Strawberries

General Information

Strawberries are attacked by a variety of pests, including insects, mites, pathogens and weeds. While much of this publication deals with chemical controls, the best overall approach to pest management integrates chemicals with other methods. Where possible, cultural practices that may help in managing these pests are presented.

The single most important factor in controlling pathogens is the maintenance of vigorously growing plants. Weeds compete with strawberries for essential water and nutrients. Weeds also promote pest injury by acting as alternate ‘homes’ for diseases and insects, inhibiting spray penetration, and maintaining high humidity in the strawberry leaf canopy.

Good soil and air drainage are essential for plant health. Roots rot quickly in waterlogged soil, and fruit rots are more common when the soil surface does not dry quickly. Well-drained loams are the most suitable soil types for good root penetration and plant growth. Sites where cold air can drain away to lower levels will decrease the possibility of frost damage to the flowers and fruit. A southern, sloping site is the most ideal location providing quick-drying soil and earlier ripening berries.

For good root penetration, aeration and drainage, organic materials should be added to the soil. Disc animal manures, compost, and/or green manure crops (cover crops) thoroughly into the soil before planting. The use of leguminous cover crops may increase soil nematode populations, which may be injurious to strawberries. Sudan grass (which will suppress nematode populations) and Japanese millet are annual cover crops well suited for most situations, providing heavy organic matter production. See section on “Cover Crops and Green Manures” on page 8 for more on this subject. If poultry manure is used, it must be applied cautiously. It is a rich source of nitrogen and phosphorus which, if used to excess, can promote excessive vegetative growth and soft berries (both conditions encourage disease), and may leach into ground water.

In new beds, a soil test should be done to determine the pH, and the rate and types of fertilizer to apply. Have the soil tested at your state university or private soil-testing lab and apply the necessary lime to adjust the pH to within the range of 5.8 to 6.2. Some soils low in magnesium may benefit from the use of dolomitic (Hi-Mag) lime. Pre-plant fertilizer recommendations will generally call for the application of blended fertilizer containing nitrogen, phosphorous and potash in a 1-2-2 ratio (250 to 400 pounds of 10-20-20 is a typical recommendation). Nitrogen at up to 30 pounds per acre banded over the plant row is generally recommended during the period of heavy runner development (late June or early July). An additional, smaller application (up to 20 lbs N) may be suggested for early August.

Heavy fertilizer applications should be avoided in the spring on established beds; too much nitrogen will promote abundant vegetative growth that encourages disease by inhibiting good air circulation needed to dry plant surfaces. The longer moisture films remain on fruit and leaves from irrigation, rain, dew or high humidity, the greater the chance of fungal spores germinating and disease outbreaks occurring. Berries may also become soft as a result of too much nitrogen. Light applications of fertilizer may be made in spring (10-20 lbs of actual N per acre) to promote early plant growth and fruit development.

Leaf tissue analysis is a good way to determine nutrient levels actually in the plant rather than what is in the soil. Sometimes the nutrients in the soil are not available to the plant due to pH, organic matter content, or some other reason. Leaf tissue analysis tells you what the plant is getting and what the plant is lacking. The samples are taken after bed renovation in the summer from the first fully expanded new leaves. At least 50 complete leaves per planting should be taken, rinsed, and allowed to dry completely before processing. Contact your regional fruit specialists for the exact protocol, processing instructions, and fees. Standards are available for comparison to determine if your results indicate the need for corrective measures. See Table 14.

Good root development is essential to the continued productivity and health of the strawberry planting. Primary roots generally live only a year or slightly longer, requiring the development of new roots at successively higher nodes on the growing crowns. To encourage increased root development, strawberry crowns are mulched with about 1 inch of loose soil during the renovation process, enough soil to cover the crown extension that has occurred during the past year without covering the top of the crowns.

Strawberries are a cool weather crop, producing most of their growth in the spring and fall. Growth is greatly slowed during the hot, dry summer months, resulting in a shallow root system. During the growing season (April, May, August, September and October) applying 1-1/2” of water every 12 to 14 days will aid in maximum growth and fruit bud development. During fruiting, adequate moisture (1" to 2” of water per week) will maintain fruit size and production.

Table 14. Recommended optimal soil characteristics for growing strawberries.
Soil Characteristic Desirable Range*
pH 5.8-6.2
Organic matter 4 to 6 %
Phosphorus 20-30 ppm
Potassium 120- 180 ppm
Base Saturation >3.0
Magnesium 100-150 ppm
Base Saturation >5.0
Calcium 1000 - 1500 ppm
Base Saturation >50.0
* Desirable range will vary with soil type (sand, silt, or clay), soil organic matter, and pH.

Irrigation can also eliminate frost damage to flowers during early bloom periods. If sprinklers are turned on before the temperature at ground level drops to 32˚F and continued until air temperature is above freezing and all ice has melted off the plants, the blossoms will be protected. (Remember, the first blossoms to open will bear the largest berries.) The sensitive, actively growing tissue in the crown will also be protected from freezing injury that would make it more susceptible to pathogen attack.

In Row Spacing Spacing between Rows
Table 15. Number of strawberry plants per acre at different spacings.
  36 inch 40 inch 42 inch
6 inches 29,040 26,241 24,891
12 inches 14,520 13,120 12,446
18 inches 9,680 8,712 8,297
24 inches 7,260 6,540 6,223

 

Stage of Development Approx. Critical Temperature
Table 16. Critical freeze temperatures for strawberries based on stage of growth.
Tight bud 25˚F
"Popcorn" 26˚F
Open Blossom 30˚F
Fruit 28˚F
  Deficient Below Normal Normal Above Normal Excessive
Table 17. Critical nutrient values for strawberry tissue analysis.

N (%)

1.50 1.80 2.00 2.80 >2.80
P (%) 0.20 0.25 0.35 0.40 >0.50
K (%) 1.20 1.50 2.00 2.50 >3.00
Ca (%) 0.60 0.70 1.50 1.70 >2.00
Mg (%) 0.25 0.30 0.45 0.50 >0.65
Mn (ppm) 40 50 150 200 >250
Fe (ppm) 50 60 150 250 >300
Cu (ppm) 5 7 10 20 >25
B (ppm) 20 30 60 70 >85
Zn (ppm) 15 20 35 50 >60

 

Day Neutral Strawberries

Day neutral strawberries set fruit continually over several weeks, during the late summer and fall, providing a high value specially item for roadside stands and farm markets. Day neutral plants are often grown as an annual crop, on raised beds with plastic mulch and very high planting densities. As a result, the establishment costs and labor commitment tend to be quite high.

Fertilizer should be applied and worked into the soil prior to planting, or banded into the soil prior to applying plastic mulch and planting. Rates should be determined through soil test but a standard rate of 100 lbs of slow-release nitrogen, 50 lbs of phosphorus (P2O5) and 50 lbs of potassium (K2O) is typically incorporated into the soil prior to planting (e.g. 600 lbs/acre of 20-10-10 or its equivalent). Beds should be prepared in the spring or made during the previous fall. Raised beds should be 4” to 12” high with a 1 ½” crown sloping from the center to the edges of the bed to shed water. Bed width depends on how many rows of plants will be established on each bed, from 18” for a single plant row to 46” for 3 to 4 plant rows.  In New England, two plant rows per bed are most common and simplest to manage with the bed with of 24” to 42”.  Smooth, well packed and shaped beds greatly improve the fit and performance of plastic mulch. Trickle or drip irrigation lines should be installed during bed forming at about a 4” depth in the bed, and a few inches to the side of the planet rows, with one line for every plant row there will be on the bed. Plastic mulch should be laid tightly over the bed immediately after bed forming. Black plastic is commonly used to promote soil warming and to provide weed control.

Dormant, day neutral strawberry crowns should be planted in the spring as soon as the beds are prepared. Planting is done by hand using a simple planting tool. A piece of 1/8” iron flat bar about 12” long is bent at a 90° angle about 4” from one end to create a handle.  This may be wrapped with duct tape to provide a soft grip. The opposite end of the bar is notched from the edges to the middle to about a ¾” depth to create shallow inverted “V” at the end.  The notched edge is slightly sharpened to ease penetration through the mulch and soil. The notched edge of the tool is placed over a plant that is laid on the plastic so that it will ”grab” about ½” of the root ends as the tool is pushed into the soil, drawing the plant into the bed. Push the crowns straight down through the mulch with the tool and into the soil so that the soil surface comes halfway up the crown. Gently pinch the soil around the crown as you withdraw the planting tool. Plants should be spaced 10” to 14” apart within a row. Planting in a double row, 24” apart, on a 42” wide bed with 13” between plants within the row will require about 13,400 plants per acre.

All flower blossoms that emerge should be pinched off for 4 to 6 weeks after planting. All runner plants that emerge during the summer should also be removed. While runner removal is labor-intensive, it improves both yield and fruit quality. The field should be irrigated immediately after planting and regularly thereafter. One to 2” of water per week is recommended. Drip lines can be used to deliver soluble fertilizers to the plant. Recommended rates of fertilizer vary depending on the number of plants per acre, soil type, and variety. Generally, 2 lbs of actual nitrogen per acre per week applied through the drip lines will provide good growth.

Day neutral strawberry beds are not usually carried over for second year. Although plants can produce an early spring crop the following year, and fruit again the next summer and fall if carried over, fruit quality, especially size, is much lower and runner control becomes a major problem. If the beds are to be carried over, winter protection is required in the form of heavyweight row covers, applied in the fall when the plants are dormant.

Diseases

Fruit Rots

Gray Mold (Botrytis cinerea): Symptoms of gray mold include light brown areas on fruit; a powdery gray growth produced on rotted fruit and leaf tissue; and whole rotted berries that retain their general shape but become tough and dry.

Gray mold is a serious problem because it often attacks other living plant parts in addition to developing on harvested fruit. The fungus overwinters in living plant tissue and proliferates in the spring as leaves die. Favored by cool, wet weather, the fungus establishes itself on dead or aging leaves, moving to healthy tissue as more and more spores are produced. Petals and other parts of older flowers are likely to be attacked first. These infections may destroy developing fruit immediately or become dormant until the fruit begins to ripen. Secondary infections may occur when spores that cling to ripening fruit germinate in moist packaging conditions after the fruit is harvested, causing uncontrollable storage rots.

Management: It is important to maintain proper spacing between plant rows and to keep plant rows narrow to allow good air circulation. This will promote rapid drying of foliage, blossoms, and fruit during periods of high humidity, rain, irrigation, or dew and lessen the chance of Botrytis spores germinating on plant surfaces. Beds that become too crowded are likely to promote Botrytis fruit rot. Heavy nitrogen applications, particularly early spring applications, also promote Botrytis development.

If Botrytis is a chronic serious problem or in years with a lot of rainfall during bloom, fungicides should be applied during the bloom period. Frequently rotate fungicide chemical groups (FRAC numbers) to prevent the development of resistance.  See pest management schedule below for recommended materials and timing.

Leather Rot (Phytophthora cactorum): Symptoms include: fruit with dull and lifeless appearance; infected areas of immature fruit are brown to dark brown, while infected areas on ripe fruit appear bleached to lilac to normal in color; infected fruit is tough and has a bitter taste. After harvest white fuzzy growth may appear under moist packaging conditions.

This organism is a common soil inhabitant that attacks many species of trees, shrubs, and perennial or annual herbs. The leather rot organism also causes a serious crown rot. Rainy weather promotes infection by splashing spores along with soil particles onto flowers or fruit. Maturing fruit in contact with wet soil may become infected. Frequent fog or morning dew may supply adequate moisture for the “swimming” spores to cause infection. Fruits may be affected at all stages from blossom to maturity.

Management: Proper plant spacing and weed control for good aeration to promote rapid drying of plant surfaces. Clean straw mulch placed under plants and between rows keeps maturing fruit from getting rain-splashed soil on the surface. (Note: plastic mulch may “puddle” and actually make leather rot worse.) When conditions are very wet, and leather rot has occurred in a field, fungicides may be needed. See pest management schedule below for recommended fungicides and spray timing.

Anthracnose (Colletotrichum spp.): Symptoms of this disease include circular, sunken, water-soaked tan to black lesions on both green and ripe fruit. In wet or humid weather, creamy pink to salmon colored spore masses occur in the centers of these lesions, and the fungus can produce fluffy white growth at the border of the lesion and healthy tissue. Under dry conditions, or if secondary organisms do not cause soft rots, the fruit may become mummified and black.

This fungus is an extremely important pathogen of strawberries in the Southeast. In addition to fruit, this fungus may also attack stolons, petioles, and strawberry crown tissues. The same fungus may cause fruit rots of crops such as apples, blueberries, raspberries, grapes, peppers and tomatoes.

The incidence of anthracnose fruit rot may be directly related to unusually warm, damp weather in spring. Spore production, germination, and host infection are all favored by warm, humid environmental conditions. Spread of the fungus from infected tissues to uninfected fruit and crowns occurs primarily by splash dispersal and is aided by wind-driven rain. However, spread may also occur on runners and by the movement of people or equipment through the field, especially in wet weather.

Management: Control of strawberry anthracnose is difficult, especially under warm, wet conditions. Initial planting of uninfected crowns is important, and rotation out of strawberries for a period of time before replanting may be helpful, as the fungus overwinters on infected plant tissues or infested debris in the soil. Fungicides may be helpful in reducing infection, but may be less effective in hot, humid weather. Overhead irrigation of fields with infected plants or fruit and the movement of people or equipment through wet fields can increase spread of the pathogen. However, the retention of a straw mulch between rows will help reduce splash dispersal of the fungus. See pest management schedule below for recommended materials and timing.

 

Foliar Diseases

Bacterial Angular Leaf Spot (Xanthomonas fragariae): Angular leaf spot is a bacterial disease.  It is not a consistent annual problem. Early symptoms on the leaves are tiny, water-soaked areas. When viewed against a bright light, lesions are translucent, but when viewed against a normal or dark background, the lesion areas are dark green. As the disease progresses, it may develop into symptoms similar to common leaf spot, leaf scorch and Phomopsis leaf blight. Chlorotic halos will form, areas of tissue will appear red, and the lesions on leaves and petioles will join together into large, irregularly shaped areas. The most severe problem, from a marketing perspective, is that the calyx, or cap, of the berries may become infected, turning it brown and making the berries less attractive.  In New England, the disease can damage plants and limit growth, but does not cause plant mortality.  Reports from California indicate that infections can become systemic and will occasionally kill plants.

Inoculum for the first lesions in the spring comes from infected dead leaves. The bacteria are very resistant to drying and other harsh conditions, and may survive for a long time in the old leaves or in buried plant tissue in the soil. The pathogen does not move in the soil, or survive free in the soil. The bacteria may move from new lesions to other plants. It can be spread by rain or irrigation, or carried from plant to plant when fields are being worked. Wet, cool weather in the spring encourages the bacteria to build up to damaging levels. Long periods of rain, or frequent irrigation at times when the day temperatures are around 65˚ F, and night temperatures near 35˚ F, will encourage growth and spread of this disease. It is often more prevalent in the fields that have been irrigated frequently for frost control.

Management: In general, antibiotics (streptomycin or oxytetracycline), copper-containing pesticides or hydrogen dioxide are used to treat bacterial plant diseases. While some sources say these treatments will protect against angular leaf spot, field tests have shown only moderate success at best. Copper applications can damage strawberry plants and should not be applied when plants are in bloom.

In the absence of any better information, it is best to take a two-pronged approach where angular leaf spot has been a problem. First, in fields with a history of this disease, inoculum should be reduced by removing as much leaf debris as possible from the field at renovation. Rotate out of severely infested fields for at least a year. Second, begin scouting fields with a history of this disease as soon as buds extend from the crown. Continue scouting until bloom. Symptoms often first appear near sprinkler heads. If symptoms are observed, discontinue irrigation unless needed for frost protection or when excellent drying conditions prevail. Minimize the time leaf and blossom tissue is wet. Also, avoid worsening the problem by working in the field when the leaves are wet.

