found in the crevices of bark on terminal twigs and bases of buds of blue spruce, Norway spruce, and Douglas fir. Control overwintering nymphs prior to gall formation on spruce (roughly 22-81 GDD). Oil applications on Douglas fir should be made before bud break to avoid phytotoxicity (roughly 120-190 GDD). Do not plant spruce and Douglas fir close together. Do not fertilize either host (spruce or Douglas fir) if it is infested with this insect.
- Eastern Tent Caterpillar: Malacosoma americanum eggs will begin to hatch and caterpillars will feed across the state between 50-400 GDD’s, base 50°F. Egg masses of Malacosoma americanum vary from those of Malacosoma disstria, the forest tent caterpillar, as they have a rounded edge whereas M. disstria egg masses have square edges. Scout for and remove these egg masses prior to hatch on susceptible hosts such as cherry and crabapple. Other host plants impacted by this native insect can include apple, ash, birch, willow, maple, oak, poplar, and witch-hazel. Once the eggs have hatched, tiny caterpillars will begin to create small webs or tents in the crotches of branches. These tiny tents can be removed and destroyed, along with the tiny caterpillars within; before they become large and significant defoliation takes place.
- Forest Tent Caterpillar: Malacosoma disstria egg hatch will occur between 192-400 GDD’s, base 50°F. Scout for and prune out or otherwise remove any reachable forest tent caterpillar egg masses, which can hold 100’s of eggs, on susceptible hosts such as oak, birch, ash, maple, elm, poplar, and basswood at this time. Once these egg masses hatch, these native caterpillars can defoliate their host plants.
- Viburnum Leaf Beetle: Pyrrhalta viburni is a beetle in the family Chrysomelidae that is native to Europe, but was found in Massachusetts in 2004. This beetle feeds exclusively on many different species of viburnum. This insect is now overwintering in the twigs of the host plant as eggs, which will hatch soon after bud break. Now is the time to inspect susceptible plants (including but not limited to viburnum such as V. dentatum, V. nudum, V. opulus, V. propinquum, and V. rafinesquianum) for over-wintering eggs on stems toward branch tips. Inspect branches for egg laying sites created by female viburnum leaf beetles last season. These will appear as small holes approximately 1 mm. in diameter that have been capped with a lid made of chewed bark and excrement, which may appear raised above the surface of the twig. Removal and destruction of infested stems, if small in number, can help reduce populations of this insect pest. If management this way is not possible, larvae may be treated with a product containing spinosad once they appear soon after bud break. Some viburnum have been observed to have varying levels of resistance to this insect, including but not limited to V. bodnantense, V. carlesii, V. davidii, V. plicatum, V. rhytidophyllum, V. setigerum, and V. sieboldii. More information about viburnum leaf beetle may be found at http://www.hort.cornell.edu/vlb/.
- Gypsy Moth: Lymantria dispar egg masses laid by female moths in 2016 can be seen at this time. This is the stage of the insect that overwinters. Egg masses are “fuzzy” or hairy and brownish-tan in color. Each egg mass can hold up to 500-1000 eggs. These masses may be found on host plant trunks and branches such as oak (favored), maple, birch, poplar, and many others, but are also laid on inanimate objects including the surfaces of homes, outdoor furniture, camping equipment, firewood piles, etc. This may make the accidental movement of gypsy moth egg masses possible.
Egg hatch for this insect is not yet upon us, and occurs after winter moth egg hatch. (Note: winter moth and gypsy moth share some common host plants. Therefore, where populations of these two insects overlap in Massachusetts, the same tree may be defoliated by winter moth and then again by gypsy moth following in the same season.) Gypsy moth egg hatch typically occurs between 90-100 growing degree days, using a base of 50°F, average temperatures, and a March 1st start date. This is usually around the first week in May in Massachusetts, but variations in temperature may lead to early egg hatch in the last week in April. This can also coincide with serviceberry (Amelanchier) bloom. After egg hatch occurs, groups of tiny gypsy moth caterpillars may remain on their egg mass just before crawling to the canopy of their host plant, where they can disperse using a technique known as “ballooning”. Ballooning occurs when very young caterpillars spin a silken thread and catch the wind to blow onto a new host plant once the thread breaks. This method of dispersal can lead to host plants becoming defoliated that previously did not have egg masses directly on them, however egg masses may be present on nearby oaks, for example, and provide a local population of caterpillars.
Patchy areas across mostly central and eastern Massachusetts experienced elevated populations of gypsy moth and significant amounts of defoliation in 2016 (see the Insects section of the archived 2016 Landscape Messages between April 29 and July 29). The Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation aerially mapped approximately 350,000 acres of defoliation across Massachusetts last year, attributed to gypsy moth. State officials warn the public about another year of defoliation from gypsy moth as predicted for 2017: http://www.mass.gov/eea/agencies/dcr/pr-2017/another-year-of-defoliation-from-gypsy-moth-in-2017.html. That web page also links to a map of the 2016 defoliation from gypsy moth, which may provide a reference regarding areas that may be impacted by this insect again in 2017. To prepare for this insect, now (and before the last week in April) is a great time to scout the landscape and count the number of gypsy moth egg masses present not only on valuable landscape specimens that are hosts for this insect, but on nearby forested hosts such as oak which might provide sources of ballooning caterpillars. Egg mass counts can help us make decisions regarding whether or not to manage for this insect. Some individuals also use this opportunity to scrape egg masses into a container of soapy water, although this is time consuming and some egg masses will be missed.
