Brambles

General Information

The success of a bramble planting is highly dependent upon its location. The site should have full exposure to sunlight and good air circulation. It should also be somewhat protected, however, as brambles are quite susceptible to winter injury. Temperatures below -20˚ F will injure most fruit buds above the snow line. Colder temperatures, especially if no snow cover is present, can kill canes to the ground, or damage roots, causing plants to die in the early summer when not enough water can be taken in to support them.

The soil should be well-drained; brambles will not tolerate “wet feet.” Wet soils encourage the spread of Phytophthora root rot which will destroy brambles. Do not plant brambles where potatoes, tomatoes, peppers, strawberries or eggplant have recently been grown, because these crops carry Verticillium, another root rot fungus which can infect brambles. Avoid planting brambles near any wild brambles. Wild raspberries and blackberries harbor insects and virus diseases which will spread to cultivated plants. If possible, destroy all wild brambles within at least 600 feet of your planting.

Always obtain raspberry plants from a reputable nursery which certifies their plants to be virus-free. Raspberries are best planted in the early spring. Plant your rows at least 8 feet apart, preferably 10 to 12 feet apart to ensure adequate air circulation, as well as room for spraying, harvesting and pruning operations.

Raspberry plants are shallow-rooted and thus are poor competitors for water and nutrients if weeds are present. A 3 to 6” layer of mulch will help to conserve soil moisture and inhibit weed growth. Coarse sawdust, wood chips or bark make good mulching materials. Pine needles work well, but need replenishing more frequently. Mulching of raspberry plantings is not without risk. The use of a permanent mulch may delay fruit ripening and plant hardening-off in the autumn, increasing the risk of winter damage. Mulching is not recommended after the first year on heavy soils due to the risk of Phytophthora. Mulch is also a haven for rodents that feed on plant roots and canes. Baiting is recommended where mulch is used.

Proper pruning is a crucial part of pest management for raspberries. In summer bearing brambles, remove second year canes and thin out weak, spindly first year canes anytime after harvest through winter. Thin out the remaining canes, leaving only those with good height, large cane diameters and no insect or disease damage. In late winter check for symptoms of winter injury. Everbearing varieties (e.g., Himbo Top, Anne) may be completely mowed down each year in late fall to early spring before growth starts. This will result in only the primocane (Fall) crop being harvested. For an early summer crop on everbearing varieties, remove weak, spindly first year canes after harvest and thin out remaining canes. Remove the tops of the canes where fruit was borne to reduce disease pathogen inoculum. The new fruit crop is borne on the cane below where fruit was the previous fall. 

Plant rows should be narrowed to a width of 2 feet or less. When finished, there should be no more than 4 to 6 canes per linear foot of row remaining for red raspberries, and 4 to 8 canes per crown for blackberries, black and purple raspberries. Canes which have been cut should be removed from the planting and destroyed. Pruning in this manner will greatly reduce the incidence of most raspberry cane diseases by increasing air circulation and reducing disease inoculum. Check with your Cooperative Extension office for details of proper varieties and cultural techniques for brambles, or see NRAES 35, Raspberry & Blackberry Production Guide available through New England Extension Fruit Specialists. See source page at end of this guide for more information on ordering the Raspberry & Blackberry Production Guide.

Table 38. Recommended optimal soil characteristics for growing brambles.
Soil Characteristic Desirable Range*
pH 5.8 - 6.5
Organic matter 4 - 6%
Phosphorus 20 - 30 ppm
Potassium 120 - 180 ppm
Base Saturation >3.0
Magnesium 100 - 150 ppm
Base Saturation >5.0
Calcium 1000 - 1500 ppm
Base Saturation >50.0
*Desirable range will vary with soil types (sand, silt, or clay), soil organic matter, and pH.
Foliar nutrient Normal range
Table 39. Standard Foliar Ranges for Brambles
Nitrogen 2.0 - 2.8 %
Phosphorus 0.25  -0.4 %
Potassium 1.5 - 2.5 %
Calcium 0.6 - 2.0 %
Magnesium 0.6 - 0.9 %
Boron 30 - 70 ppm
Manganese 50 - 200 ppm
Iron 60 - 250 ppm
Copper 6 - 20 ppm
Zinc 20 - 50 ppm
   