Leaf Spots

Fungal diseases of the leaf may occur as soon as the first leaves unfold in early spring and continue until dormancy in the late fall. Generally, these diseases do not exceed an economic threshold that calls for chemical control. The primary damage of leaf diseases is a loss of vigor through reduced leaf area that is needed to support the plant. If outbreaks of these leaf diseases become significant, the plants will become weakened during winter dormancy and become more susceptible to root diseases and winter injury.

The three major leaf fungal pathogens have a similar life cycle. Leaf spot, leaf scorch, and leaf blight all overwinter in infected dead or living leaves, producing spores and new infections during moist, warm conditions.

Leaf Spot (Mycosphaerella fragariae): Symptoms of leaf spot first appear as circular, deep purple spots. The spots enlarge and the centers turn grayish to white on older leaves and light brown on young leaves. A definite reddish purple to rusty brown border surrounds the spot.

Spores overwinter in lesions on living leaves. More spores are produced in early summer in spots on the upper and lower leaf surface, and are spread by splashing rain. Middle-aged leaves are most susceptible. Lesions also develop on fruit, stems, petioles and runners.

Leaf Scorch (Diplocarpon earliana): Symptoms of this disease consist of numerous small, irregular, purplish spots on leaves. The center of the blotches becomes brownish. Blotches may coalesce, covering the leaflet which then appears purplish to reddish to brown.

Fruiting structures are produced in the spring on lower leaf surfaces of dead leaves. Spores are produced most abundantly in midsummer. Oldest and middle-aged leaves are infected more readily than young ones.

Leaf Blight (Phomopsis obscurans): Symptoms of leaf blight infections begin as one to six circular reddish-purple spots on a leaflet. Spots enlarge to V-shaped lesions with a light brown inner zone and dark brown outer zone. Lesions follow major veins progressing inward. The whole leaflet may turn brown. In severe cases, stolons, fruit trusses and petioles may become infected which may girdle and kill the stem.

The fungus overwinters as mycelium or fruiting structures on the old leaves that remain attached to the plant. Spores are spread by rain splash early in the spring. Leaf blight is most destructive to older leaves in the late summer. Calyxes and fruit may also be infected.

Management: Leaf scorch and leaf spot are mainly controlled by use of resistant varieties. (See chart of disease resistant varieties.) No resistant varieties to leaf blight are known. Cultural practices and some fungicides recommended for controlling fruit rots are also beneficial for managing leaf spot diseases, e.g. proper plant and row spacing for good air drainage and plant vigor. Mowing or removing the tops and old leaves at renovation has benefits for managing leaf diseases. But, this practice is only effective for this purpose if the mowings are removed from the field or thoroughly incorporated into the soil by tilling. Leaves less than 3 weeks old are susceptible to infection by leaf spot; older leaves are resistant. See pest management schedule below for recommended materials and timing.

Powdery Mildew (Sphaerotheca macularis): Symptoms include white powdery growth on the lower leaf surface, causing the leaf edges to roll upward. (Note: Some herbicides will cause leaf rolling on certain varieties.) Infected flowers and ripe fruit may also become covered with white growth; and infected green fruit may fail to ripen and will remain hard.

This fungus overwinters on living infected leaves. Infection periods are favored by humid weather and temperatures between 58˚ and 68˚F. Thus, if a severe foliar infection occurs, it does so either early or late in the season. Controlling these foliar infections with fungicides does not apparently increase yields. However, by controlling foliar infections, the amount of inoculum available to infect the spring growth is reduced. Crop losses occur as a result of flower and fruit infections.

Management: See pest management schedule for recommended materials and timing, and variety selection chart for resistant varieties.

Root Rots

The strawberry root system is composed of three types of roots: the perennial and structural roots that originate from the crown, and the transient feeder rootlets that originate from the perennial or structural roots. The structural roots are light in color with a well developed cortex. The perennial roots are dark due to the sloughed cortex surrounding woody secondary growth and are more or less permanent. They store food reserves to maintain the plant through winter dormancy.

Structural roots are produced from the crown during the current year. Transient feeder roots consisting of primary tissues are produced from both structural and perennial roots. They may only live a few weeks and are replaced during the growing season; they are constantly dying back and being replaced. The transient roots function to absorb water and nutrients; the perennial roots cannot. Thus, all types of roots are important in maintaining healthy plants and good yields. Death to transient rootlets by pathogens or unfavorable soil conditions is not as damaging to plant vigor if the plant is able to replace them. However, often the structural and perennial roots also become infected. When this happens, the plant is greatly weakened, producing little or no fruit. Plants may suddenly wilt, or plants which were healthy the previous season may develop slowly in the spring. Proper diagnosis of soil-borne problems requires careful examination of the roots and crown.

Red Stele (Phytophthora fragaria): Symptoms of red stele infection are numerous: wilting; young leaves with a bluish-green tint; and older red, orange or yellow leaves. Severely diseased plants may die or remain stunted, producing few runners and small berries. When roots are cut open lengthwise, the core will show a reddish-brown discoloration; however, a reddish core does not guarantee that red stele is present. Plants showing symptoms usually occur in patches where the soil is wettest.

The red stele organism causes a root rot and wilt, and is a major disease of strawberries where cool, wet soil conditions occur. The spores actually swim and need water in the soil in order to find and infect roots. The disease enters the main perennial roots and grows along the stele, the plant’s food and water transport system. Roots begin to rot from the tip within a few days after infection. Depending on the extent of the infection and the plant’s resistance, stunting or wilting and collapse of the plant will result.

Management: Good soil drainage, texture, and planting in raised beds in wet areas will discourage disease infection. Purchase planting stock only from nurseries that have been inspected and certified disease-free. Disease resistant varieties are available. Consult your nursery supplier for more information. Pre-plant soil fumigation may reduce P. fragaria infestation in soil but avoiding wet sites is more reliable. Pre- and post-plant treatments with a systemic fungicide is also an option. See pest management schedule for materials and timing.

Verticillium Wilt (Verticillium albo-atrum): Symptoms of Verticillium wilt are marginal and interveinal browning and eventually collapse of outer leaves; inner leaves are stunted and may wilt but tend to remain green until the plant dies.  This fungus has a wide host range among annual and perennial crops and weeds. Verticillium is spread from field to field by water, wind or on infected planting stock, and crop and weed debris. Plants that are fruiting are affected more severely, and the first symptoms are noticeable as temperatures increase in late spring.

Management: Do not use solanaceous crops (such as tomato or potato), or squash or raspberries for rotation crops. Do not use alfalfa as a rotation/cover crop. In addition, control pigweed and lamb’s-quarters which are also hosts for Verticillium. Preplant soil fumigation may help in managing this disease. See disease resistant variety chart for selection of resistant varieties.

Black Root Rot: Above-ground symptoms of this disease are similar in appearance to red stele. That is, a general lack of vigor and eventual collapse of plants especially during dry weather. Underground symptoms consist of blackened feeder roots and, eventually, structural and perennial roots. Structural roots will rot from the outside to the center, leaving the core white for a period of time, unlike red stele where the core is usually red.

Black root rot has no simple causes or remedies. It is a disease complex, involving several pathogens combined with plant stress. The key pathogens include Rhizoctonia, Pythium, and lesion nematode. The pathogens involved in this disease are commonly found in soils but usually don’t cause disease symptoms on healthy plants, but stressed plants are more susceptable. Strawberry plants may be stressed in a number of ways, including drought, winter injury, root feeding insects, nematodes, poor nutrition, soil compaction, and improper herbicide use. Stresses reduce the plant’s resistance to disease.  Root rotting pathogens may infect and continue to damage plant roots and crowns long after the initial stress, 

Management: Control of black root rot in an existing field is difficult. Stress management is the key to black root rot management. Therefore, replacing winter mulch that has blown off, irrigating during dry weather and after renovation, maintaining good nutritional status in the plants, and not allowing the soil to be compacted are important practices to reduce plant stress and thereby reduce possibility of black root rot developing in the field.

The long-term strategy for managing black root rot relies on site selection and crop rotation. Choose a site which has well drained soil with good soil organic matter content and has not grown strawberries recently. Where black root rot has been a problem, a rotation with a 3-6 year period without strawberries is recommended. This long rotation is needed because causal organisms can persist in the soil for a long time. Using a variety of crops and cover-crops in this period is recommended to help break up the disease cycle. Banded or in-row applications of strobulurin fungicides may reduce or delay infections in infected fields.

Soil fumigation for controlling black root rot can work well, but can also fail under certain conditions. Fumigation sterilizes the soil of pathogens and beneficial organisms. Organisms reintroduced in this “clean” soil grow rapidly in the absence of competition or predators. Pathogens, even in very small quantities, in soil from non-fumigated areas carried into fumigated areas on shoes, equipment or roots of strawberry transplants, may allow pathogens to quickly build up to high levels. Thus, soil fumigation runs the risk of favoring Black Root Rot rather than controlling it. Moving to a planting site which has not grown strawberries recently, and is well-drained, is the best method of managing this disease.

Virus Diseases

Viruses are disease-causing organisms so small they cannot be seen with an ordinary microscope. Several viruses infect strawberries in the Northeast, and it is not uncommon for two or more viruses to be found within the same plant. Viruses in a plant may not show obvious symptoms. However, their presence does weaken the plant.

Loss of vigor and yield caused by viruses are more likely to show up when growing conditions are unfavorable and plants are stressed. Virus symptoms on strawberries, include chlorotic (yellow) spots or irregular patches on leaves. Leaves may crinkle, or otherwise be malformed. Herbicide injury and virus symptoms may be similar.

Management: Once strawberry plants are infected with a virus, they cannot be cured. The infection is passed on to all daughter plants via runners. Most viruses are spread from plant to plant via aphids. Chemical insecticides will not kill aphids before they are able to transmit viruses and may even stimulate aphids to feed. Planting virus-free material will decrease overall damage from virus diseases.

Table 18. Strawberry cultivar descriptions.
    — DISEASE RESISTANCE b
cultivar season hardinessa
zone
verticillium
wilt
red
stele
leaf
diseasesc
powdery
mildew
Sulfur
sensitivity
AC Wendy Early 3 U PR PR PR U
Annapolis Early 3 I R S S VS
Archer Early 3 U U S S U
Earliglow Early 4 R R R PR NS
Galletta Early 4 U U U U U
Sable Early 3 U R R S U
Lila Early-mid 3 U PR PR S U
Brunswick Early-mid 4 U R PR PR U
Honeoye Early-mid 3 S S PR S MS
Flavorfest Early-mid 4 U R PR PR U
L’Amour Early-mid 4 S S U U U
Cavendish Mid 3 R R PR S S
Laurel Mid 3 U R PR PR U
Darselect Mid 4 U S S U U
Guardian Mid 4 R R R S VS
Jewel Mid 4 S S PR R U
Kent Mid 4 S S S T VS
Mira Mid 4 S R R R U
Redchief Mid 4 PR R R R U
Allstar Mid-late 4 R-T R T T NS
Cabot Mid-late 4 R R T T U
Mesabi Mid-late 3 R R PR R U
Sparkle Mid-late 3 PR R R U U
Winona Mid-late 3 T R R R U
Clancy Late 3 U R U U U
AC Valley Sunset Late 4 U S PR S U
Malwina Late 3 R R U R U
Albion Day Neutral 4 S R U R U
San Andreas Day Neutral 4 U U U U U
Seascape Day Neutral 4 U U U U U
Tribute Day Neutral 3 PR R T R VS
Tristar Day Neutral 3 R R T R VS
a Refers to USDA Hardiness Zones, bI=intermediate, PR= partially resistant, R= resistant, S= susceptible, T= tolerant, U= unknown. cIncludes leafscorch and leafspot.
For information on sources and further descriptions of cultivars listed above, visit Cornell University Nursery Guide for Berry Crops.
Table 19. Efficacy of fungicides for strawberry disease management.
Fungicide FRAC
Group
ACtive Ingredient Phomopsis
Leaf Blight
Leaf Spot Leaf Scorch Angular Leaf
Spot
Powdery
Mildew
Gray
Mold
Anthracnose
Fruit Rot
Leather Rot
Abound& 11 azoxystrobin +b + -- 0 ++ + ++ +++
Aliette P07 aluminum tris 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 +++
Badge SC /Badge X2 M01 copper oxychloride, copper hydroxide + + + + -- -- -- --
BotryStop BM02 Ulocladium oudemansii (U3 strain) -- -- -- -- -- ++ -- --
Cabrio 11 pyraclostrobin ++ ++ ++ 0 ++ ++ +++ +++
Captan M4 captan ++ ++ ++ 0 0 ++ ++ +
CaptEvate 17, M4 fenhexamid, captan + + ++ 0 0 +++ ++ +
Cease BM02 Bacillus subtilus (QST713 strain) -- -- -- ++ ++ + ++ --
Cueva M01 copper octanoate 0 0 0 + 0 0 0 0
Copper M01 copper formulations 0 0 0 + 0 0 0 0
Double Nickel BM02 Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (D747 strain) -- -- -- + + + + --
Elevate 17 fenhexamid 0 0 -- 0 0 +++ 0 0
Fontelis 7 penthiopyrad 0 0 0 0 +++ +++ 0 0
Fracture BM01 (BLAD) Lupine seed extract -- -- -- -- ++ + -- --
Inspire Super 3, 9 difenconazole, cyprodinil 0 ++ -- 0 ++ +++ + 0
JMS Stylet Oil / Organic JMS Stylet Oil NC paraffinic oil -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
Kaligreen NC potassium bicarbonate 0 0 0 0 ++ 0 0 0
Kenja 7 isofetamid -- -- -- -- -- +++ -- --
Kocide / Kocide-O M01 copper hydroxide -- -- -- +++ -- -- -- --
Kumulus DF M02 sulfur -- -- -- -- +++ -- -- --
Luna Sensation 7, 11 fluopyram, trifloxystrobin +++ ++ -- 0 +++ +++ +++ --
Luna Tranquility 7, 9 fluopyram, pyrimethanil ++ ++ -- 0 +++ +++ 0 --
Merivon 7, 11 fluxapyroxad, pyraclostrobin 0 ++ 0 0 ++ ++ ++ 0
Mettle 125 ME 3 tetraconizole ++ ++ 0 0 ++ 0 0 0
Microthiol Disperss, Thiolux M02 sulfur -- -- -- -- +++ -- -- --
Milstop SP NC potassium bicarbonate 0 0 0 0 + + 0 0
Orbit, Tilt 3 propiconazole -- ++ -- 0 +++ 0 0 0
OSO 19 polyoxin-D zinc salt 0 0 0 0 ++ ++ ++ 0
PERpose Plus NC hydrogen peroxide -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
Ph-D, Tavano 19 polyoxin-D zinc salt 0 0 0 0 ++ ++ ++ 0
Phostrol P07 phosphorus acid 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 +++
Pristine 7, 11 boscalid, pyraclostrobin ++ +++ +++ 0 +++ +++ +++ +++
Procure 3 trifumizole -- 0 -- 0 +++ 0 0 0
Prophyte P07 phosphorus acid -- -- -- -- -- -- -- +++
Quintec 13 quinoxyfen 0 0 -- 0 +++ 0 0 0
Rally 3 myclobutanil +++ ++ +++ 0 +++ 0 0 0
Regalia P05 Reynoutria sachalinensis 0 0 0 0 + 0 0 0
Rendition NC hydrogen peroxide, peroxyacetic acid -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
Ridomil Gold 4 mefenoxam 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 +++
RootShield BM02 Trichoderma harzianum (T22 strain) -- -- -- -- -- -- --  
RootShield PLUS+ BM02 Trichoderma harzianum (T22 strain), T. virens (G-41 strain) -- -- -- -- -- -- --  
Rovral 2 iprodione + + + 0 0 +++ 0 0
Scala 9 pyrimethanil 0 0 -- 0 0 +++ 0 0
Serenade BM02 Bacillus subtilus (QST713 strain) 0 0 0 0 + ++ ++ 0
Switch 9, 12 cyprodinil, fludioxinil 0 + ++ 0 0 +++ ++ 0
SuffOil-X NC mineral oil -- -- -- -- + -- -- --
Thiram M3 thiram ++ ++ ++ 0 0 ++ + +
Topsin-M 1 thiophanate-methyl ++ ++ +++ 0 +++ +++ 0 0
Torino U6 cyflufenamid -- -- -- -- +++ -- -- --
Trilogy NC neem oil 0 0 0 0 + + +

0

0=not effective; +=slight effectiveness; ++=moderate effectiveness; +++=very effective; --=insufficient data

=OMRI listed for organic production.

