Woody ornamental insect and non-insect arthropod pests to consider, a selected few:
- Gypsy Moth:(Lymantria dispar) host plants include but are certainly not limited to oak (favored), maple, birch, poplar, and many others. Gypsy moth caterpillars continue to feed and grow in size. Caterpillars observed on 6/13/18 in Amherst, MA are just over 1 inch in length. It seems, at this location, that many are still in the 4th instar. Caterpillars may be of different sizes, depending upon your location in MA. (See Regional Reports above.) Caterpillars now have the red and blue pairs of warts or raised bumps recognizable in older gypsy moth caterpillars. They also have yellow coloration to their head capsule.
Between now and July 1st, if gypsy moth caterpillars are present in large enough numbers, defoliation will become more apparent as caterpillars continue to grow in size and feed. Thanks to Entomophaga maimaiga, hopefully we will not see entire hillsides of defoliation, as was seen by July 1st in 2017 in Belchertown, MA. (See last year’s Landscape Message.)
Despite the fungal outbreak that swept through the 2017 caterpillar population, some lucky caterpillars survived to pupation and emerged as adult moths. (However, adults were present in 2017 in far fewer numbers than would have existed without the fungus.) While it is very difficult to predict how much defoliation Massachusetts will see in 2018 due to gypsy moth caterpillar feeding, we can be certain that in areas where many egg masses were seen overwintering, pockets of defoliation could still occur in certain areas of the state this year. Thanks to the gypsy moth caterpillar-killing fungus, however, the population should be on the decline, but we cannot expect the caterpillars to disappear completely from Massachusetts landscapes this season.
- Asian Longhorned Beetle: (Anoplophora glabripennis, ALB) Look for signs of an ALB infestation which include perfectly round exit holes (about the size of a dime), shallow oval or round scars in the bark where a female has chewed an egg site, or sawdust-like frass (excrement) on the ground nearby host trees or caught in between branches. Be advised that other, native insects may create perfectly round exit holes or sawdust-like frass, which can be confused with signs of ALB activity.
The regulated area for Asian longhorned beetle is 110 miles2 encompassing Worcester, Shrewsbury, Boylston, West Boylston and parts of Holden and Auburn. If you believe you have seen damage caused by this insect, such as exit holes or egg sites, on susceptible host trees like maple, please call the Asian Longhorned Beetle Eradication Program office in Worcester, MA at 508-852-8090 or toll free at 1-866-702-9938.
To report an Asian longhorned beetle find online or compare it to common insect look-alikes, visit: http://massnrc.org/pests/albreport.aspx or https://www.aphis.usda.gov/pests-diseases/alb/report .
- Deer Tick/Blacklegged Tick: Ixodes scapularis adult females, following a blood meal, can lay a single egg mass (up to 1500 – 2000 eggs) in mid-late May, then the female deer tick perishes. Larvae emerge from the eggs later in the summer. Larvae are tiny and six-legged. Prior to feeding, they are not known to be able to transmit disease. After feeding, the larvae drop from their host and molt, re-emerging the following spring as nymphs. Nymphs (from last year’s overwintering cohort) are active from May-August. Nymphs are eight-legged and about the size of the head of a pin. These tiny nymphs typically attach to small mammal hosts; however, they will readily feed on people and pets. Nymphs are capable of carrying Lyme disease, human Babesiosis, human Anaplasmosis and deer tick virus. For images of all deer tick life stages, along with an outline of the diseases they carry, visit: http://www.tickencounter.org/tick_identification/deer_tick .
Anyone working in the yard and garden should be aware that there is the potential to encounter deer ticks. The deer tick or blacklegged tick can transmit Lyme disease, human babesiosis, human anaplasmosis, and other diseases. Preventative activities, such as daily tick checks, wearing appropriate clothing, and permethrin treatments for clothing (according to label instructions) can aid in reducing the risk that a tick will become attached to your body. If a tick cannot attach and feed, it will not transmit disease. For more information about personal protective measures, visit: http://www.tickencounter.org/prevention/protect_yourself .