Year Sandy Loamy Clay Sandy Loamy Clay

Table 40. Post-Plant Nitrogen Recommendations for Brambles

Irrigated                                           Non-Irrigated

FALL-BEARING REDS (NO SUMMER CROPS)*
1 40 30 25 35 30 25
2 80 70 60 70 65 50
3+ 120 100 90 90 80 70
SUMMER-BEARING REDS
1 35 20 25 30 25 25
2 55 50 45 45 40 35
3+ 80 70 60 60 50 40
SUMMER-BEARING BLACKS AND PURPLES
1 30 25 25 25 20 20
2 45 40 35 35 30 25
3+ 60 50 45 45 40

30

 

Note: Rates should be adjusted according to leaf tissue analysis.

*Split the recommended amount into two applications with half at cane emergence and half in mid-July

Table 41. Number of bramble plants per acre at different spacings.
Feet between plants in a row Spacing Between Rows    
8 FEET 10 FEET 12 FEET
1.5 3630 2904 2420
2 2,722 2,178 1,815
3 1,815 1,452 1,210
4 1,360 1,090 907
5 1,090 870 726
6 907 726 605
8 680 544 453

Diseases

Fruit and Foliage Diseases

Botrytis Fruit Rot; Gray Mold (Botrytis cinerea): Raspberries are very susceptible to fruit rots caused by fungi, especially during wet weather and heavy dews. To prevent fruit rots from becoming a major problem, encourage air circulation and rapid drying of the plants and fruit by maintaining narrow plant rows, and proper cane thinning. Harvest fruit regularly. Do not allow overripe or rotten fruit to remain on the plants.

Management: Infections can occur as early as bloom, so preventative fungicide sprays should be applied beginning at that time, and followed-up with additional sprays when wet weather is predicted. See pest management schedule for recommended materials and timing. To prevent molds from developing after harvest, cool the fruit as rapidly as possible after picking and maintain them at about 33˚F until they are sold. Never place raspberries in containers more than 3 fruit deep, and avoid rough handling.

Powdery Mildew (Sphaerotheca macularis): Powdery mildew affects susceptible cultivars of red, black, and purple raspberries. Blackberries and their hybrids are usually not affected. The disease can be severe (varying from year to year) on highly susceptible cultivars, and plants may become stunted and less productive. The fungus overwinters in dormant buds and in tips of canes. The infection of flower buds reduces fruit quantity, and infected fruit may be unmarketable as a result of the unsightly covering of the powdery mycelial growth.

Canby is highly susceptible to powdery mildew making it a poor choice for high tunnel production.

Infected leaves develop light green blotches on the upper surface. Generally, the lower surface of the leaf directly beneath these spots becomes covered by white, mycelial growth of the powdery mildew fungus. The leaf spots may appear water-soaked. Infected leaves are often mottled, and if surface growth of the fungus is sparse, they often appear to be infected by a mosaic virus. Infected shoot tips may also become covered with mycelial growth. When severely infected, the shoots become long and spindly (rat-tailed), with dwarfed leaves that are often curled upward at the margins. Infected fruit may also become covered with a white mycelial mat. When the disease is severe, the entire plant may be stunted.

Management: The easiest way to control powdery mildew is to promote good air circulation around canes. Removal of late-formed mildewed suckers in the fall may also delay the start of the disease build-up in the spring. See Pest Management Table for recommended fungicides and rates for controlling powdery mildew.

Late Leaf Rust (Pucciniastrum americanum): Late leaf rust, primarily a problem on fall bearing varieties, infects red, yellow and purple raspberries, but not black raspberries and blackberries. Symptoms appear as yellow masses of spores on the undersides of the foliage and on the fruit, making the fruit unmarketable. Unlike orange rust, late leaf rust is not systemic and can be eliminated from the planting.  White spruce and Englemann spruce serve as alternate hosts but once the disease is established in the planting, spruce are not needed for the rust fungus to survive.