Products with the same FRAC code have active ingredients with the same mode of action. Repeated use of products with the same mode of action should be avoided to reduce the risk of development of chemical resistance by the pest and reduced efficacy of the pesticde. Fungicides with two FRAC codes contain active ingredients with two different modes of action. For more information on FRAC codes and managing fungicide resistance, go to https://www.frac.info/.

* Restricted use material; pesticide applicators license required.

&This material is very toxic to some varieties of apples; use extreme caution when spraying near apples; do not use the same sprayer subsequently on apples.

For all products listed, read labels thoroughly for restrictions and warnings.

Insects

Fruit Damaging Insects

Tarnished Plant Bug (Lygus lineolaris): The tarnished plant bug (TPB) is a small (1/4”) bronze-colored insect with a triangular marking on its back. The immature stage, or nymph, is smaller and bright green, resembling an aphid, but much more active. Both adults and nymphs feed on the developing flowers and fruit, sucking out plant juices with straw-like mouth-parts. This results in deformed fruit: typically “cat-faced” berries, also called nubbins or button berries. Such fruit are generally unmarketable.

Management: Controlling weeds in and around the planting may reduce populations of this insect, but insecticide sprays may be necessary. If mowing around fields, do so after insecticides have been applied (to control migrating insects). White sticky traps are available for monitoring tarnished plant bug adults. These traps are used as a indication of when plant bugs begin their activity in the spring and a relative indication of their abundance, not as an indication of when to control this insect. Immature TPB (nymphs) are sampled by shaking or tapping flower trusses over a flat white surface, like a paper plate. Thirty flower clusters should be sampled evenly from across the field (typically 6 clusters at 5 locations or 5 clusters at 6 locations). If 4 or more flower clusters are infested with nymphs (regardless of how many) a spray is recommended. A follow-up spray application may be made after bloom if TPB are still present in high numbers (check harvest interval before selecting material). See pest management schedule for recommended materials and timing. Do not apply insecticides during bloom.

Table 20. Monitoring for tarnished plant bug in strawberry.
NUMBER OF FLOWER CLUSTERS INFESTED
Number of
Clusters Examined
Control
Not Required
Keep
Sampling

Control Required

Threshold: 0.15 nymphs/cluster

15 0 1 to 2; check 5 more 3 or more
20 0 1 to 3; check 5 more 4 or more
25 1 or less 2 to 3; check 5 more 4 or more
30 2 or less 3; check 5 more 4 or more
35 3 or less 4; check 5 more 5 or more
40 3 or less 4; check 5 more 5 or more
45 4 or less 5; check 5 more 6 or more
50 5 or less   6 or more

Sequential Sampling: a time-saver. To save time, a sequential sampling plan may used to determine how many clusters should be sampled. By using Table 19 above, you can make a spray/no spray/keep looking decision by first examining a minimum of 15 clusters. If you find 0 TPB nymphs, you can stop and make a “no spray” decision. If you find more than 0 but less than 3, you should continue sampling. If you find 3 or more TPB nymphs, control is required in order to avoid economic damage to your crop. If the maximum of 50 flower clusters are sampled and no decision is indicated, the grower should sample again in 1 or 2 days. This method allows scouts to spend less time monitoring in fields where populations are very low, or very high. More time is spent sampling fields where TPB populations are close to the threshold.

Strawberry Bud Weevil, “Clipper” (Anthonomus signatus): The strawberry bud weevil or “clipper” occurs somewhat less frequently than tarnished plant bug. This insect is a very small beetle (1/8”) with a copper-colored body and a black head with a long snout.  The female weevil chews a small hole in unopened flower buds and lays an egg in the hole. She then girdles the stem just below the bud. The flower bud dries up and dangles from the stem, eventually falling to the ground. The immature weevils, or grubs, develop in the girdled buds, emerging as adults in the early summer, and then migrating to wooded areas.

These insects are not always present and may only cause minimal damage some years. Examine the plants before bloom for clipped buds. If the field has a history of significant clipper injury, the first appearance of clipper indicates the need to spray.

Management: Check for presence of clipper by examining new flower trusses as they first emerge from the crowns in April or May. The weevils will sometimes crawl in among the unopened buds for shelter. They are most likely to be in rows near woods or hedgerows. Later, look for shot-holes in opened flower petals and/or clipped buds of unopened flowers. In the past, the IPM action threshold for this insect is 1 clipped bud per 2 ft. of row or one live adult. Research done in recent years suggests that many more clipped buds can be tolerated without significant yield loss. A comparison of old and new sampling methods done by researchers at Cornell University (Hortscience 34 (1): 109-111. 1999) can be seen in Table 20 below. Sample at least 5 locations in the field. If you determine that the infestation is limited to the edge of a field, you may only need to spray the border rows. If you see evidence of clipper and determine a spray application is necessary, follow recommendations for materials and timing in the strawberry pest management schedule.

Table 21. Sampling procedure for strawberry bud weevil (clipper).
  Old Method New Method New Method
Unit examined Flower buds Flower Clusters Flower buds
Assessment Clipped buds or Not clipped Cluster highly damaged* or Cluster with low amounts of damage Clipped buds or Not clipped
Threshold 2 clipped buds/m 3 highly damaged clusters/m 3 clipped 1˚ buds/m or 30 clipped 2˚ or 3˚ buds/m
*highly damaged=1 clipped primary (1˚) bud, or 2 clipped secondary (2˚) bud, or 3 clipped tertiary (3˚) buds
Courtesy Pam Fisher, Ontario Ministry of Food and Agriculture

Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (BMSB) (Halyomorpha halys): Adult BMSB are approximately 3/4 inch long and are shades of brown on both the upper and lower body surfaces. They are the typical “shield” shape of other stink bugs, almost as wide as they are long. To distinguish them from other stink bugs, look for lighter bands on the antennae and darker bands on the membranous, overlapping part at the rear of the front pair of wings. Masses of 20-30 eggs are laid on underside of leaves. The 5 nymphal stages range in size from 1/8 - 1/2 inch. Nymphs and adult BMSB feed on many hosts including small fruits, tree fruits, vegetables, ornamentals, and seeded crops such as corn and soybeans. BMSB feeds by puncturing the fruit with piercing/sucking mouthparts, and injecting saliva which allows the insect to suck up the plant material through its mouthparts. Fruit tissue at the point of entry and just below into the flesh, then dies and the rest of the fruit grows around it. This leaves a sunken area on the skin at the point of entry, and browning, dead tissue in the flesh.

BMSM has become a serious insect pest throughout much of the mid-Atlantic states and southern New York. As of 2020, BMSB has caused minor economic injury to tree fruit in some areas of New England, but is not yet a pest of concern for most small fruit crops. It is unknown at this time whether there will be one or two generations per year.

Management: BMSB can be controlled with some of the commonly used fruit insecticides, including bifenthrin and malathion. Spray recommendations are found in the strawberryberry pest management schedule.

Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD) (Drosophila suzukii): These are small (1/8”) vinegar flies that came into the northeastern U.S. in 2011. They originated in western Asia and attack most soft or thin-skinned fruits. The female flies can insert eggs through the skin of ripening fruit. The larvae, or maggots, are small and translucent and feed on the flesh of fruits. Each female fly can lay between 300-400 eggs. The cycle from egg to larvae to pupae to adult can be completed in as little as 14-21 days. Even a relatively small influx of flies into a field can soon develop into a major infestation. Infested fruit may contain a few to many larvae and will prematurely soften and decay. If not noticed at harvest, infested fruit will have very reduced shelf life, and larvae will be seen emerging from the remains.

Management: Although the flies are relatively easy to kill with insecticides, keeping berries free from infestation can be difficult because of the near constant pressure of countless flies throughout the late summer and fall. To date, only frequent and repeated insecticide sprays throughout the ripening and harvest period have proven effective. For June-bearing strawberries in New England, it appears that spotted wing drosophila do not build up to populations high enough to cause significant damage until after harvest is complete. It is recommended that growers be vigilant however, especially with later ripening varieties, and be ready to apply appropriate insecticides if flies are observed in the field or larvae are found in the fruit. This insect is a significant threat to day neutral strawberries ripening in the late summer and fall.

Homemade traps for the flies can be made by drilling 1/8” holes in plastic containers or cups (red or black color is most attractive). The cups should be baited with apple cider vinegar or sugar water with a pinch of yeast. Commercial traps (from Scentry or Trece) contain similar attractive odors as homemade recipes and may be more convienient. Check the traps regularly for vinegar flies. The males can be identified by a single small black spot near the top of each wing. The females have no spots. It is likely that by the time flies are found in the traps, eggs have already been laid in the fruit. Therefore, sprays would be recommended as a preventative measure on any fruit starting to ripen after the first week of August. Weekly coverage may be adequate under low pressure, but twice weekly sprays may become necessary for high pest pressures affecting fall-bearing day-neutral strawberries.

Pay close attention to days-to-harvest requirements and limitations on number of applications on all product labels. Most insecticides will be made more effective by adding sugar to stimulate SWD feeding. On smaller plantings, placing a fine screen or row cover over the plants can effectively keep flies from laying eggs on fruit, but can interfere with pollination if flowers are still present.

Field sanitation – removing all waste fruit from the field – may help reduce infestations. Carefully grade fruit before marketing, removing any soft berries which may contain larvae. Chilling harvested fruit to 32° F prior to marketing can significantly reduce emergence of larvae.

Sap Beetles (Stelidota geminata): Sap beetles cause hollowed out cavities on ripe fruit, an injury very similar to slug injury. Adults are small oval beetles about 2mm long and dark brown in color. They are often hard to see because they drop to the ground when disturbed, but they may be found in the cavities they have chewed out. They are found almost exclusively when there is ripe fruit in the field.

Management: The best management for this pest is sanitation; keeping the field as free as possible of ripe and overripe fruit. Sap beetles may be trapped with bait baskets of over-ripe fruit placed between the edges of the field and wooded areas. Spacing recommendations are not known. Place traps as soon as bait fruit is available. Insecticides may be used for control if absolutely necessary. Most can be sprayed within 24 hours of harvest, but might devastate mite predators. Read the labels carefully. See pest management schedule for recommended materials and timing.

Thrips (Thysanoptera): Thrips are tiny insects that feed on flower parts. Several species occasionally infest the flowers of strawberries. The adults are slender, winged, about 1/25 inch long, and are orange or yellow. Young thrips are smaller, wingless, yellowish, and active. These insects breed on grasses and weeds in spring, and move to strawberries at bloom. They insert their eggs in plant tissue at the base of flowers, and in tender, new foliage.

Thrips begin feeding on the seeds and the inner surface of the hull soon after the buds open. As the fruit expands and the seeds separate the thrips feed extensively on the fruit between the seeds. Thrips feed by scraping the surface cells with their mouth-parts and sucking the contents, causing cells to die. With continued feeding, the entire fruit becomes bronzed and may crack along the surface.

Management: Thrips can occasionally build up to damaging levels. Scouting for this insect can be difficult because of their small size. Fruit should be examined when they are very small, 5-10 mm in diameter. Examine under the calyx for presence of thrips, or place a sample of immature fruit in a zip-lock bag in the sun. This will drive the thrips out so that they can be counted. Canadian researchers indicate that more than 25 thrips per 50 sampled fruit will result in unacceptable levels of fruit damage (see Table 21 below). Several insecticides labeled for use on strawberries are effective on thrips. Consult the product labels.

Table 22. Guidelines for thrips in strawberries
Characteristic Definition
Sample Size 50 fruit/acre
Sample Time Early fruit maturity stage
(5-10 mm diameter)
Suggested Limits 25 thrips/50 fruit for PYO
5 thrips/50 fruit for shipping berries
2 thrips/berry = 20% damage

Leaf Damaging Insects and Mites

Strawberry Leafrollers (Ancylis comptana fragariae): The immature stage (larvae) of these insects damages strawberry leaves. They are small green or bronze caterpillars up to 1/2” long at maturity. They occur in the field prior to bloom and in mid- to late July. Larvae are first found on the undersides of leaves in silken covers, then on upper sides of leaves that have been folded or rolled and tied with silken threads.

Management: Remove and destroy rolled leaves. If infestation is severe, a pre- or post-bloom spray application may be needed. Timing will depend on when larvae are present. In Southern New England they occur in mid-May so a pre-bloom insecticide spray is recommended.

Twospotted Spider Mite (Tetranychus urticae): Twospotted spider mites (TSSM) are very small (1/50”), 6- or 8-legged creatures that feed on strawberry foliage. Under heavy infestations, mite feeding destroys leaf chlorophyll and causes leaves to have yellowish or whitish speckles, then an overall bronze color. Leaves will be covered in a fine webbing. Yield reductions may occur from repeated heavy infestations. The most serious reductions in yield may result from early season feeding, so scouting for overwintered mites in early May is especially important.

Twospotted spider mites are found on the underside of leaves, are barely visible to the naked eye, and are especially active during hot, dry months. Mites generally form colonies and may be most noticeable by the webbing that they produce around their aggregations, which may occur as localized “hotspots” in the field. Therefore, when looking for mites, the grower must look over the whole field, checking first for bronzing and then looking for mites with a hand lens. Overwintered female TSSM mites are easily seen because they are orange-colored.

Management. Mites should be monitored weekly by sampling the field in 5 to 10 locations. Five to ten leaves should be sampled at each location for a total of 60 leaves. Examine the underside of the leaves for the presence or absence of TSSM. Record the information on a field map so that “hot spots” can be identified and treated. A miticide application is recommended if 25% (i.e., 15 leaves) or more of a 60 leaf sample is infested with TSSM. See pest management schedule for recommended materials and timing.

Natural predators exist which feed on two-spotted spider mites. One such predator, also a mite (Neoseiulus fallacis), is native to the northeast and often maintains TSSM populations at non-damaging levels. It is equally small but lacks the two spots on its back, is teardrop shaped, shiny, and pale yellow in color. They are also easily distinguished from TSSM by their rapid movement across a leaf in search of prey; (they resemble bumper cars moving forward and backward as they search for food). When sampling a field, presence of predators as well as TSSM should be noted.

Several companies sell predatory mites, including N. fallacis, for release in various crops. However, the benefit of releasing commercially reared mites has not been demonstrated in the northeast, where natural populations of N. fallacis are pervasive. It is important to encourage natural enemies of spider mites by reducing the use of broad-spectrum pesticides (especially carbamate and pyrethroid insecticides) which harm natural enemies. One strategy that has worked exceptionally well has been the early-season use of 1% oil with a mist blower. This inexpensive treatment is highly selective: it kills TSSM, but not predatory mites. The resulting imbalance between predators and TSSM allows predators to “mop-up” the remaining TSSM. Please note that oil-incompatible pesticides should not be applied prior to the oil spray. See the table at the end of this guide for toxicity of pesticides to beneficial insects. See resource listing in the Appedices of this publication for for sources for natural enemies such as predatory mites.