Have you just removed an attached tick from yourself or a loved one with a pair of tweezers? If so, consider sending the tick to the UMass Laboratory of Medical Zoology to be tested for disease causing pathogens. To submit a tick to be tested, visit: https://www.tickreport.com/ and click on the red “Test A Tick” button. Results are typically available within 3 business days, or less. By the time you make an appointment with your physician following the tick attachment, you may have the results back from TickReport to bring to your physician to aid in a conversation about risk.
The UMass Laboratory of Medical Zoology does not give medical advice, nor are the results of their tests diagnostic of human disease. Transmission of a pathogen from the tick to you is dependent upon how long the tick had been feeding, and each pathogen has its own transmission time. TickReport is an excellent measure of exposure risk for the tick (or ticks) that you send in to be tested. Feel free to print out and share your TickReport with your healthcare provider.
You can also follow TickReport on Twitter @TickReport for timely updates from the Laboratory of Medical Zoology, including the latest tick and tick-borne disease related research.
- Eastern Tent Caterpillar: Malacosoma americanum caterpillars continue to be observed wandering on paved and dirt roads in Chesterfield, MA on 6/13/18, yet the number of wandering caterpillars has significantly decreased in this location. Eastern tent caterpillars have likely begun to pupate in sheltered areas they locate, although not all individuals will do so at exactly the same time. Pupation for the species reportedly lasts around three weeks and adult moths historically emerge between late June and early July.
- Elongate Hemlock Scale: Fiorinia externa is found on eastern, Carolina, and Japanese hemlock, as well as yew, spruce and fir. Crawlers will be present this month and throughout the growing season and the overlap of many developmental stages at any given time can be observed. Treatments (active ingredients effective through contact) for the crawler, or mobile, stage of this insect may be made in late May through mid-June, or between 360-700 GDD’s, base 50°F. (Systemic options can be made at other times, such as the spring and fall.)
- Emerald Ash Borer: (Agrilus planipennis, EAB) This wood-boring beetle readily attacks ash (Fraxinus spp.) including white, green and black ash. It has also been found developing in white fringe tree (Chionanthus virginicus) and most recently has been reported in cultivated olive (Olea europaea). Signs of an EAB infested tree may include D-shaped exit holes in the bark (from adult emergence), “blonding” or lighter coloration of the ash bark from woodpecker feeding (chipping away of the bark as they search for larvae beneath) and serpentine galleries visible through splits in the bark from larval feeding beneath. Positive identification of an EAB-infested tree may not be possible with these signs individually on their own.
For further information about this insect, please visit: https://ag.umass.edu/fact-sheets/emerald-ash-borer . If you believe you have located EAB-infested ash trees, particularly in an area of Massachusetts not identified on the map provided, please report here: http://massnrc.org/pests/pestreports.htm .
- Euonymus Caterpillar: Yponomeuta cagnagella is of European origin and widespread in distribution throughout Europe. It was first reported in North America in Ontario in 1967. On 6/11/2018, a common spindle tree (Euonymus europaeus) on the UMass Amherst campus was found with a heavy infestation of euonymus caterpillars. The infested tree is approximately 3.1 miles away from the initial area in Amherst, MA reported on for this insect. On 6/11/18 in this location, the majority of caterpillars were found to be spinning white cocoons within which they pupate. Large sections of this individual tree are covered in webbing and cocoons. Webbing falling from the tree covers the turf below, and some caterpillars are pupating in clumps of webbed turf.