Management: Plant disease free nursery stock.  Maintain good air circulation around the canes by keeping the rows narrow, thin out canes, maintain weed free rows and remove old canes from the planting to reduce overwintering inocculum. Fall bearing varieties Heritage, Caroline,  Jaclyn and Anne, as well as summer bearing Festival are highly susceptible. See Pest Management Table for recommended fungicides and rates for controlling late leaf rust.

Orange Rust (Arthuriomyces peckianus and Gymnoconia nitens): Orange rust can be caused by two stages of a single rust fungus, though different names are given to each stage. A. peckianus is the long-cycled state of the rust fungus that produces telia and teliospores and typically affects black raspberries. G. nitens is the short-cycled state of the rust fungus that does not produce teliospores and typically affects erect and trailing blackberries. Neither fungus has an alternate host, which is common for other rust diseases of raspberry.

Orange rust affects black raspberry and blackberry, but is not known to affect red raspberry. In early spring when new shoots begin growth, leaves appear stunted, misshapen, and orange spores can be observed on lower leaf surfaces. If conditions are appropriate, brown-black telia and teliospores will also form on the undersides of leaves. These spores will spread the disease to other plants. During late summer, the fungus moves into the plant's roots where it will overwinter. It overwinters on the plant in infected canes.The fungus infects systemically; once a plant is infected it will not recover. Infected plants will eventually become stunted with bushy growth and produce few fruit.

Management: Orange rust management begins by planting healthy and disease-free blackberry and black raspberry stock. Since wild blackberry and wild black raspberry plants can serve as a reservoir of the disease, remove and destroy these wild plants in the area. Promote good air circulation by keeping weeds down and using good thinning and pruning practices. Inspect plants in the spring for symptoms of the disease, and remove and destroy infected plants as soon as the first symptoms appear. A few chemicals are labeled for control of orange rust and are listed in the pest management table. However, fungicide controls are generally not considered effective for orange rust management.

Cane Diseases

Anthracnose (Elsinoe veneta): Anthracnose is a fungus disease which first appears as purple spots on the young canes. As the disease develops, the spots enlarge and become sunken. Small, white spots may appear on the leaves, and the fruit may develop brown, scabby areas. Individual drupelets become infected, sunken, and light tan in color; fruit has a bitter flavor. On older canes, the lesions will turn gray and cause the bark to split. Although this disease tends to be worse on black and purple raspberries, heavy infestations can cause serious yield losses in red raspberries. Anthracnose spores spread under wet conditions, so it is important to promote drying by ensuring good air circulation. This can be accomplished through careful pruning each year and removing all infected canes.

Management: This disease can be greatly inhibited by encouraging good air circulation, through maintaining narrow plant rows and good pruning and thinning practices. Immediately after harvest, remove all infected to ground level and destroy. Early spring sprays of lime sulfur on the canes will help prevent early infections. Lime sulfur should be applied before the emerging buds are 1/2” long, or plant damage will result. See pest management schedule for recommended materials and timing.

Spur Blight (Didymella applanata): Spur blight is a fungus disease which causes brown or purple blotches to appear on the canes, usually centered around a leaf stem. Symptoms appear on new canes in mid to late summer. On second-year canes, the blotches become gray areas on the bark with tiny black spots on them, which are the fruiting structures of the fungus. Leaves on infected canes may show yellow or brown areas which begin at the mid-vein and spread out to the leaf tip in the shape of a 'V'. Infected canes are weakened, and produce fewer fruiting branches than healthy canes.

Management: Similar to anthracnose, this disease can be greatly inhibited by encouraging good air circulation through maintaining narrow plant rows and good pruning and thinning practices. Red and purple raspberries are more susceptible than black raspberries, while blackberries are considered to be immune. Applications of lime sulfur to the canes in the early spring before the new buds are 1/2” long will prevent early infection. See pest management schedule for recommended materials and timing.

Cane Blight (Leptosphaeria coniothyrium): Cane blight is caused by a fungus and is characterized by large brown and purple lesions which form on the canes. Unlike spur blight, these lesions are not typically located at a leaf stem and may involve whole stems. Fruiting laterals exhibit weak growth and may wilt and turn brown. This disease is most common on black raspberries.