Cyclamen Mite (Steneotarsonemus pallidus): This soft-bodied mite is orange-pink, white, or green and about 1/100” long. These mites feed on the unfolding leaves in the crown of the plant, leading to distorted, purplish leaves, and buds that fail to open. Cyclamen mite is not as common as two-spotted mite in strawberries and has been known to come in on nursery stock. It is, therefore, important to buy plants from a reputable source. The mites are very small and a 15X or higher hand lens is needed to see them. Mites are most commonly found on tiny, unfolded leaves down in the crown. Look for small translucent, cigar-shaped mites.

Management: See pest management schedule for recommended materials and timing. Materials should be applied with high rates of water and a spreader to carry the chemical down into the crowns.

Strawberry Aphids (Chaetosiphon spp.): There are several species of aphids that infest strawberries. Adults are small (1/16” long), soft-bodied insects. Aphids occur on new shoots, undersides of leaves, and on buds while they are still in crown. Root aphids have been found on rare occasions. Aphids are primary vectors of virus diseases, transmiting viruses from infected to non-infected plants. Monitoring and management efforts should be undertaken when viruses are known to be a problem in the region. When present in great numbers, aphid feeding can result in stunted, malformed plants.

Management: See pest management schedule for recommended materials and timing.

Leafhoppers (Empoasca fabae): Leafhoppers are small (1/8”), green, bullet-shaped insects which take flight quickly if disturbed. The nymphs are lighter colored and do not fly. They are easily identified by their habit of moving sideways when disturbed. Leafhoppers feed primarily on the underside of strawberry leaves, causing them to yellow between the veins and become curled and distorted. These symptoms are often mistaken for herbicide injury. Feeding activity is most serious during the late spring and early summer, and is often first noted in new plantings. They reduce vigor and runner production. Insecticides should be applied only when large populations of nymphs are noted on the leaves or symptoms become apparent.

Management: See pest management schedule for recommended materials and timing.

Spittlebug (Philaenus spumaris): Hidden beneath masses of white frothy spittle are soft-bodied, tan and green, elongate bugs about 1/8-1/4” long. These insects feed on stems and blossom clusters before and during bloom. Heavy feeding activity results in reduced plant vigor and decreased yield. Early season feeding can result in stunted, off-color plants; damage appears much like that caused by cyclamen mites.

Management: Spittlebug seldom does significant damage to the plants. It is mainly a problem because customers are bothered by the froth in the field when picking. Often heavy rains and/or irrigation will wash froth from plants. This insect tends to be more of a problem in weedy fields. Insecticide applications early in the season (e.g., for tarnished plant bug) are usually adequate for keeping this insect in check. Recommended action threshold is one spittle mass per foot of row. See pest management schedule for recommended materials and timing.

Cutworms: The immature stage (larvae) of these insects causes feeding injury to plants. Larvae may reach 2” long at maturity. Color and arrangement of stripes and spots varies from one species of cutworm to another, but are often mottled or dingy gray. Cutworms may be observed on plants at night during spring and summer. Larvae consume leaves, stems, buds, flowers, and developing fruit.

Management: Consult with your Cooperative Extension Specialist for management options.

Root Damaging Insects

Root-feeding insects can cause above-ground symptoms that are similar to root diseases: general loss of vigor and collapse during dry weather. Where damage is suspected, plants can be dug with a spade to examine roots and to check soil for the presence of root-feeding insects.

Strawberry Rootworm (Paria canella): The adult form of this insect are beetles that are small (1/8”), round, and copper-colored with a dark markings on their backs. The immature root-feeding grubs are also small (1/8”), creamy white in color with 3 pairs of legs, and are actively feeding on roots in the late spring to early summer. The new generation of adults appears after renovation (late July to early August).

This insect can be most easily observed in the field as adult beetles feeding on leaves. Feeding occurs at two times during the growing season (May, and July-August), and results in small shot-holes in the leaves. The second feeding period usually is more evident because a greater number of beetles are feeding then. The earlier feeding is done by the overwintering population.

Management: As with all the root-feeding insects, control of the root-feeding stage is very difficult. Therefore, control measures for strawberry rootworm should be directed toward the adult stage of the insects. Presence of adults can be detected by feeding injury or direct sightings of the adult beetles in the field. Sticky traps used for monitoring tarnished plant bug may aid in sighting strawberry rootworm adults since they feed primarily at night. Some of these beetles find their way onto the traps.

If feeding injury is observed in May or June, an insecticide spray at this time will reduce the number of egg laying females and therefore, the number of grubs feeding during the summer. When the next generation of adults emerges in July or August, control measures may be needed again.

No threshold is established for this insect. Feeding injury, as with all the root-feeding insects, is most damaging if root diseases (i.e. black root rot) are also present. Therefore, it is advisable to keep the root-feeding population low. See pest management schedule for recommended materials
and timing.

Root Weevils (Otiorhynchus spp., Polydrusus spp.): There are several rootfeeding weevils that are damaging to strawberries; black vine weevil (Otiorhynchus sulcatus) strawberry root weevil (O. ovatus), and the rough strawberry root weevil (O. rugosostriatus) are the best known. Additionally, green leaf weevils, (Polydrusus spp.) have also been found feeding on strawberries in Massachusetts and Connecticut.

These insects damage strawberries primarily through larval feeding inside the crown and on the root system, which weakens the plants. Root feeding is especially damaging where root diseases are also present. The grubs are whitish and crescent shaped, ranging in size from 1/4” to 1/2”. They have no legs. Adult weevils feed on leaves from May through August, causing notching of the leaf margins. Adults in heavily infested fields can contaminate harvested berries. Adult feeding generally does not cause serious injury unless plants are already weakened. Under heavy infestation by root weevils, the plants decline, appear stunted and bear poorly. Infestations are generally in patches in the field.

Management: The easiest time to detect weevil activity is during harvest. Randomly pick 100 leaves from each field and count the number that have feeding notches along the margin. Greater than 50% leaf notching may indicate the need for control measures. Confirm the presence and species of weevils involved by observing them at night with a flashlight. The easiest time to detect root injury from larval feeding (and from other root disorders) is in the autumn. The foliage of plants with poor root systems turns orange-red earlier than healthy plants. Plants should also be examined in the spring if patches of poor vigor are noticed. Lift a section of row with a spade and examine the roots within a 6” layer of soil. If grubs are found, insect pathogenic nematodes should be applied in early May or late August. Be sure to keep the field irrigated during periods of active growth to avoid stress on the plants.

Predatory nematodes attack root weevil grubs in the soil. Although populations of these nematodes naturally occur, application of commercially produced nematodes can achieve faster biological control. See resource listing in the appendices at the end of this guide for sources of beneficial insects.   Available species useful against root weevils include Steinernema carpocapsae, S. feltiae, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, and H. marelatus. The Heterorhabditis spp. have the ability to penetrate insect cuticle, which facilitates infection of white grubs. The cost and quality of nematodes can vary widely, so talk to your Small Fruit Specialist to find out more about different products. A banded spray may be very cost effective compared with application through overhead irrigation. Nematodes application should be preceded and followed with irrigation. Protect them from sunlight by applying them in the evening. BrigadeTM (IRAC 3A) is now registered to control the adults, before they lay eggs. Controlling root weevil adults requires the highest labeled rate, and is best applied at night when adults are active. This material can induce spider mite outbreaks, and may kill beneficial root weevils predators. The systemic insecticide, Platinum™ (IRAC 4A), is registered for use as a soil drench in the spring or late summer to control grubs. See pest management schedule for recommended timing and rates.

White Grubs of Asiatic Garden Beetle, European Chafer, Japanese Beetle, and Oriental Beetle: (Maladera castanea, Rhizotrogus majalis, Popillia japonica, and Exomala orientalis): Many growers have recently experienced leaf and root damage from these scarab beetles, collectively also called white grubs. Root feeding by larvae dramatically weakens the plants, especially where the root systems already suffer from diseases like black root rot. All of these species overwinter as a grub in the soil, emerging in late May through July in the Northeast. The adult Japanese beetle is copper-brown and -green in color and approximately 1/2” long.

They are often found feeding during the day on leaves in small groups. Asiatic garden beetles (AGB) are small (3/8”) and a velvety cinnamon brown color, showing a faint green iridescence in the sunlight. AGB feed at night on the foliage and hide during the day under plants. Feeding by Japanese beetle or AGB is easily distinguished from root weevil feeding because these scarabs principally skeletonize leaves (making holes within the leaves), rather than notching the leaf edge. Leaf feeding typically occurs in June through mid-August. Oriental beetle and European chafer adults are rarely observed because they do not feed much. Oriental beetles are slightly smaller than Japanese beetles, and are usually tan and mottled with darker spots. European chafers are slightly more than 1/2” long and are a uniform tan.

The larvae (or grubs) of these insects look quite similar to one another and are called white grubs. They are c-shaped, have 3 pairs of legs, grow up to 1 inch long. They are easily distinguished from the larvae of root weevils, which have no legs. White grubs are very difficult to manage after a strawberry bed has been planted.

It is unknown how much leaf feeding can be tolerated, but if leaf area is greatly reduced it could affect the following year’s flower bud formation, which is initiated in the fall. Large numbers of beetles are of concern, especially if it increases the amount of overwintering grubs. High populations of larvae can be expected the autumn and spring following a dry summer, especially where strawberry fields are surrounded by turf. These conditions favor movement of adults into strawberry fields to lay eggs.

Management: Management of grubs in the soil is possible with insecticides, and predatory nematodes may also have some value.  Chemical control of adult beetles can prevent extensive leaf damage, but is not guaranteed to prevent egg laying. Traps with combination pheromone and floral scent lures are commercially available for Japanese beetle, but their placement near strawberries may actually attract more beetles to the area. Therefore, if traps are used, they should be placed at least 20 yards from the strawberry field.

Milky spore disease is a commercially available bacterium that is incorporated into the ground and attacks Japanese beetle grubs. However, soil temperatures in the northeast are too cool for this disease to easily become established, which makes it impractical for our area.

To avoid the risk of white grub problems, do not plant on newly turned sod land. Rather, plow the field, let it lie fallow or in a rotational cover crop such as Sudan, buckwheat, or a salable crop such as pumpkins or squash for at least one season prior to planting with strawberries. Also, avoid siting a strawberry field next to large grassy fields which would be a source of these beetles. Control grassy weeds within the planting, which are especially attractive to egg-laying Japanese beetles and European chafers.

Other Pests

Slugs: Slugs are dark grey, black, yellow-gray or brown worm-like mollusks. They may also be covered with spots and range in size from 1-1/2 to 4” long. Slugs feed mainly at night, eating ragged holes in leaves and/or fruit. They also leave a trail of slime in their paths. Damage occurs primarily on fruit.

Management: Slugs thrive in moist places. If mulch is very thick and rows close together, slugs will be favored. Try to open things up a bit by removing excessive mulch and planting at lower densities which also helps manage diseases. Some growers have used diatomaceous earth for slug control. Research results are not available to verify the effectiveness of this material. Baits are also available but are not considered highly effective according to some growers. Consult with your Extension Specialist if you need help with this pest.

Garden Symphylan, (Scutigerella immaculata):The garden symphylan, also known as the garden centipede, is an occasional but very destructive pest of strawberries. Symphylans are not insects but are more closely related to centipedes and millipedes. They have 12 pairs of legs and 14 body segments. Symphylans overwinter in the soil as adults. In spring they move into the top 6 inches when the soil temperature rises above 45°F.

Eggs are deposited in soil crevices and tunnels in late April, May, and June. The eggs hatch two to three weeks later into tiny, white nymphs that resemble the adults in appearance except they have only six pairs of legs. As the nymphs develop, they grow bigger and add a pair of legs at each molt until they have 12 pairs. About three months are required to complete development from egg to adult. The adults remain in the upper 6 inches of soil until extreme dryness or cold weather drives them deeper into the soil. Mature symphylans are white, slightly less than l/4 inch inlength, with a pair of long beaded antennae. Their entire life(one to two years) is spent in the soil.

Garden symphylans feed on the roots of strawberry plants, weakening or killing them. Infestations seldom encompass an entire field, but rather involve one or more small areas within a field. Usually, the first indication of a symphylan infestation is a small area of stunted, unhealthy plants. Crop losses continue in the same area of the field year after year, with the infected area increasing in size about 10–20 feet each year.

Management: It is best to control symphylans before the crop is planted or at the time of planting. To check for symphylans, turn over at least 10 shovelfuls of soil. Sift the soil while looking for active symphylans. An average of one symphylan per shovelful signals that a treatment is necessary before planting. If symphylans are abundant, an insecticide should be broadcast and incorporated into the soil of the infested area before planting takes place.

Table 23. Efficacy of common insecticides and miticides used in strawberries.
Insecticide/
Miticide
IRAC
Groupa
Active Ingredient Aphids Brown marmorated stink bug Clipper Cyclamen
Mite
Leaf-
hoppers
Leaf-
rollers
Root Weevils Slugs Sap
Beetles
Spider Mites Spittle-
bug
Spotted wing drosophila Tarnished Plant Bug White Grubs
Acramite 20D bifenazate -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- +++ -- -- -- --
Actara 4A thiamethoxam +++ -- -- -- +++ -- ++ -- -- -- -- -- ++% --
Admire Pro 4A imidacloprid +++ ++ -- ++ +++ -- -- -- -- -- -- + -- +++
Agree 11A Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. aizawai 0 0 0 0 0 ++ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
*Agri-Mek 6 abamectin -- -- -- ++ ++ -- -- -- -- ++& -- -- -- --
Assail 4A acetamiprid ++ -- -- -- -- ++ -- -- + ++& -- +++ ++ --
Aza-Direct UN azadirachtin + -- -- + -- -- 0 -- -- + -- 0 -- --
Azera 3, UN azadirachtin, pyrethrins + -- -- -- + -- -- -- -- + -- +    
Beleaf 29 flonicamid +++ ++ -- -- ++ -- -- -- -- -- -- -- ++ --
*Bifenture 3 bifenthrin +++ ++ +++ -- ++ ++ ++ -- +++ +& +++ +++ +++ ++
*Brigade 3 bifenthrin +++ ++ +++ -- ++ ++ ++ -- +++ +& +++ +++ +++ --
Closer 4C sulfoxaflor +++ ++ -- -- +++ -- -- -- -- -- -- -- ++ --
Coragen 28 chlorantraniliprole -- -- -- -- -- -- ++ -- -- -- -- -- -- ++
Courier 16 buprofezin ++ -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
*Danitol 3 fenpropathrin ++ ++ +++ -- ++ +++ ++ -- ++ +& +++ +++ +++ --
Deadline slugcide metaldehyde -- -- -- -- -- -- -- +++ -- -- -- -- -- --
Deliver 11 Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. kurstaki -- -- -- -- -- ++ -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
Des-X UN potassium salts ++ -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- + -- -- -- --
*Diazinon 1B diazinon +++ -- -- + + ++ + -- ++ +& ++ +++ + ++
*Dibrom 1B naled ++ -- -- -- -- -- -- -- ++ -- -- -- -- --
Dipel 11 Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. kurstaki -- -- -- -- -- ++ -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
Entrust 5 spinosad -- -- -- -- -- ++ -- -- -- -- -- +++ -- --
Esteem 7C pyriproxyfen ++ -- -- -- -- +++ -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
Exirel 28 cyantraniliprole ++ + -- -- + + +++ -- + -- -- -- + +++
Grandevo UN Chromobacterium subtsugae -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
Intrepid 18 methoxyfenozide -- -- -- -- -- ++ -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
JMS Stylet Oil UN mineral oil -- -- -- + -- -- -- -- -- ++ -- -- -- --
Kanemite 20 acequinocyl -- -- -- ++ -- -- -- -- -- +++ -- -- -- --
*Lorsban 1B chlorpyrifos ++ -- +++ -- -- + -- -- -- -- -- -- ++ ++
Malathion 1B malathion +++ ++ -- -- ++ -- -- -- + -- ++ ++ ++ --
Molt-X UN azadirachtin -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
M-Pede UN potassium salts of fatty acids ++ -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- + -- -- -- --
Nealta 25 cyflumetofen -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- ++ -- -- -- --
Neemix UN azadirachtin -- -- -- -- -- -- 0 -- -- -- -- 0 -- --
NemaShield HB   Heterorhabditis bacteriophora -- -- -- -- -- -- + -- -- -- -- -- -- +
Oberon 23 spiromesifen -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- +++ -- -- -- --
Platinum 4A thiamethoxam +++ -- -- -- +++ -- ++ -- -- -- -- -- -- --
Portal 21A fenpyroximate -- -- -- ++ -- -- -- -- -- +++ -- -- -- --
Pyganic 3 pyrethrins + -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- + -- --
Pyrenone 3 pyrethrins + -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- + -- --
Radiant 5 spinetoram -- -- -- -- -- +++ -- -- -- -- -- +++ -- --
Savey 10 hexythiazox -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- +++# -- -- -- --
Sevin 1A carbaryl +++ -- + -- ++ + -- -- ++ -- ++ -- ++ --
Sluggo   iron phosphate -- -- -- -- -- -- -- +++ -- -- -- -- -- --
SuffOil-X UN mineral oil -- -- -- + -- -- -- -- -- ++ -- -- -- --
Trilogy UN neem oil + -- -- + -- -- -- -- -- + -- -- -- --
Vendex 12B febutatin-oxide -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- ++ -- -- -- --
Venerate UN Burkholderia spp. -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
Verdepryn 110SL 28 cyclaniliprole -- supression -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- ++
Zeal 10 etoxazole -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- +++# -- -- -- --

0=not effective, +=poor, ++=good, +++=excellent, --=insufficient data

Products with the same IRAC group number act by the same mode of action. Repeated use of the same mode of action should be avoided, in order to avoid reductions in pesticide efficacy via development of chemical resistance in the pest population. For more on information on managing pesticide resistance, go to www.irac-online.org.