The euonymus caterpillars (larvae) feed in groups and envelop the foliage of the host plant in webs as they feed. Hosts include: Euonymus europaeus (tree form), E. kiautschovicus, E. alatus, and E. japonicus. Mature caterpillars are just under an inch in length, creamy yellow-gray in color with black spots and a black head capsule. By late June, these larvae pupate in white, oval-shaped cocoons which are typically oriented together vertically either on host plants or non-hosts in the area. (See photos.) Cocoons can be found in cracks and crevices, or webbed together leaves. The adult moth emerges in late June in most locations. The adult female secretes a gummy substance over her eggs which will harden, making them even more difficult to see. Eggs hatch by mid-August, at which time the tiny larvae prepare to overwinter beneath their eggshell-like covering. These larvae are inactive until the following year, when caterpillars group together to feed on newly emerging leaves, creating a mess of webs as they feed. There is one generation per year. Plants may be partially or entirely defoliated.
- European Elm Scale: Gossyparia spuria is a type of felt scale and was observed on an elm on 6/13/17 in Amherst, MA. This particular tree held populations of this insect in 2017 as well. First noted in New York in 1884, this non-native scale is now widespread in North America and is found on native and European elms, but also rarely on hackberry and Zelkova. This insect can cause yellowing of foliage, premature leaf drop, and eventually dieback on its host. Honeydew and thus sooty mold are produced. The females observed in Amherst have produced a ring of white fibers around their black, oval bodies. By the end of June, these females will lay eggs that hatch into bright yellow crawlers, which will disperse to the midrib and leaf veins on the underside of elm leaves where they will remain to feed. Crawlers are tiny and magnification is necessary to observe. Natural enemies such as parasitic wasps and predatory insects have been reported as successful in managing this insect.
- Forest Tent Caterpillar: Malacosoma disstria caterpillars were still seen in Amherst, MA on 6/13/2018. One such caterpillar was seen resting in between the cracks and crevices of ash (Fraxinus spp.) bark. Forest tent caterpillars are still significantly larger than gypsy moth caterpillars in this location at this time. They are hairy with visible blue lateral stripes and white “key-hole” or “penguin”-shaped spots from head to hind end dorsally. Susceptible hosts whose leaves are fed on by this insect include oak, birch, ash, maple, elm, poplar and basswood.
- Hemlock Looper: Two species of geometrid moths in the genus Lambdina are native insects capable of defoliating eastern hemlock, balsam fir and white spruce. Adult moths lay their eggs on the trunk and limbs of hosts in September and October; eggs will hatch by late May or early June. Monitor susceptible hosts for small, inch-worm like caterpillars at this time. Where populations are low, no management is necessary.
- Imported Willow Leaf Beetle: Plagiodera versicolora overwintered adults are present and continue to be active and found on willow foliage. Adult beetles will chew holes and notches in the leaves of willow. Egg laying was observed on 5/16/18, 5/23/18, and 5/30/2018 in Chesterfield, MA.Females lay yellow eggs in clusters on the undersides of leaves. As of 5/30/2018, eggs have hatched at the location in Chesterfield, MA and multitudes of small imported willow leaf beetle larvae are feeding in groups. By 6/13/2018, these larvae have grown larger in size and have skeletonized many leaves. Larvae are slug-like and bluish-green in color. They feed in clusters. Most plants can tolerate the feeding from this insect and foliage will appear brown. Repeated yearly feeding can be an issue, in which case management of the young larvae may be necessary. Take care with treatment in areas near water.
- Lace Bugs: Corythucha spp. and Stephanitis spp. lace bugs are active. Corythucha spp. utilize many hosts such as: hawthorn, cotoneaster, Amelanchier, quince, Pyracantha, various oaks, birch, maple, mountain ash, sycamore, hackberry, elm, walnut, butternut, basswood, etc. Corythucha spp. adult lace bugs were seen feeding on bur oak on 6/13/2018 in Amherst, MA. Many adult lace bugs were seen on leaf undersides, along with groups of tiny, black eggs. These groups of lace bug eggs were seen on nearly every leaf examined within reach on this tree. Eggs are so small they may look like fungal spores without magnification. In the included photos, note the feeding damage from gypsy moth present on the very same leaves.