We can hope for elevated rainfall in the months of May and June, which helps facilitate the successful infection of younger gypsy moth caterpillars with the insect-killing fungus Entomophaga maimaiga. This fungus is currently overwintering in the soil litter in tough, protected asexual resting spores, which can survive in this state for years. Having lacked much precipitation most recently during the springs of 2015 and 2016, it is thought that our current expanding populations of gypsy moth are at least in part a result of a lack of infection in the caterpillar population by this fungus. Hopefully Massachusetts will see more normal rainfall amounts this season. Only time will tell.
We can also hope areas in Massachusetts that do not have large numbers of gypsy moth egg masses present at this time and did not experience much gypsy moth defoliation last year (areas such as most of Berkshire County) will be mostly spared in 2017 in comparison to those areas who suffered last year in central and eastern Massachusetts. At this time, monitoring susceptible hosts for gypsy moth egg masses and educating and reminding ourselves about this invasive insect that has a long history in the state is the best way to plan for management this season. For more information about gypsy moth, please visit: http://ag.umass.edu/landscape/fact-sheets/gypsy-moth and return to the Landscape Message for timely updates about this pest and others throughout the season.
- Chilli Thrips: *A non-native insect has been confirmed in Massachusetts for the first time.* The non-native, exotic chilli thrips (Scirtothrips dorsalis) has been recently confirmed from two samples of damaged Hydrangea spp. foliage from two residential landscapes located in Barnstable County, MA submitted to the UMass Plant Diagnostics Laboratory. At this time, this pest has not been confirmed in nurseries or greenhouses in Massachusetts or on any other host plants. Due to the limited number of samples, the significance of chilli thrips in Massachusetts is not yet known. This species of thrips is a significant global pest of economically important ornamental, vegetable, and fruit crops in southern and eastern Asia, Oceania, and parts of Africa. It was first determined to be established in the United States in 2005 in Florida, although previous interceptions of this pest were detected. It is reportedly a pest of over 100 host plants belonging to over 40 plant families, including, but not limited to, pepper, strawberry, blueberry, cotton, rose, peanut, Japanese privet, Rhododendron spp., Viburnum spp., eggplant, grapes, melon, tobacco, and tomato. For more information, please visit this Chilli Thrips Fact Sheet (https://ag.umass.edu/landscape/fact-sheets/chilli-thrips) available on the UMass Extension Landscape, Nursery, and Urban Forestry Program web page.
- Asian Longhorned Beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis, ALB: Look for signs of an ALB infestation which include perfectly round exit holes (about the size of a dime), shallow oval or round scars in the bark where a female has chewed an egg site, or sawdust-like frass (excrement) on the ground nearby host trees or caught in between branches. These particular signs of damage from the beetle may be more visible at this time of year, when host trees such as maples are leafless. Be advised that other, native insects may create perfectly round exit holes or sawdust-like frass, which can be confused with signs of ALB activity.
The regulated area for Asian longhorned beetle is 110 miles2 encompassing Worcester, Shrewsbury, Boylston, West Boylston, and parts of Holden and Auburn. If you believe you have seen damage caused by this insect, such as exit holes or egg sites, on susceptible host trees like maple, please call the Asian Longhorned Beetle Eradication Program office in Worcester, MA at 508-852-8090 or toll free at 1-866-702-9938. Adult insects of this species will not be present at this time of year.
To report an Asian longhorned beetle find online or compare it to common insect look-alikes, visit: http://massnrc.org/pests/albreport.aspx or https://www.aphis.usda.gov/pests-diseases/alb/report.
- Emerald Ash Borer (EAB): Agrilus planipennis readily attacks ash (Fraxinus spp.) including white, green, and black ash and has also been found developing in white fringe tree (Chionanthus virginicus). Adult insects of this species will not be present at this time of year. Signs of an EAB infested tree may include (at this time) D-shaped exit holes in the bark (from adult emergence in previous years), “blonding” or lighter coloration of the ash bark from woodpecker feeding (chipping away of the bark as they search for larvae beneath), and serpentine galleries visible through splits in the bark, from larval feeding beneath. Positive identification of an EAB-infested tree may not be possible with these signs individually on their own.
For a map of the known locations of emerald ash borer in the state, as well as further information about this insect, please visit: https://ag.umass.edu/fact-sheets/emerald-ash-borer. If you believe you have located EAB-infested ash trees, particularly in an area of Massachusetts not identified on the map provided, please follow the instructions below.
Concerned that you may have found an invasive insect or suspicious damage caused by one? Need to report a pest sighting? If so, please visit the Massachusetts Introduced Pests Outreach Project: http://massnrc.org/pests/pestreports.htm.
A note about Tick Awareness: deer ticks (Ixodes scapularis), the American dog tick (Dermacentor variabilis), and the lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum) are all found throughout Massachusetts. Each can carry their own complement of diseases. Anyone working in tick habitats (wood-line areas, forested areas, and landscaped areas with ground cover) should check themselves regularly for ticks while practicing preventative measures. Have a tick and need it tested? Visit the web page of the UMass Laboratory of Medical Zoology (www.tickdiseases.org) and click on the red Test a Tick button for more information.
Report by Tawny Simisky, Extension Entomologist, UMass Extension Landscape, Nursery, & Urban Forestry Program