*Restricted use material; pesticide applicators license required.    OMRI listed for organic production; go to www.omri.org for details.  & Potential negative effects on predatory mites.   % Moderate effect on nymphs, but little or no effect on adult form.   # Effective on eggs and immatures, but little or no effect on adult form.

Always read the label for important restrictions or warnings about tank mix compatibility or phytotoxicity warnings.

 

Table 24. Strawberry Pest Management Table

Table 24. Strawberry pest management table.
For resistance management do not make more than 2 sequential applications of fungicides in the same FRAC group or insecticides in the same IRAC group. See product labels or RAC column in this table for groups.
Pest RAC
Group
Spray Material, Rate/A
(pre harvest interval PHI)
Cultural Practices and
Scouting Notes
Comments
Establishment Year - at planting
Red Stele
(Phytophthora spp.)
FRAC
P07
P07
BM02
 
BM02
 
Aliette WDG, 2.5 lb/100 (1)
Phostrol, 2.5 pt/100 (-)
RootShield PLUS Granules, 2.5-6.0 lb/half acre in-furrow (0)
RootShield PLUS WP, 16-32 oz in-furrow or transplant starter solution; 3-8 oz/100 gal in field chemigation (0)
 
Use as preplant dip; soak roots and crowns for 15 - 30 minutes and plant within 24 hrs.
All RootShield formulations should be used preventively.
Black Root Rot
FRAC
11
 
19
BM02
 
 
BM02
 
BM02
 
BM02
 
 
BM02
BM02
 
 
 
Abound, 0.40-0.80 fl oz/1000 rowfeet banded or in-furrow
Ph-D, 6.2 oz (0)
RootShield WP, 16-32 oz in-furrow or transplant starter solution (0); 3-5 oz/100 gal for field chemigation (0)
RootShield Granules, 2.5-6.0 lb/ half acre in-furrow (0)
RootShield PLUS Granules, 2.5-6.0 lb/half acre in-furrow (0)
RootShield PLUS WP, 16-32 oz in-furrow or transplant starter solution; 3-8 oz/100 gal in field chemigation (0)
Double Nickel LC, 0.5-6 qt (0)
Double Nickel 55 WDG, 0.25-3 lb (0)
 
Abound should be applied at planting.
All RootShield formulations should be used preventively.
Ph-D is recommended to target the root rot Cylindrocarpon spp.
Double Nickel can supress Rhizoctonia, Fusararium and Pythium, fungi associated with black root rot.
Aphids
IRAC
4A
3, UN
4A
4D
 
Admire Pro, 10.5-14 oz (14)
Azera, 1.0 to 3.5 pt (0)
Platinum, 5-12 oz (50)
Sivanto Prime, 7 to 10.5 oz (0)
 
Admire Pro should be applied just prior to or during transplating.
White Grubs, Leafhoppers, Strawberry Root Weevils
IRAC
4A
N/A
 
Platinum, 5-12 oz (50)
NemaShield HB, 1 billion nematodes (0)
 
Apply nematodes in early- to mid-May or mid- to late-August as a band treatment. Application rates are given for the treated area. Irrigate prior to and following the nematode spray.
Establishment Year - as needed throughout the growing season
Two-Spotted Spider Mites (TSSM)
IRAC
20D
6
3
3
3
20B
25
23
21A
10A
12B
10B



 
 
Acramite 50WS, 0.75-1 lb (1)
*Agri–Mek 0.15EC, 16 oz (3)
*Bifenture 10DF, 16-32 oz (0)
*Brigade WSB, 16-32 oz (0)
*Danitol 2.4EC, 16-21 oz (2)
Kanemite 15SC, 21-31oz (1)
Nealta, 13.7 oz (1)
Oberon 2SC, 12-16 oz (3)
Portal, 2 pt (1)
Savey 50DF, 6 oz (3)
Vendex 50WP, 1.5-2 lb (1)
Zeal 2-3 oz (1)
Des-X Insecticidal Soap, 2% sol (0)
JMS Stylet Oil, 3 qts (0)
SuffOil-X, 1-2 gal (0)
Trilogy (Neem) 1-2% sol (0)
Predatory mite release,
rate varies (0)
Do not overfertilize with nitrogen as this stimulates higher mite populations.
Scout for presence of TSSM by randomly sampling 60 leaves from whole field.
Treat field with miticide or release mite predators if TSSM are found on more than 25% of leaves sampled.
Consult your Extension Specialist for help identifying mite predators and/or finding a source of predators for release.
Good spray coverage, especially on the underside of leaves is important for successful control. Use adequate gallonage and sufficient pressure to achieve good spray coverage.
Repeat applications may be needed for successful control.
Apply Portal in a minimum of 25 gals. of water per acre.
Savey and Zeal are effective on eggs and immatures and not adults so are best used when infestation levels are low.
Apply Nealta at first sign of mites, before population increases.
 
Aphids
IRAC
4A
4A
4A
3, UN
3
UN
UN
3
UN
4A
3
4D
UN


18
UN
3

 
 
Actara, 1.5-3 oz (3)
Admire Pro, 10.5-14 oz soil (14)
Admire Pro, 1.3 oz foliar (7)
Azera, 1.0 to 3.5 pt (0)
*Bifenture 10DF, 6.4-32 oz (0)
BotaniGard 22WP, 0.5-2 lb (0)
BotaniGard ES, 0.5-2 qt (0)
*Brigade WSB, 16-32 oz (0)
Molt-X, 8-10 oz (0)
Platinum, 5-12 oz (50)
Pyrenone WSB, 13-32 oz (0)
Sivanto Prime, 7 to 10.5 oz (0)
Aza-Direct, 16-56 oz (0)
Des-X insecticidal soap, 2% sol (0)
Mycotrol O, 0.25-1 qt (0)
Neemix 0.24-1 pt (0)
PFR-97 20 WDG, 1-2 lb (0)
Pyganic EC, 1-4 pt (0)
SuffOil-X, 1-2 gal (0)
Trilogy, 1-2% sol (0)
Scout fields for presence and treat only if significant infestation is found. Spot treatments may be sufficient in many cases.
Admire Pro and Platinum are systemic materials - make soil application or through drip irrigation. Admire Pro can also be applied to foliage at lower rate.
 
Leafhoppers
IRAC
4A
UN
UN
16
1B
UN
4A
21A
1A


UN
 
Assail 30 SG, 1.9-4.0 oz (1)
BotaniGard22WP, 0.5-2 lb (0)
BotaniGard ES, 0.5-2 qt (0)
Courier SC, 9 to 13.6 oz (3)
Malathion 57EC, 1.5-3 pt (3)
Molt-X, 8-10 oz (0)
Platinum, 5-12 oz (50)
Portal, 2 pt (1)
Sevin 4F, 1-2 qt (7)
Des-X Insecticidal Soap, 2% sol (0)
M-Pede, 2.0% solution (0)
Mycotrol, .25-1 qt (0)
Scout fields for leafhopper damage; distorted leaf shape; reflexed leaf growth.
Apply only if symptoms observed.
Apply Portal in a minimum of 25 gals. of water per acre.
 
Apply Courier in at least 80 gals of water/A when populations reach threshold of 1 nymph/leaf sampled. 
Leaf Spot
FRAC
M01
M01
11
M4
M4
3,9
7,11
3
3
7,11
 
Badge SC, 1-2.5 pt (0)
Badge X2, 0.75-1.25 lb (0)
Cabrio EG, 12-14 oz (0)
Captan 50W, 6 lb (0)
Captec 4L, 3 qt (0)
Inspire Super EW, 16-20 fl oz (0)
Merivon, 4-7 oz (0)
Mettle 125 ME, 3-5 oz, (0)
Nova/Rally 40W, 2.5-5.0 oz (0)
Pristine, 18.5-23 oz (0)
 
Apply only if symptoms observed.
Both Badge SC and X2 require 48 hr REI.
Begin applications of Merivon no later than 10% bloom, or prior to disease development and continue on a 7 to 14 day interval. Use the shorter interval and/or higher rate when disease pressure is high. 
Powdery Mildew
FRAC
1,M4
 
 
M01
M01
11
BM02
BM01
3, 9
7
M02
7,11
3
19
19
7,11
3
13
3
NC
U6
BM02
BM02
NC
NC
M2
NC
P05
BM02
NC
M2
UN
 
Topsin-M 70WP, 8 oz (1) plus Captan 50WP, 3-4 lb (0)
Or, use alone:
Badge SC, 1-2.5 pt (0)
Badge X2, 0.75-1.25 lb (0)
Cabrio EG, 12-14 oz (0)
CEASE, 3-6 qt/100 gal (0)
Fracture, 20.5 to 36.6 oz (1)
Inspire Super EW, 16-20 fl oz (0)
Kenja 400 SC,  13.5-15.5 fl oz (0)
Kumulus, 5-10 lb (0)
Merivon, 4-7 oz (0)
Mettle 125 ME, 3-5 fl oz (0)
OSO 5% SC, 6.5 oz (0)
Ph-D, 6.2 oz (0)
Pristine, 18.5-23 oz (0)
Procure 50WS, 4-8 oz (1)
Quintec, 4-6 oz (1)
Rally 40W, 2.5-5 oz (0)
Rendition, 1 to 3 pt (0)
Torino, 3.4 oz (0)
Double Nickel LC, 0.65-6 qt (0)
Double Nickel 55 WDG, 0.25-3 lb (0)
JMS Stylet Oil, 3 qt (0)
Kaligreen, 2.5-3 lb (1)
Microthiol, 6-15 lb (0)
MilStop SP, 2.5-5 lb (0)
Regalia, 1-4 qt (0)
Serenade, 2-6 qt (0)
SuffOil-X, 1-2 gal/100 gal (0)
Thiolux, 5-10 lb (0)
Trilogy, 1% solution (0)
Plant beds in such a way as to maximize the air circulation and drying of foliage. Avoid excess nitrogen fertilization.

Some cultivars are more susceptible to powdery mildew than others. See Table 22 for susceptibility rating.
Cultivars vary in their susceptibility to powdery mildew.
Captan has a 0 day phi, but the REI of 24 hrs requires that PPE be worn during this period.
Apply Torino in a minimum of 20 gals. of water per acre.
Begin application of Serenade for suppresion of powdery mildew at or before flowering and repeat every 7-10 days or as needed through harvest. For improved performance, use in a tank mix or rotational program with other registered fungicides for powdery mildew control. 
Begin application of Kaligreen at first sign of  disease.
Both Badge SC and XE require 48 hr REI. 
CEASE is labelled for greenhouse/hightunnel production only. Requires 4 REI.
MilStop SP can be used preventatively and as a curative in early disease development. 
Begin applications of Merivon no later than 10% bloom, or prior to disease development and continue on a 7 to 14 day interval. Use the shorter interval and/or the higher rate when disease pressure is high. 
Do not make more than 2 sequential applications of Fracture before alternating with a different chemsitry.
 
Fruiting Years - Early Spring (new leaves are expanding and blossom buds visible)
Cyclamen Mite
IRAC
21A
 
 
Portal 2 pt (1)
 
Scout fields by looking for areas where the plants are slightly stunted and leaves are somewhat distorted or crinkled. Scout fields again in late summer for return populations.
Use high volume directed spray to ensure penetration of spray material into plant crowns for optimal control.
Apply Portal in a minimum of 200-300 gals. of water per acre plus adjuvant.
 
Strawberry Bud Weevil (clipper)
IRAC
3
3
3
1B
1A
3
3
 
*Bifenture 10DF, 6.4-32 oz (0)
*Brigade WSB, 6.4-32oz (0)
*Danitol 2.4EC, 16-21 oz (2)
*Lorsban 4E, 1 qt (21)
Sevin 50WP, 2-4lb (7)
PyGanicEC, 1.4oz (0)
Pyrenone WSB, 13-32oz (0)
Scout field perimiter especially near woods or hedgerows for incoming populations. Begin scouting prior to bud expansion and bloom and continue through petal fall. Spot treatments can be made if infestation is localized to field perimeter.
See text on bud weevil for thresholds.
All of these insecticides are toxic to mite predators.
Lorsban can only be used pre-bloom and is limited to two applications per season.Follow-up first spray with a second spray 10-14 days later.
Tarnished Plant Bug
only
IRAC
4A
3
3
4C
3
1B
UN
15
 
Assail 30 SG, 4.0-6.9 oz (1)
*Bifenture 10DF, 6.4-32 oz (0)
*Brigade WSB, 6.4-32oz (0)
Closer SC, 2.75 - 4.5 fl oz (1)
*Danitol 2.4 EC, 10.6 oz (2)
*Dibrom 8EC, 1 pt (1)
Molt-X, 8-10 oz (0)
Rimon 0.83 EC, 6 to 12 oz (1)
Brigade & Bifenture, with 0 days to harvest (12 hr REI), and Dibrom, with only a 1 day harvest interval may be very useful for day neutral varieties.
Use Captiva to repel or suppress plant bugs.
Molt-X and Rimon are a molting disrupters; they will not control adult stages
Tarnished Plant Bug and Spittlebug
IRAC
3
1B
3
1B
3, UN
3
3
 
*Brigade WSB, 6.4-32oz (0)
Cythion 8E, 1.5-2 pt (3)
*Danitol 2.4EC, 10.6 oz (2)
Malathion 57EC, 1.5-3 pt (3)
Azera, 1.0 to 3.5 pt (0)
PyGanic EC, 1.4, 16oz (0)
Pyrenone WSB, 13-32 oz (0)
 
Spittlebug
only
IRAC
4A
4A
1A
 
Admire Pro, 1.3 oz (7)
Assail 30 SG, 1.9-4.0 oz (1)
Sevin 50WP, 2-4lb (7)
Spittlebugs generally do not damage fruit but make them less appealing to pickers.
Thrips
IRAC
4A
UN
4C
1B
1B
UN
5
15
3, UN
5
UN
UN
 
Assail 30 SG, 4.0-6.9 oz (1)
BotaniGard ES, 0.5-2 qt (0)
Closer SC, 4.5 oz (1)
*Dibrom 8E, 1 pt (1)
Malathion 8F, 1.5-2 pt (3)
Molt-X, 8-10 oz (0)
Radiant SC, 6-10 oz (1)
Rimon 0.83 EC, 6 to 12 oz (1)
Azera, 1.0 to 3.5 pt (0)
Entrust, 1.25-1.5 oz (0)
Mycotrol O, .25-1 qt (0)
PFR-97 20 WDG, 1-2 lb/a (0)
See text on thrips for details of scouting and sampling methods.
Radiant effectiveness may be improved by addition of an adjuvant to the spray mix.
 