Stephanitis spp. lace bugs are active and damage is becoming more apparent. Yellow stippling on leaf surfaces, black colored tar-like spots on leaf undersides, and lace bug nymphs (immatures) were seen on leaf undersides on 5/30/18, 6/7/18, and 6/13/18 in Amherst, MA on Rhododendron spp. foliage. Stephanitis spp. lacebugs such as S. pyriodes can cause severe injury to azalea foliage. S. rhododendri can be common on rhododendron and mountain laurel. S. takeyai has been found developing on Japanese Andromeda, Leucothoe, Styrax and willow. Stephanitis spp. lace bug activity should be monitored through September. Before populations become too large, treat with a summer rate horticultural oil spray as needed. Be sure to target the undersides of the foliage in order to get proper coverage of the insects. Fall or early spring soil treatment with imidacloprid has been effective, but be aware of the implications this may have on pollinators attracted to these flowering plants when making management decisions. Certain azalea and Andromeda cultivars may be less preferred by lace bugs.
- Lily Leaf Beetle: Lilioceris lilii overwintering adults continue to be active in Amherst, MA on 6/13/18. Susceptible hosts include Lilium spp. (Turk’s cap, tiger, Easter, Asiatic and Oriental lilies) and Fritillaria spp. (Note: daylilies are not hosts.) Typically, in May, mating will occur and each female will begin to lay 250-450 eggs in neat rows on the underside of the foliage. In Amherst, MA, orange lily leaf beetle eggs were observed on the underside of host plant foliage on 5/16/2018 and some of these eggs hatched by 5/23/18. Frass-covered larvae were observed feeding on 5/23/18, 5/30/18, 6/7/18, and 6/13/18 in Amherst, MA. Larvae are growing ever larger and eating entire leaves. Younger groups of eggs are hatching with still tiny larvae starting to feed by skeletonizing the leaf in groups. Where adults and larvae are seen, they can be removed from host plants with a gloved hand, where practical.
- Roseslugs: Two species of sawfly can be found on the leaves of roses at this time. These small, caterpillar-like larvae will skeletonize the upper leaf surface and leave a “window-pane” like pattern behind. When present in large numbers, these insects are capable of defoliating their entire host. Management options include an insecticidal soap spray or a product containing spinosad. One species, Allantus cinctus, may require management again in mid-August; otherwise the window for management will pass typically by mid-June.
- Spotted Lanternfly: (Lycorma delicatula, SLF) is not known to occur in Massachusetts. This insect is a member of the Order Hemiptera (true bugs, cicadas, hoppers, aphids and others) and the Family Fulgoridae, also known as planthoppers. This insect is a non-native species first detected in the United States in Berks County, Pennsylvania and confirmed on September 22, 2014. Until November 2017, this invasive insect was only known to Pennsylvania. It has now been reported from Delaware (November 20, 2017), New York (November 29, 2017), and most recently in Virginia (January 10, 2018). The Delaware Department of Agriculture announced the finding of a single female spotted lanternfly in New Castle County in the Wilmington, Delaware area. At this time, officials in Delaware note that it is unclear if this individual was an accidental hitchhiker or evidence of an established population in the state. For more information about the find in Delaware, visit: https://news.delaware.gov/2017/11/20/spotted-lanternfly-confirmed-delaware/ . The New York State Department of Agriculture and Markets reported on November 29, 2017 the finding of a single dead individual spotted lanternfly in the state from earlier in the month. A single dead specimen was confirmed at a facility in Delaware County, New York, which is located south-west of Albany. The NYS Dept. of Agriculture and Markets states that this dead individual may have come in on an interstate shipment. For more information about the find in New York, visit: https://www.agriculture.ny.gov/AD/release.asp?ReleaseID=3637 . Most recently, Virginia Cooperative Extension announced the finding of a spotted lanternfly population in Frederick County, Virginia, on January 10, 2018. It was noted that at the location in Virginia, numerous adult lanternflies and egg masses were discovered, in addition to more at another site approximately 400 yards away. For more information about the find in Virginia, visit: https://ext.vt.edu/agriculture/commercial-horticulture/spotted-lanternfly.html .
The spotted lanternfly is considered native to China, India and Vietnam. It has been introduced as a non-native insect to South Korea and Japan prior to its detection in the United States. In South Korea it is considered invasive and a pest of grapes and peaches. The spotted lanternfly has been reported from over 70 species of plants, including the following: tree of heaven (Ailanthus altissima) (preferred host), apple (Malus spp.), plum, cherry, peach, apricot (Prunus spp.), grape (Vitis spp.), pine (Pinus spp.), pignut hickory (Carya glabra), sassafras (Sassafras albidum), serviceberry (Amelanchier spp.), slippery elm (Ulmus rubra), tulip poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera), white ash (Fraxinus americana), willow (Salix spp.), American beech (Fagus grandifolia), American linden (Tilia americana), American sycamore (Platanus occidentalis), big-toothed aspen (Populus grandidentata), black birch (Betula lenta), black cherry (Prunus serotina), black gum (Nyssa sylvatica), black walnut (Juglans nigra), dogwood (Cornus spp.), Japanese snowbell (Styrax japonicus), maple (Acer spp.), oak (Quercus spp.) and paper birch (Betula papyrifera).
The adults and immatures of this species damage host plants by feeding on sap from stems, leaves and the trunks of trees. In the springtime in Pennsylvania (late April - mid-May) nymphs (immatures) are found on smaller plants and vines and new growth of trees and shrubs. Third and fourth instar nymphs migrate to the tree of heaven and are observed feeding on trunks and branches. Trees may be found with sap weeping from the wounds caused by the insect’s feeding. The sugary secretions (excrement) created by this insect may coat the host plant, later leading to the growth of sooty mold. Insects such as wasps, hornets, bees and ants may also be attracted to the sugary waste created by the lanternflies, or sap weeping from open wounds in the host plant. Host plants have been described as giving off a fermented odor when this insect is present.
Adults are present by the middle of July in Pennsylvania and begin laying eggs by late September, continue laying eggs through late November and even early December in that state. Adults may be found on the trunks of trees such as the tree of heaven or other host plants growing in close proximity to them. Egg masses of this insect are gray in color and look similar to gypsy moth egg masses.
Host plants, bricks, stone, lawn furniture, recreational vehicles and other smooth surfaces can be inspected for egg masses. Egg masses laid on outdoor residential items such as those listed above may pose the greatest threat for spreading this insect via human aided movement.
For more information about the spotted lanternfly, visit this fact sheet: https://ag.umass.edu/landscape/fact-sheets/spotted-lanternfly .
- Spruce Spider Mite: Oligonychus ununguis is a cool-season mite that becomes active in the spring from tiny eggs that have overwintered on host plants. Hosts include spruce, arborvitae, juniper, hemlock, pine, Douglas-fir and occasionally other conifers. This particular species becomes active in the spring and can feed, develop and reproduce through roughly June. When hot, dry summer conditions begin, this spider mite will enter a summer-time dormant period (aestivation) until cooler temperatures return in the fall. This particular mite may prefer older needles to newer ones for food. Magnification is required to view spruce spider mite eggs. Tapping host plant branches over white paper may be a useful tool when scouting for spider mite presence. (View with a hand lens.) Spider mite damage may appear on host plant needles as yellow stippling and occasionally fine silk webbing is visible.