Use Closer to suppress thrips.
Molt-X and Rimon are a molting disrupters; they will not control adult stages
Two-Spotted Spider Mite (TSSM)
IRAC
20D
6
3
3
3
20B
25
23
21A
10A
12B
10B 

 
UN
 
 
Acramite 50W, 12-16 oz (1)
*Agri–Mek 0.15EC, 16 oz (3)
*Bifenture 10DF, 16-32 oz (0)
*Brigade WSB, 16-32 oz (0)
*Danitol 2.4 EC 16-21 oz (2)
Kanemite 15SC, 21-31oz (1)
Nealta, 13.7 oz (1)
Oberon 2SC, 12-16 oz (3)
Portal, 2 pt (1)
Savey 50DF, 6 oz (3)
Vendex 50WP, 1.5-2 lb (1)
Zeal, 2-3 oz (1)
Des-X Insecticidal Soap, 2% sol (0)
JMS Stylet Oil, 3 qts (0)
PFR-97 WDG, 1-2 lb (0)
Trilogy (Neem) 1-2% solution (0)
Predatory mite release, rate varies (0)
Do not overfertilize with nitrogen as this stimulates higher mite populations.
Scout for presence of TSSM by randomly sampling 60 leaves from whole field.
Treat field with miticide or release mite predators if TSSM are found on more than 25% of leaves sampled.
Consult your Extension Specialist for help identifying mite predators and/or finding a source of predators for release.
Good spray coverage, especially on the underside of leaves is important for successful control. Use adequate gallonage and sufficient pressure to achieve good spray coverage.
Repeat applications may be needed for successful control. 
Apply Portal in a minimum of 25 gals. of water per acre.
Savey and Zeal are effective on eggs and immatures and not adults so are best used when infestation levels are low.
Apply Nealta at first sign of mites, before population increases.
 
Leaf Spot
Leaf Scorch
Leaf Blight
FRAC
 
1
 
M4
 
M01
M01
11
M4
7
3
7, 11
3
NC
12
 
Combine:

Topsin-M 70WP, 8 oz (1) 
plus
Captan 50WP, 3 lb (0)
Or, use alone:
Badge SC, 1-2.5 pt (0)
Badge X2 0.75-1.25 lb (0)
Cabrio EG, 12-14 oz (0)
Captan 50WP, 3-6 lb (0)
Merivon, 4-7 oz (0)
Mettle 125 ME, 3-5 fl oz (0)
Pristine, 18.5-23 oz (0)
Rally 40W, 2.5-5 oz (0)
Rendition, 1 to 3 pt (0)
Syllit 65W, 1.5-2 lb (14)
Improve air circulation by narrowing row width, increasing distance between rows, and raising beds. This will allow faster drying after rain, irrigation, and dew.
Remove or thoroughly incorporate leaf debris from field at renovation. This helps disrupt the disease cycle of these fungi.
Avoid excess nitrogen applications that promotes dense foliage and poor air circulation.
Treatment not needed unless infection is severe. Fungicide applications for gray mold will usually manage leaf spots as well.
Captan has a 0 day phi, but the REI of 24 hrs requires that PPE be worn during this period.
Both Badge SC and X2 formulations require a 48 hr REI. 
Red Stele
FRAC
P07
P07
4
BM02
 

 

BM02
 
 
Aliette WDG, 2.5-5 lb (0)
Phostrol, 2.5-5 qt (0)
Ridomil Gold SL, 1 pt (0)
RootShield PLUS WP, 16-32 oz in-furrow spray; 3-8 oz/100 gal in field chemigation (0)
RootShield PLUS Granules, 2.5-6 lb/half acre in-furrow (0)
Early spring or fall applications are recommended for control of red stele.
Use sufficient water to move Ridomil into the root zone. There is no preharvest interval for this application.
Phostrol may be used as a preplant root dip or postplant foliar application. See label for specific instructions.
Spring, Pre-bloom to Early-bloom (from bud expansion to 10% bloom)
Tarnished Plant Bug (TPB)
Spittlebug
 
Same as Early Spring, Pre-bloom treatments shown above.
See text on tarnished plant bug for details of scouting and sampling methods.
DO NOT SPRAY INSECTICIDES DURING BLOOM. In case of an emergency, use only those materials listed as having low toxicity to pollinators (see Tables 65-66).
Strawberry Bud Weevil
 
Same as Early Spring, Pre-bloom treatments shown above.
See text on strawberry bud weevil (clipper) for details of scouting and sampling methods.
Two-Spotted Spider Mite (TSSM)
 
Same as Early Spring, Pre-bloom treatments shown above.
Thrips
 
Same as Early Spring, Pre-bloom treatments shown above.
See text on thrips for details of scouting and sampling methods.
Anthracnose
FRAC
11
11
M4
17,M4
7
7
19
19
7,11
BMO2
19
BM02
BM02
NC
 
Abound F, 6.2-15.4 oz (0)
Cabrio EG, 12-14 oz (0)
Captan 50WP, 6 lb (0)
Captevate WDG, 5.25 lb (0)
Kenja 400 SC,  13.5-15.5 fl oz (0)
Merivon 5.5-8 oz (0)
OSO 5% SC, 6.5 oz (0)
Ph-D, 6.2 oz (0)
Pristine, 12.5-23 oz (0)
Serenade, 2-6 qt (0)
Tavano 5% SC (0)
Double Nickel LC, 0.5-6 qt (0)
Double Nickel 55 WDG, 0.25-3 lb (0)
Trilogy, 1% solution (0)
 
Begin applications of Merivon no later than 10% bloom, or prior to disease development and continue on 7-14 day interval. Use shorter interval and/or the higher rate when disease pressure is high.
Serenade should be applied prior to disease development and repeat on 7-10 intervals or as needed. For improved performance, use in a tank mix or rotational program with other registered fungicides. Thorough coverage is essential. 
Botrytis Gray Mold
FRAC
1
17
 
M4
M3
 
M4
17,M4 BM02
17
BM01
3,9
7
7,11
19
19
7,11
NC
9
9, 12
BM02
BM02
NC
NC
BM02
BM02
NC
Combine either:
Topsin-M 70WP, 8 oz (1)      OR
Elevate 50WDG, 1.5 lb (0) 
plus
Captan 50WP, 3 lb (0)    OR
Thiram 65WP, 5 lb (3)
Or, use alone:
Captan 50WP, 3-6 lb (0)
Captevate 3.5-5.25 lb (0)
CEASE, 3-6 qt/100 gal (0)
Elevate 50WDG, 1.5 lb (0)
Fracture, 20.5 to 36.6 oz (1)
Inspire Super EW, 16-20 fl oz (0)
Kenja 400 SC,  13.5-15.5 fl oz (0)
Merivon, 8-11 oz (0)
OSO 5% SC (0), 3.75 to 13 oz
Ph-D, 6.2 oz (0)
Pristine, 18.5-23 oz (0)
Rendition, 1 to 3 pt (0)
Scala, 18 oz (0)
Switch 62.5WG, 11-14 oz (0)
Double Nickel LC, 1-2 qt (0)
Double Nickel 55 WDG, 0.5-1 lb (0)
JMS Stylet Oil, 3 qts/100 gal (0)
MilStop SP, 2-5 lb (0)
BotryStop 3 lb (0) 
Serenade 2-6 qt (0)
Trilogy, 1% solution (0)
Improve air circulation by narrowing row width, increasing distance between rows, and raising beds. This will allow faster drying after rain, irrigation, and dew.
Remove or thoroughly incorporate leaf debris from field at renovation. This helps disrupt the disease cycle of these fungi.
Avoid excess nitrogen application that promotes dense foliage and poor air circulation.
Blossom protection is the most important component of successful Botrytis control. An early bloom application should be made at 10% bloom and followed up at mid and late bloom if field conditions are wet.
Captan has a 0 day phi, but the REI of 24 hrs requires that PPE be worn during this period.
Be careful about phytotoxicity when using JMS Stylet Oil in proximity to some other materials, especially Captan. Read label carefully before use.
Begin application of Serenade at or before flowering and repeat every 7-10 days or as needed through harvest. For improved performance, use in a tank mix or rotational program with other registered fungicide for Botrytis control.
CEASE is labelled for greenhouse/ high tunnel production only. Has 4 hr REI.
MilStop SP may be used curatively in early disease development or used preventatively.
Do not make more than 2 sequential applications of Fracture before alternating with a different chemistry.
BotryStop: Don't use stomatal flooding or penetrant adjuvant
Bacterial Angular Leaf Spot
FRAC
BM02
M01
NC
NC
M01
M01
M01
BM02
BM02
 
CEASE, 3-6 qt/100 gal (0)
Kocide 3000, 0.75-1.25 lb (0)
Oxidate, 40-120 oz/100 gl water (0)
Rendition, 1 to 3 pt (0)
Badge SC, 1-2.5 pt (0)
Badge X2, 0.75-1.25 lb (0)
Cueva, 2 qt/100 gal (0)
Double Nickel LC, 0.5-6 qt (0)
Double Nickel 55 WDG, 0.25-3 lb (0)
Avoid unneeded overhead irrigation; allow drying time between wetting periods when possible.
Avoid excess nitrogen application that promotes dense foliage and poor air cirulation.
Avoid working in fields when wet.
Apply Kocide in at least 20 gallons water. Use higher rates when conditions favor disease. Discontinue use if signs of crop injury appear.
Spray Oxidate when conditions first appear. Use caution when tank mixing Oxidate with other materials; conduct a compatability test for any combinations.
Both Badge SC and X2 formulations require 48 hr for REI.
CEASE is labelled for greenhouse/high tunnel production only. Has a 4 hr REI. 
Full-bloom (from 10% bloom until no blossoms remain)
Tarnished Plant Bug (TPB)
 
DO NOT SPRAY INSECTICIDES DURING BLOOM TO PROTECT POLLINATORS
Avoid mowing hay or alfalfa in adjacent fields when strawberries are in bloom, since this will drive tarnished plant bugs into nearby stawberry fields.
Two-Spotted Spider Mite (TSSM)
 
Same as Early Spring, Pre-bloom recommendations.
Botrytis Gray Mold
 
Same as Spring, Pre-bloom to early-bloom recommendations.
Bacterial Angular Leaf Spot
FRAC
BM02
M01
NC
NC
M01
M01
M01
BM02
BM02
 
CEASE, 3-6 qt/100 gal (0)
Kocide, 3000, 0.75-1.25 lb (0)
Oxidate, 40-120 oz/100 gl water (0)
Rendition, 1 to 3 pt (0)
 Badge SC, 1-2.5 pt (0)
Badge X2, 0.75-1.25 lb (0)
Cueva, 2 qt/100 gal (0)
Double Nickel LC, 0.5-6 qt (0)
Double Nickel 55 WDG, 0.25-3 lb (0)
 
Avoid excessive overhead irrigation; allow drying time between wetting periods when possible.
Avoid excess nitrogen application that promotes dense foliage and poor air circulation.
Avoid work in fields when wet.
Apply Kocide in at least 20 gallons water. Use higher rates when conditions favor disease. Discontinue use if signs of crop injury appear.
Spray Oxidate when conditions first appear.  Use caution when tank mixing Oxidate with other materials; conduct a compatability test for any combinations.
Both Badge formulations require 48 hr REI. 
CEASE is labelled for greenhouse/hightunnel production only. Has4 hr REI.
Early Summer (Fruit-set to harvest)
Tarnished Plant Bug (TPB)
 
Same as Early spring, Pre-bloom treatments shown above.
See text on tarnished plant bug above for details of scouting and sampling methods.
Sap Beetle
IRAC
4A
3
3
3
1B
1B
3
 
Assail 30 SG, 4.0-6.9 oz (1)
*Bifenture 10DF, 16-32 oz (0)
*Brigade WSB, 6.4-32 oz (0)
*Danitol 2.4 EC, 16-21 oz (2)
*Dibrom 8E, 1 pt (1)
Malathion 57EC, 1.5-3 pt (3)
Pyganic, 16 oz (0)
Keep field free of over-ripe fruit to the extent possible. Prompt renovation can reduce migration into neighboring fields.
Bait baskets with overripe fruit or balls of bread dough at intervals around edges of field to catch beetles as they migrate into the field.
Spittlebug
 
Same as Spring, Pre-bloom to early-bloom recommendations
Botrytis Gray Mold
 
Same as Spring, Pre-bloom to early-bloom recommendations

Do not allow fruit to become over-ripe.
Harvest regularly.

Spray only if weather is wet or very humid during this period to control secondary infections.

If good coverage was made during bloom, further fungicide applications may not be needed.

Pay strict attention to re-entry periods and harvest intervals for materials used.

Anthracnose
 
Same as Spring, Pre-bloom to early bloom recommendations
Leather Rot
FRAC
P07
P07
P07
4
 
Aliette WDG, 2.5-5 lb (0)
Phostrol, 2.5-5 qt (0)
Prophyt, 2-4 pt (0)
Ridomil Gold SL, 1 pt (0)
 
Make sure to maintain a good mulch layer around plants to reduce puddling and splashing around plants from rain or irrigation.
For control of leather rot apply Ridomil Gold during the growing season at fruit-set.
 
Bacterial Angular Leaf Spot
 
 Same as Spring, Pre-bloom to early-bloom recommendations
Leaf Spot
Leaf Scorch
Leaf Blight
 
No fungicides until after renovation
Fungicides are usually not applied at this time for leaf spot diseases. Materials used for Botrytis management should alleviate leaf spot symptoms until after renovation.
Improve air circulation by narrowing row width, increasing distance between rows, and raising beds. This will allow faster drying after rain, irrigation, and dew.
Remove or thoroughly incorporate leaf debris from field at renovation. This helps disrupt the disease cycle of these fungi.
Harvest (within 4 days of harvest through harvest)
Botrytis Gray Mold
 
Same as Spring, Pre-bloom to early-bloom treatments above.
Do not allow fruit to become over-ripe.
Harvest regularly.
If irrigating between harvests, be sure the plants have time to dry prior to nightfall or use drip irrigation to deliver water while keeping foliage dry.
Fungicide applications at this time are for emergency situations. Good coverage at infection periods during bloom should make late season sprays unnecessary.
Be sure to follow label instructions for both REI and PHI restrictions.
Anthracnose
 
Same as Spring, Pre-bloom to early bloom recommendations.
Two-Spotted Spider Mite (TSSM)
 
Same as Early Spring, Pre-bloom recommendations.
Slugs
 
Deadline M-Ps, 10-40 lbs
Sluggo, 24-44 lb (0)
Mulching can promote slug populations
Apply in mid-September to reduce egg-laying. Apply prior to fruit ripening to reduce new generation. Avoid contamination of edible plant parts.
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (BMSB)
IRAC
4A
3
3
3
1B
UN
 
 
Admire Pro, 1.3 oz (7)
*Bifenture 10DF, 6.4-32 oz (0)
*Brigade WSB, 6.4-32 oz (0)
*Danitol 2.4EC, 10.6 oz (2)
Malathion 57EC, 1.5-3 pt (3)
Molt-X, 8-10 oz (0)
Surround WP, 12.5-50 lb (0)
 
As of 2012, brown marmorated stink bugs have been found in all New England states but have not become a problem in strawberries yet.
Spotted Wing Drosophila
(SWD)
IRAC
4A
3
3
3
1B
5
 
Assail 30 SG, 4.0-6.9 oz (1)
*Bifenture 10DF, 6.4-32 oz (0)
*Brigade WSB, 6.4-32 oz (0)
*Danitol 2.4EC, 10.6 oz (2)
Malathion 57EC, 1.5-3 pts (3)
Radiant, 6-10 oz (1)
Flies emerge in late summer. Monitor with traps baited with apple cider vinegar and/or fermenting yeast. Fine screening  (less than 1 mm) can act as a barrier for small plantings.
Day-neutral strawberries are most threatened. Remove all waste fruit from field.
Summer (post-harvest)
Strawberry Root Worm; adult
IRAC
1A
 
Sevin 50WP, 2-4 lb (7)
Scout field for ‘shot-hole’ feeding injury on leaves. If found, look in duff around plants for small copper-colored beetle.
Apply post harvest only when foliar damage is noticed and beetles positively identified.
Larvae feed on roots causing general loss of vigor and possible collapse of plant.
Root Weevils (various)
IRAC
4A
3
UN
UN
3
4A
UN
 
N/A
N/A
N/A
 
Actara, 4 oz, (3)
*Bifenture 10DF, 8-32 oz (0)
BotaniGard 22WP, 0.5-2 lb (0)
BotaniGard ES, 0.5-2 qt (0)
*Brigade WSB, 8-32 oz (0)
Platinum, 5-12 oz (50)
Mycotrol, 0.25-1 qt (0)
Exhibit 2.5 - 5 gals/1000 sq. ft.
Steinernema spp., 3 billion/A (0)
Heterorhabditis spp., 1/2 - 1 billion/A (0)
NemaShield HB, 1 billion nematodes (0)
Scout fields early for areas of stunted growth. Where found, dig up the roots of a plant and look for grubs. In mid to late summer look every 1- 2 weeks for leaf notching caused by adult feeding. Adult beetles hide in the soil during the day and feed at night.
Plow under old beds as soon as possible to avoid spread of the insect to new beds. Rotate to non-susceptible crop for 3 years.
A high rate (16 oz.) of Brigade or Bifenture is needed to obtain control of adult black vine weevil (best if applied at night).
Apply Platinum as soil drench in fall or early spring for control of larvae; may be applied to new plantings.
Apply nematodes in early- to mid-May or mid- to late-August as a band treatment. Application rates are given for the treated area. Irrigate prior to and following the nematode spray.
Two-Spotted Spider Mite (TSSM)
 
Same as Early Spring, Pre-bloom recommendations.
Cyclamen Mite
 
Same as Early Spring, Pre-bloom recommendations.
Leafhopper
IRAC
4A
16
1B
21A
1A
 
Assail 30 SG, 1.9-4.0 oz (1)
Courier SC, 9 to 13.3 oz (3)
Malathion 57EC, 1.5 - 3 pt (3)
Portal, 2 pt (1)
Sevin 50W, 2-4 lbs (7)
Plants may be able to tolerate some of this injury without long-lasting damage.
Leafhoppers can infest new or old planting and symptoms show up especially well during runner production.
Apply Portal with a minimum of 25 gals. of water per acre.
 
Apply Courier in at least 80 gals of water/A when populations reach threshold of 1 nymph/leaf sampled.
White Grub
IRAC
4A
4A
 
Admire Pro, 10.5-14 oz (14)
Platinum, 5-12 oz (50)
 
Apply within 2 hours of irrigation or rainfall as a broadcast or banded soil treatment, or in irrigation water.
Aphid
 
Same as Establishment Year recommendations.
Powdery Mildew
 
Same as Establishment Year recommendations.
Leaf Spot
Leaf Scorch
Leaf Blight
 
Same as Early Bloom recommendations.
Red Stele
FRAC
P07
P07
P07
4
BM02
 
BM02
 
 
Aliette WDG, 2.5 - 5 lb (0)
Phostrol, 2.5-5 pt (0)
Prophyt, 2-4 pt (0)
Ridomil Gold SL, 1 pt (0)
RootShield PLUS WP, 16-32 oz in-furrow sprat or 3-8 oz/100 gal in field chemigation
RootShield PLUS Granules, 2.5-6 lb/ half acre in-furrow
Proper site selection and preparation to avoid prolonged periods of “wet feet” should be the primary control stratagy for this disease.
Use sufficient water to move the Ridomil Gold into the root zone. There is no preharvest interval for this application. Routine or preventative application of these materials is not recommended.
Apply Phostrol to foliage when weather is wet and cool in late summer or fall; repeat application in spring when growth begins.
Where brand names for chemicals are used, it is for the reader’s information. No endorsement is implied, nor is discrimination intended against products with similar ingredients. Please consult pesticide product labels for rates, application instructions and safety precautions. Users of these products assume all associated risks.
RAC=Resistance Action Committee group for resistance management.  Fungicides=FRAC, Insecticides=IRAC
*Restricted use pesticide; pesticide applicators license required. OMRI listed for organic production
.
For resistance management do not make more than 2 sequential applications of fungicides in the same FRAC group or insecticides in the same IRAC group. See product labels or RAC column in this table for groups.

Weeds

Weed Management

Several weeds are usually cited by growers as problem species. As a general rule, always look for new or unusual weed species in fields. Attempt to cultivate or hand remove these weeds before seeds are produced. Following is some information on the most troublesome weeds with suggestions for control. Specific recommendations for any herbicides mentioned below can be found in the tables that follow.

Common Chickweed (Stellaria media): Common chickweed is a winter annual with an extended germination period. Germination can usually begin in late August or early September and continue into the next spring. Seeds are produced in late spring and early summer. 2,4-D is not effective on this weed and labeled rates of SinbarTM applied at mulching over emerged chickweed are generally ineffective. Cultivation is impractical since the most competitive weeds are in the strawberry row where they also receive good winter protection. Effective control can be achieved with an application of DevrinolTM in late August. Since DevrinolTM does not control emerged weeds, it is important to make the application before emergence. While DacthalTM can also control this weed from seed, residual activity is too short to make this application cost effective.

Field Pansy (Johnny jump-up) (Viola, spp.): This winter annual weed has become a serious problem for many growers. As with chickweed, germination is in the late summer, fall, and early spring. Cultivation is impractical in the strawberry row. Unfortunately, the weeds in the row are often better winter protected and produce more seed than those in the row middles. There is currently no postemergence herbicide control of this weed. The only herbicide that can provide effective control from seed (preemergence) is DacthalTM which should be applied in late summer; however, DacthalTM is rarely used in late summer because of its cost and short residual (4-6 weeks). Only the first flush can be controlled with this method. Until better control options become available, growers will continue to have serious problems with this weed.

Yellow Wood Sorrel (Oxalis, spp.): This weed is perhaps the most troublesome for many strawberry growers. Several species exist. Some are perennials and some are winter annuals. Seed production usually occurs during harvest with the plants “spitting” their seeds across the strawberry rows. This, of course, allows free spreading of this weed across the field. As with the above-mentioned weed species, germination can take place over several months making control difficult. 2,4-D provides good control of oxalis plants if they are small and not hidden under the strawberry foliage. Therefore a late fall application, prior to mulching over dormant strawberry plants, can be at least partially effective. A 2,4-D application prior to renovation is usually not effective since seed dispersal has already taken place. SinbarTM also has some activity on this weed. Splitting the annual use rate of SinbarTM into a renovation and late fall (dormant) application can also provide some control. This weed usually shortens the life of a planting due to its quick spreading habit.

Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale): While dandelion has been cited as a problem weed by many growers, acceptable control is possible. Dandelion is a “simple” perennial weed. Unlike other perennials, it does not spread by rhizomes, has a taproot, and uses seed dispersal as its primary method of reproduction. Seeds germinate in the fall and produce good size plants by November. None of the soil-applied herbicides currently registered in strawberry will control dandelion. The only effective control strategy is a late fall application of 2,4-D. This application must be made after the strawberry plants are dormant (no new growth, reddened leaves). If few plants are present, hand removal may be an option. Be sure, however, to remove the entire tap root or regrowth will occur.

The following Tables (24-26) provide information of on weed management and herbicide effectiveness in strawberries. Weeds can develop resistance to herbicides. The Weed Science Society of America (WSSA) developed a grouping system based on the mode of action of different herbicides. WSSA Group numbers can be used as a tool to choose herbicides in different mode of action groups so mixtures or rotations of active ingredients can be planned to better manage weeds and reduce the potential for resistant species. Any questions about specific weed problems or weed management strategies should be directed to your local University or Extension Specialist. See Integrated Pest Management for Strawberries in the Northeastern United States for details on alternative weed management strategies.

Table 25. Herbicide Efficacy Against Common Weeds in Strawberries

HERBICIDE POSTEMERGENCE   PREEMERGENCE  
Common
Weeds
Scythe1 Gramoxone2 Formula 403 Poast4 Select4 Roundup Ultra9 Spur11 Devrinol5 Dacthal6 Sinbar7 Goal8 Chateau10 Spartan12
  Fatty acid, Group 0 Group 22 Group 4 Group 1 Group 1 Group 9 Group 4 Group 15 Group 3 Group 5 Group 14 Group 14 Group 14
PERENNIALS                          
Canada thistle P P G N N E E N N N N N N
clovers P P E N N E G N N F N F F
curly dock P P G N N E G N N N N P G
dandelion P P E N N E G N N F N G P
goldenrods P P G N N E N N N P N P P
quackgrass P P N F G E N N N P N P P
red sorrel P P E N N E G N N F N F F
yellow nutsedge P P F N N G N P N F N F G
ANNUAL GRASSES                          
barnyardgrass F E N E E E N E G F F F F
fall panicum F E N E E E N E F F F F F
large crabgrass F E N E E E N E E G F F F
oats or rye (from mulch) F E N G E E N E E G F F F
ANNUAL BROADLEAVES                          
bedstraw G E E N N E N P P F F F E
carpetweed G E G N N E N G G G F E E
common chickweed G E F N N E N E G E F E E
common lambsquarters G E E N N E N G E E G E E
common purslane G E G N N E N G G G E E E
corn speedwell G E G N N E N F F G F G F
galinsoga G E G N N E N G P G G G G
horseweed G E G N N E G N N G G G F
prickly lettuce G E E N N E G E P E G E G
redroot pigweed G E E N N E N G E G E E E
shepherd’s purse G E G N N E N P P E E E E
Virginia pepperweed G E E N N E N P P G G G F
yellow wood sorrel G E G N N E N P P G E G F

E=90% control or better; G=75-90% control; F=50-75% control; P=5-50% control; N=less than 5% control.
1Scythe (pelargonic acid); non-selective contact herbicide. See information on rates and timings earlier in this section.
2Gramoxone (paraquat); non-selective contact herbicide. Excellent for use on emerged vegetation. Use between rows, with directed spray; use shields to prevent contact with non-target plants; extremely toxic to birds and wildlife.
3Formula 40 (2,4-D); systemic broadleaf herbicide. Typically used just before renovation; allow 5 days before mowing; also can be used when strawberries are dormant on winter annuals and perennial broadleaf weeds. Never use an ester or low-volatile ester formulation.
4Poast (sethoxydim); systemic grass herbicide; use on actively growing grasses; will not kill old established grasses. Use with crop oil, avoid applying on hot humid days.
Select (clethodim); systemic grass herbicide; use on actively growing grasses; will not kill old established grasses; improved activity over Poast on sool season and pereennial grasses. Use with crop oil; avoid spraying on hot humic days.
5Devrinol (napropamide); preemergent selective herbicide, must be activated with water or cultivation. Application after renovation for summer annual weed control or in late summer for winter annual weed control. Application before mulching will control volunteer grain from mulch. Heavy rates can inhibit daughter plant rooting.
6Dacthal (DCPA); preemergent selective herbicide, use after mulch removal in spring or in late fall; water or cultivation after application improves control. May be ineffective on cool heavy soils. Do not apply between bloom and harvest. Safe on new plantings.
7Sinbar (terbacil); selective preemergent herbicide. Moisture is required to activate the chemical; also provides early postemergence control.
8Goal (oxyfluorfen): selective preplant herbicide. Must be applied at least 30 days prior to transplanting. The soil must be worked to a depth of at least 2.5 inches prior to transplanting the crop. The use of a preemergence herbicide after transplanting is also recommended.
9Roundup Ultra (glyphosate); non-selective preplant herbicide. Must be applied at least 30 days prior to transplanting. Provides control of most annual and perennial weeds. Application to perennial weeds should take place the Fall prior to transplanting for best control.
10Chateau (flumioxazin); preemergent and postemergent selective herbicide. Primarily used in the late fall, after strawberry plants become dormant.  Used as an alternative at this time to Sinbar.

11Spur (clopyralid); selective postemergent broadleaf herbicide. Use after harvest to control Canada thistle and other broadleaf perennials and some annuals.  Only one application per season. 

12Spartan (sulfentrazone); preemergent selective herbicide. Use before or just after planting, but before new growth emerges.  Will damage new growth.  Use to control broadleaf weeds and nutsedge. 

Table 26. Weed Management in Strawberries

Table 26. Weed management in strawberries during the transplant and establishment years.
TRANSPLANT YEAR
Weed Problem Herbicide Rate/Acre Comments and Limitations
PREPLANT WEED CONTROL
Many annual broadleaf weeds (oxyfluorfen)
Goal 2XL
Group 14
1 - 2 pt Must be applied at least 30 days prior to transplanting. The soil must be worked to a depth of at least 2.5 inches prior to transplanting the crop. No control is provided after the crop is planted.
Emerged annual and perennial weeds (glyphosate)
Roundup Ultra
Group 9
1 - 5 qt Must be applied to emerged weeds at least 30 days prior to transplanting. For annual weeds, good soil preparation will also control these weed species. For perennial weeds, this application should take place in the late summer or fall prior to planting. Application to perennial weeds in the spring will provide top kill only and the same can be accomplished with tillage.
Burndown of emerged weeds

(carfentrazone)
Aim EC
Group 14
 

2 oz Apply alone or with other herbicides or fertilizers as a burndown treatment at least 24 hours before transplanting.
Annual grasses and many broadleaf weeds

(pendimethalin)
Prowl H20

Satellite Hydrocap
Group 3

 

1.5 - 3 pt

 

Prowl: Use before planting strawberries. Apply to the soil surface before planting to prevent the establishment of most annual grasses as well as suppressing several broadleaf weeds such as velvetleaf and purslane. Moisture is required to activate the herbicide, and it can be applied through an overhead irrigation system or shallowly incorporated. At least one day must elapse between application and planting, unless protective gear is worn. Only the H2O formulation of Prowl is labeled for strawberries. No more than 6 pints are to be used in any one season. Prowl H2O should not be used if plastic mulch will be applied.

Satellite Hydrocap: Apply during dormant season, or at renovation prior to new growth emergence. May be applied during the growing season as directed spray between rows - do not allow contact with strawberry plants.  

Many annual broadleaf weeds

(sulfentrazone)

Spartan 4F

Group 14

4 - 8 oz Apply prior to planting or just after planting but before new growth appears.  May cause severe damage to new growth. Strawberry varieties vary in sensitivity.  Provides control of many broadleaf weeds, including field pansy, groundsel and nutsedge. 
PREEMERGENCE WEED CONTROL
Annual grasses and small seeded broadleaf weeds (DCPA)
Dacthal F
Dacthal 75W
Group 3

8 - 12 pt
8 - 12 lb
Weak on ragweed, smartweed, and galinsoga. Apply at transplanting or after cultivating. Irrigation, rainfall, or shallow cultivation after application will improve control.