- Taxus Mealybug: Dysmicoccus wistariae was spotted on taxus in Amherst on 5/23/18, 5/30/18, 6/7/18 and again on 6/13/2018. This insect will produce honeydew leading to sooty mold growth, yellowing of needles and sparsely foliated plants. Eventual dieback may be possible. This species is commonly associated with taxus in New England, but can be occasionally found on dogwood, rhododendron, Prunus spp., maple, Andromeda and crabapple. These mealybugs are found on stems and branches and particularly like to congregate at branch crotches. Management may be targeted between 246-618 GDD’s. Horticultural oil and neem oil may be used.
- Twolined Chestnut Borer: Agrilus bilineatus is a native jewel beetle (also known as a flatheaded borer) in the Family Buprestidae. This insect is also in the same genus as the invasive emerald ash borer. The twolined chestnut borer is native to Massachusetts, much of New England, and the eastern United States. This species has one generation per year and adults are typically active from April – August, depending upon location and temperature. Adults will conduct some maturation feeding on oak prior to mating. Females will lay clusters of tiny eggs in the cracks and crevices of bark. Larvae hatch from the eggs in 1-2 weeks and burrow through the bark into the cambium, where they feed in a similar manner to the emerald ash borer, creating meandering galleries as they feed. (The galleries of the twolined chestnut borer can be straight in very stressed trees.) Larvae typically mature by August – October and burrow to the outer bark where they create a chamber in which they overwinter. Pupation occurs the following spring and adults emerge through D-shaped exit holes that are approximately 1/5 inch wide. In the northern extent of this insect’s range, they can take 2 years to complete their life cycle. Larvae of this insect have been recorded from eastern white oak, common post oak, burr oak, scarlet oak, northern red oak and eastern black oak. Adults have been recorded on fir and pin oak. In the case of an individual adult twolined chestnut borer observed on 6/7/18 in Amherst, MA, it was lingering on an elm leaf. There are oaks nearby, so this could just be happenstance as the insect searches for a suitable host.These insects are attracted to stressed host plants and typically become a secondary factor in the decline of the tree.
- Viburnum Leaf Beetle: Pyrrhalta viburni is a beetle in the family Chrysomelidae that is native to Europe, but was found in Massachusetts in 2004. Viburnum leaf beetle egg hatch was observed in Boston, MA on 5/4/2018. By early to mid-June, viburnum leaf beetle larvae will crawl down the host plant, enter the soil surface, and pupate. This typically occurs when the larvae are just under ½ inch in length. (See indications of this occurring now in Regional Reports above.) After pupation, by early July, adult beetles will emerge from the soil and begin feeding on viburnum foliage again prior to mating and laying eggs. This beetle feeds exclusively on many different species of viburnum, which includes, but is not limited to, susceptible plants such as V. dentatum, V. nudum, V. opulus, V. propinquum, and V. rafinesquianum. Larvae, where they are present, may be treated with a product containing spinosad. Some viburnum have been observed to have varying levels of resistance to this insect, including but not limited to V. bodnantense, V. carlesii, V. davidii, V. plicatum, V. rhytidophyllum, V. setigerum, and V. sieboldii. More information about viburnum leaf beetle may be found at http://www.hort.cornell.edu/vlb/ .
- White Spotted Pine Sawyer (WSPS): Monochamus scutellatus adults can emerge in late May throughout July, depending on local temperatures. The first report of a white spotted pine sawyer adult came from the Asian Longhorned Beetle Eradication Program in Worcester, MA. A concerned citizen in Hampshire County, MA reported (with a photo) a white spotted pine sawyer adult on 5/22/2018. A second report of 3 white spotted pine sawyers came to UMass Extension from a concerned citizen in Hampden County, MA on 6/8/2018. The report was given with photos that clearly allowed for the insect to be identified. This report was shared with the ALB Eradication Program. This is a native insect in Massachusetts and is usually not a pest. Larvae develop in weakened or recently dead conifers, particularly eastern white pine (Pinus strobus). However, the adult white spotted pine sawyer looks very similar to the invasive Asian Longhorned Beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis, ALB. ALB adults do not typically emerge in Massachusetts until July and August. Beginning in July, look for the key difference between WSPS and ALB adults, which is a white spot in the top center of the wing covers (the scutellum) on the back of the beetle. White spotted pine sawyer will have this white spot, whereas Asian longhorned beetle will not. Both insects can have other white spots on the rest of their wing covers; however, the difference in the color of the scutellum is a key characteristic. See the Asian longhorned beetle entry above for more information about that non-native insect. (And where to go to report anything suspicious.)
- Woolly Apple Aphid: Eriosoma lanigerum may be found on apple, crabapple, hawthorn, mountain-ash, Pyracantha and elm hosts. The primary (winter) host is elm, on which aphids infest emerging spring leaf growth, causing leaves to curl or close into stunted, rosette-like clusters found at twig tips. Woolly apple aphid was again observed on elm on 6/13/2018 in Amherst, MA. On apple and crabapple, this species of aphid colonizes roots, trunks and branches in the summer and is commonly found near previous wounds or callous tissue. On roots, the aphids cause swelled areas which can girdle and kill roots. The aphids, when found in above ground plant parts such as elm leaves, are covered with white wax. Eggs are the overwintering stage on elm, which hatch in the spring in time for the nymphs to infest elm foliage. Following a few generations on elm, the aphids will develop into a winged form, which will disperse and seek out apple and crabapple. Small numbers of winged individuals were observed on elm on 5/31/2018 in Amherst, MA. These individuals were mixed with younger, non-winged aphids in their rosette-like deformed leaves. Small numbers of winged individuals were again observed on 6/13/18. Some of the aphids were also observed on this date to have succumbed to tiny parasitoid wasps. (See photos of aphid mummies included.) Multiple generations will occur on these alternate hosts in the summer and by the fall, a winged form will return to elm and mated females will lay eggs near elm buds.
- Woolly Elm Aphid: Eriosoma americanum females lay a single egg in the cracks and crevices of elm bark, where the egg overwinters. Eggs hatch on elm in the spring as leaves are unfolding. A young, wingless female hatched from the egg feeds on the underside of leaf tissue. This female aphid matures and gives birth to 200 young, all females, without mating. These aphids feed, and the elm leaf curls around them and protects them. Curled leaves, sheltering feeding, honeydew-producing aphids within, were observed on elm in Amherst, MA on 5/16/2018 and again on 5/23/2018. Oddly enough, on 5/31/2018 at the same location in Amherst, MA, a few winged individuals were seen within folded leaves. Most of the aphids were still wingless. By 6/13/18 in Amherst, MA, many of the woolly elm aphids observed within curled leaves were winged. They will clearly be ready to migrate to their alternate serviceberry hosts by the end of this month. See also the included image of a sated ladybeetle larva found within a curled elm leaf that was now mostly devoid of aphids. By the end of June, winged migrants mature and find serviceberry hosts. Another set of females will be produced. These new females crawl to and begin feeding on the roots of serviceberry. Multiple generations occur on the roots of serviceberry through the summer.
Concerned that you may have found an invasive insect or suspicious damage caused by one? Need to report a pest sighting? If so, please visit the Massachusetts Introduced Pests Outreach Project: http://massnrc.org/pests/pestreports.htm .
A note about Tick Awareness: deer ticks (Ixodes scapularis), the American dog tick (Dermacentor variabilis), and the lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum) are all found throughout Massachusetts. Each can carry their own complement of diseases. Anyone working in tick habitats (wood-line areas, forested areas, and landscaped areas with ground cover) should check themselves regularly for ticks while practicing preventative measures. Have a tick and need it tested? Visit the web page of the UMass Laboratory of Medical Zoology (https://www.tickreport.com/ ) and click on the red Test a Tick button for more information.
Reported by Tawny Simisky, Extension Entomologist, UMass Extension Landscape, Nursery, & Urban Forestry Program