(napropamide)
Devrinol 50DF

Devrinol 2XT

Devrinol DF-XT

Group 15

 

2 - 4 lb

2 gal

8 lb
(pre-bloom)

Apply to weed-free soil after strawberry plants become established. Heavy rate after planting may inhibit rooting of daughter plants. Application in late summer will control winter annuals. Application in late fall will control annual grasses and volunteer grains until harvest. This material must be activated with rainfall, irrigation, or shallow cultivation within 24 hrs. Consider using the 2 to 4 lb rate twice, once in late summer and again just prior to mulching in late fall.

(pendimethalin)
Prowl H20

Satellite Hydrocap
Group 3

1.5 - 3 pt

Apply a banded spray between rows of strawberries. Maintain a rate per treated area, not a rate per planted acre. Do not contact the strawberry plants including daughter plants. May also be applied as a banded spray between rows of plastic mulch. Do not exceed 6 pints per acre per year. No weed control is provided in the crop row.

 

Broadleaf weeds, some grasses, and some suppression of perennial weeds (terbacil)
Sinbar 80WP
Group 5
2 - 6 oz During the planting year, Sinbar may be applied at 2 to 3 ounces per acre after transplanting but before new runners start to root. If strawberry plants have developed any new foliage prior to application, irrigation or rainfall (0.5 to 1 inch) is required to wash the Sinbar off the strawberry plants. In late summer or early fall, a second application may be made at 2 to 6 ounces per acre to control winter annual weeds. This application must also be followed by 0.5 to 1 inch of irrigation or rainfall to wash the Sinbar off the plants. A third application of 2 to 4 ounces per acre can be made, as usual, after the strawberry plants are dormant and just prior to mulching. For soils with at least 2% organic matter, there is no maximum amount per application; however, no more than 8 ounces of Sinbar can be applied per year. For soils with between 1 and 2% organic matter, a maximum of 4 ounces of Sinbar can be applied at any one time with an annual maximum of 8 ounces per acre. For soils with between 0.5% and 1 % organic matter, a maximum of 3 ounces of Sinbar can be applied at any one time with an annual maxumum of 6 ounces per acre. Sinbar will also provide early postemergence control of some weeds. See the label.
(flumioxazin)
Chateau SW
Group 14
3 oz Apply as a banded spray with a hooded or shielded sprayer to row middles or between plastic. Do not contact the strawberry plants including daughter plants. Apply prior to weed emergence. As an alternative, may be applied as a broadcast spray in the late fall after strawberries are dormant. Although the activity of Chateau is primarily preemergence, this product also provides some postemergence broadleaf activity when a crop oil concentrate, at 1% v/v or non-ionic surfactant at 0.25% v/v is added. Do not exceed 3 oz per acre per year.
POSTEMERGENCE WEED CONTROL
Emerged annual grasses and broadleaf weeds.
Suppression of emerged perennial weeds between rows.
(paraquat)
*Gramoxone
SL 2.0
Group 22
2 pt Contact herbicide. Use with a non-ionic surfactant. Direct spray between rows using a shield to prevent contact with strawberry plants. Do not apply within 21 days before harvest or more than 3 times in a season.
Emerged annual and most perennial grasses (sethoxydim)
Poast
Group 1
1 - 2 pt Effective on small, actively growing grasses. Do not apply to grasses under stress (e.g. drought). Add 1 qt of crop oil concentrate per acre. Application within 6 weeks of Sinbar may cause leaf injury. Applications on days that are unusually hot and humid will likely cause leaf burn. Avoid applications on these hot and humid days or delay application until late evening.
(clethodim)
Select 2EC
Selectmax 0.97EC
Group 1
6 - 8 oz
12-16 oz
Effective on small, actively growing grasses. Improved activity over Poast on cool-season and perennial grasses. Add 1qt/100 gal spray of crop oil concentrate. Repeat application at 14 days for perennial grasses. Can add ammonium sulfate at 2.5 lb/acre to improve activity on perennial grasses. Do not apply within 4 days of harvest.
Emerged annual weeds and suppression of perennial weeds (pelargonic acid)
Scythe
Fatty acid,
Group 0
3 - 10% solution Contact herbicide for burn down only. See Scythe comments below this table. See label for complete instructions.
ESTABLISHED PLANTINGS
Weed Problem Herbicide Rate/Acre Comments and Limitations
PREEMERGENCE WEED CONTROL
Annual grasses and small seeded broadleaf weeds (DCPA)
Dacthal F
Dacthal 75WP
Group 3
8 - 12 pt
8 - 12 lb
Weak on ragweed, smartweed, and galinsoga. Apply to weed-free soil in early spring after mulch removal or in late fall. Irrigation, rainfall, or shallow cultivation after application will improve control. Do not apply between first bloom and harvest. May be less effective on cool heavy soils.
(napropamide)
Devrinol 50DF
Group 15
4 - 8 lb Apply to weed-free soil. Heavy rate after renovation may inhibit rooting of daughter plants. Application in late summer will provide preemergence control of winter annuals. Application prior to mulching will control annual grasses and volunteer grains until harvest. This material must be activated with rainfall, irrigation, or shallow cultivations within 24 hrs. May be applied more than once per year but do not exceed a total of 8 lbs per acre per year. Do not apply from bloom through harvest. Consider the 4 lb rate twice. Once in late summer and again just prior to mulching in late fall.

(pendimethalin)
Prowl H20

Satellite Hydrocap
Group 3

1.5 - 3 pt

Apply a banded spray between rows of strawberries. Maintain a rate per treated area, not a rate per planted acre. Do not contact the strawberry plants, including daughter plants. May also be applied as a banded spray between rows of plastic mulch. Do not exceed 6 pints per acre per year. Do not apply within 35 days before harvest. No weed control is provided in the crop row.

Satellite Hydrocap may be applied during dormant season, or at renovation prior to new growth emergence. May also be applied during the growing season as directed spray between rows - do not allow contact with strawberry plants.

Broadleaf weeds, some grasses, and some suppression of perennial weeds (terbacil)
Sinbar 80WP
Group 5
2 - 8 oz Will also provide early postemergence weed control. Apply at renovation, immediately after mowing and tilling but before new growth begins. A second application may be made in late fall, after strawberry plants become dormant, for additional control of winter annual weeds. DO NOT USE AT ANY OTHER TIME AS PLANT DEATH MAY RESULT. Do not apply more than 6-8 oz of Sinbar per acre per growing season depending on soil type. Use only on plants established 6 months or longer. Do not use on soils with less than 0.5% organic matter. Following the establishment year, applications can only be made just after renovation and just prior to mulching. Applications are now allowed, however, on soils with between 0.5% and 2% organic matter using the same guidelines for rates as above. As always, be careful with Sinbar in strawberries, especially with potential overlap of sprayer passes which will double the rate and increase the potential for injury in some varieties. Please consult the supplemental label for additional information, rates, precautions, etc.
(flumioxazin)
Chateau SW
Group 14
3 oz Apply as a banded spray with a hooded or shielded sprayer to row middles or between plastic. Do not contact the strawberry plants including daughter plants. Apply prior to weed emergence. Application after fruit set may result in spotting of fruit and should be avoided. As an alternative, may be applied as a broadcast spray in the late fall after strawberries are dormant. Although the activity of Chateau is primarily preemergence, this product also provides some postemergence broadleaf activity when a crop oil concentrate, at 1% v/v or non-ionic surfactant at 0.25% v/v is added. Do not exceed 3 oz per acre per year.
POSTEMERGENCE WEED CONTROL
Emerged annual grasses and broadleaf weeds.
Supression of emerged perennial weeds between rows.
(paraquat)
*Gramoxone
SL 2.0
Group 22
2 pt Contact herbicide. Use with a non-ionic surfactant. Direct spray between rows using a shield to prevent contact with strawberry plants. Do not apply within 21 days before harvest or more than 3 times in a season.
Emerged annual and most perennial grasses (sethoxydim)
Poast
Group 1
1 - 2.5 pt Effective on small actively growing grasses. Do not apply to grasses under stress (e.g., drought). Add 1 qt of crop oil concentrate per acre. Application within 6 weeks after Sinbar may cause leaf injury. Avoid applications on days that are unusually hot and humid. Do not apply within 7 days before harvest or use more than 2.5 pints per acre per season.
(clethodim)
Select 2EC
Selectmax 0.97EC
Group 1
6 - 8 oz
12-16 oz
Effective on small, actively growing grasses. Improved activity over Poast on cool-season and perennial grasses. Add 1qt/100 gal spray of crop oil concentrate. Repeat application at 14 days for perennial grasses.  Ammonium sulfate at 2.5 lb/acre may be added to improve activity on perennial grasses. Do not apply within 4 days of harvest.
Most emerged broadleaf weeds including dandelion (2,4-D)
Formula 40
Group 4
2 - 3 pt Apply at renovation, immediately after last harvest. Wait 3 to 5 days before mowing. May also be used in late fall after strawberries are dormant for control of certain winter annual, biennial, and perennial weeds. Be sure that strawberry plants are dormant (i.e., no new growth and reddened leaves) to avoid injury.
Emerged annual weeds and supression of perennial weeds

(pelargonic acid)
Scythe
Fatty acid,

Group 0

3 - 10% solution Contact material for burn down only. See Scythe comments below this table. See label for complete instructions.
(carfentrazone)
Aim EC
Group 14
2 oz May be applied with a hooded sprayer between rows on bare ground or plastic systems.  DO NOT apply over strawberry plants.  DO NOT apply more than 6.1 oz/acre/season.
Selected emerged broadleaf weeds including dandelion, Canada thistle, clover, vetch, ragweed, and jimsonweed (clopyralid)
Spur
Group 4
2/3 pt Make one application per crop year after harvest to emerged weeds.  Apply uniformly with ground equipment in a minimum of 10 gallons of water per acre.   Do not tank mix with any other herbicides.  Only this clopyralid product is registered for strawberry, other similar products with other trade names are NOT registered in New England.  Do not use any spray additives.
†Where brand names for chemicals are used, it is for the reader’s information. No endorsement is implied, nor is discrimination intended against products with similar ingredients. Please consult pesticide product labels for rates, application instructions and safety precautions. Users of these products assume all associated risks.
*Restricted use material; pesticide applicators license required. OMRI certified for organic production

Notes

Scythe (pelargonic acid)
Note: General - Scythe herbicide is part of EPA’s reduced-risk pesticide strategy. Scythe is a contact, non-selective, broad spectrum, foliar-applied herbicide. It controls only actively growing emerged green vegetation. It provides burndown of both annual and perennial grass and broadleaf weeds as well as most mosses. The degree of burndown and the longevity of control is less when the weeds are inactive, mature, or biennial/perennial types. The herbicide is not translocated; it will burn only those plant parts that are coated with the spray solution. Visible effects on most weeds occur within hours. This product does not damage non-green, woody parts of plants. Cool weather following treatment may slow the activity of this herbicide and delay or reduce visual effects. The burndown activity is similar to that of Gramoxone (paraquat). DO NOT contact desirable crop plants or damage will occur.

Crop application timing and registration - For most small fruit crops, applications can be made in a number of ways: Vegetative Burndown: General control of weeds for site preparation, non-crop, and around aquatic sites. Prior to Crop Emergence: Be sure that applications are made before crop emerges from soil or crop injury will occur. Directed and Shielded Sprays: Applications may be made in and around desirable plants as long as contact of foliage and green bark is avoided. Use of a shield is highly recommended. Sucker Control, Pruning, and Trimming: To burn back unwanted foliage growth on vines and excessive cane growth in brambles. Apply only to unwanted vegetative parts. Apply before suckers become woody. The current label for Scythe herbicide allows application in the following small fruit crops: blackberry, blueberry, boysenberry, cranberry, currant, dewberry, grape (all types), loganberry, raspberry, and strawberry.

Rates - Use a 3-5% solution for annual weeds (4-6 oz/gal water), a 5-7% solution for biennial and perennial weeds (6-9 oz/gal water), and 7-10% solution for maximum burndown (9-13 oz/gal water). Delivery rate for boom applications should be 75 to 200 gallons of spray solution per acre. For hand-held equipment, spray to completely wet all weed or plant foliage but not to the point of runoff. Repeat applications as necessary. Tank mixes are allowed with this product. These include tank mixes with glyphosate (Roundup), sulfosate (Touchdown), and residual herbicides. SEE THE LABEL FOR COMPLETE DETAILS!

Sinbar 80 WP (terbacil) - During the planting year, Sinbar may be applied at 2 to 3 ounces per acre after transplanting but before new runners start to root. If strawberry plants have developed any new foliage prior to application, irrigation or rainfall (0.5 to 1 inch) is required to wash the Sinbar off the strawberry plants. In late summer or early fall, a second application may be made at 2 to 6 ounces per acre to control winter annual weeds. This application must also be followed by 0.5 to 1 inch of irrigation or rainfall to wash the Sinbar off the plants. A third application of 2 to 4 ounces per acre can be made, as usual, after the strawberry plants are dormant and just prior to mulching.
For soils with at least 2% organic matter, there is no maximum amount per application; however, no more than 8 ounces of Sinbar can be applied per year. For soils with between 1 and 2% organic matter, a maximum of 4 ounces of Sinbar can be applied at any one time with an annual maximum of 8 ounces per acre. For soils with between 0.5 and 1% organic matter, a maximum of 3 ounces of Sinbar can be applied at any one time with an annual maximum of 6 ounces per acre.

Following the establishment year, applicaitons can only be made just after renovation and just prior to mulching. Applications are now allowed, however, on soils with between 0.5 and 2% organic matter using the same guidelines for rates as above. As always, be careful with Sinbar in strawberries, especially with potential overlap of sprayer passes which will double the rate and increase the potential for injury in some varieties. Please consult the new supplemental label for additional information, rates, precautions, etc.

Prowl H2O - Preemergence selective herbicide. Use pre-transplant for improved control of annual grasses and many broadleaf weeds during the transplant year. May also be used in row middles once strawberries are transplanted for control of weeds between the rows.

Chateau SW - Preemergence and postemergence selective herbicide. Use either between the crop row for preemergence control of many broadleaf weed and some grasses or use in the late fall after the crop is dormant for both preemergence and postemergence control of many weeds.

Spur - This is the only clopyralid product registered for strawberry in New England. Perennial strawberry only. For Canada thistle after harvest up to early fall, apply after the majority of basal leaves have emerged but prior to bud stage.

Table 27. Weed Management With and Without Herbicides in a Strawberry Planting

Table 27. Weed management with and without herbicides in a strawberry planting.
YEAR TIMING HERBICIDE OPTIONS NON-HERBICIDE OPTIONS
PLANTING YEAR
  Fall prior to planting Roundup for emerged perennial weeds Frequent tillage/tarping
  Prior to transplanting Good soil preparation to control emerged weeds Good soil preparation/flaming
  At planting Sinbar to control broadleaf weeds
Dacthal or Prowl to control annual grasses (Prowl must be applied prior to planting)
Cultivate/handweed/flaming
  Mid-Summer Poast or Select to control emerged grasses Cultivate/handweed
  4-6 weeks after planting Devrinol at half rate Cultivate/handweed
  Any time emerged weeds are present Cultivate/hand weed Cultivate/handweed
  After crop dormancy 2,4-D for emerged braodleaf weeds; Sinbar or Chateau preemergence for broadleafs; Devrinol at half rate for preemergence grass control Mulch for winter protection
FRUITING YEARS
  Spring prior to bloom Poast or Select for emerged grasses Cultivate/handweed
  Renovation 2,4-D  or Spur for emerged broadleaf weeds; Mow 5-7 days later; Sinbar half rate for broadleaf weed control. Cultivate/handweed/flaming
  After renovation through early fall Spur for selected emerged broadleaf weeds Cultivate/handweed
  Mid- to late-summer Poast or Select for emerged grasses Cultivate/handweed
  Late summer Devrinol at half rate for preemergence grass control Cultivate/handweed
  After crop dormancy 2,4-D for emerged broadleaf weeds; Sinbar half rate or Chateau preemergence for braodleaf weeds; Devrinol at half rate for preemergence grass control. Cultivate/handweed/mulching