Management: To reduce the incidence of the disease, tip the canes when there is no chance of rain or heavy dew for 3 days, allowing the cut to dry. When pruning, remove old canes to the ground. Do not leave stubs. The fungus can overwinter on the old dead canes and continue to produce viable spores for many years. Control of cane blight is the same as for anthracnose or spur blight.

Root and Crown Diseases

Verticillium Wilt (Verticillium albo-atrum & Verticillium dahliae): Verticillium is a root rot fungus with infections favored by a cool wet spring causing the leaves on raspberry canes to yellow, wilt and fall off, progressing from the bottom of the cane to the top. These symptoms may only appear on one side of the plant and are most frequently observed during hot, dry periods. Young black raspberry canes may show a purple discoloration starting near the soil line and extending upward, while this is not as easily detected in red raspberry canes. Canes eventually die.

Management: Verticillium attacks a wide range of plants, including potatoes, tomatoes, peppers, eggplant and strawberries.It overwinters in the soil and on plant debris.  Do not plant raspberries following any of these crops. Non-host crops such as corn or wheat can help eliminate the fungus if grown for at least 2 years before planting raspberries. Many weed species, including pigweed and lamb’s quarters also carry the disease, so good weed control in the raspberry planting is essential. Preplant soil fumigation can help eliminate this fungus, but is quite costly. This disease is most serious on black raspberries.

Phytophthora Root Rot (Phytophthora spp.): The Phytophthora fungus invades the roots of raspberries and disrupts the vascular system, causing infected plants to produce weak, stunted canes, with small, off-color leaves. When dug up, the roots of these plants may look dead. Symptoms are most obvious in the spring, frequently causing this disease to be misdiagnosed as winter injury. In order to spread throughout a planting, the fungus requires flooded or saturated soils.

Management: Good soil drainage is critical for preventing this disease. The varieties Latham,  Newburgh, Prelude, Anne, Caroline and Killarney seem to have some resistance to Phytophthora, while Titan, Taylor, Festival and Hilton are very susceptible. Soil fungicide drenches in the spring and fall will provide control of Phytophthora, but should not be considered a substitute for good soil drainage and appropriate variety selection. This is only an emergency measure and it is better to move the planting to a more suitable location. See Pest Management Table for recommendations of specific materials and rates. Planting on raised beds helps with this problem and wet feet in general. Mulching new plantings with straw has been observed to increase the likelihood of Phytophthora infection the following spring, particularly in heavy soils.

Crown Gall (Agrobacterium tumefaciens) and Cane gall (Agrobacterium rubi): Crown gall is a widespread disease of all brambles caused by a bacterium. The bacteria enter the plant through wounds and induce galls or tumors on the roots, crowns, or canes of infected plants. Galls interfere with water and nutrient flow in the plants. Seriously infected plants may become weakened, stunted, and unproductive.

Young galls are rough, spongy, and wart-like. Galls can be formed each season and vary in size from a pinhead to several inches in diameter. They develop near the soil line or underground in the spring. Cane galls occur almost exclusively on fruiting canes and usually appear in late spring or early summer. Both crown and cane galls become hard, brown to black, woody knots as they age. Some disintegrate with time and others may remain for the life of the plant. The tops of infected plants may show no symptoms, but plants with numerous galls may be stunted, produce dry, poorly-developed berries, break easily and fall over, or show various deficiency symptoms due to impaired uptake and transport of nutrients and water. Infected plants may be more susceptible to winter injury.

Management: Control procedures include: (1) planting only nursery stock which is free of any obvious galls on crowns or roots; (2) not planting into a field where crown gall has occurred previously, unless a non-host crop, such as strawberries or most vegetables, is grown for two or more years before replanting; and (3) minimizing injury to root and crown systems during farm operations such as cultivation.

In addition to the above procedures, a nonpathogenic bacterium, Agrobacterium radiobacter, strain K-84, is commercially available for biological control of crown gall. The biocontrol agent may be applied to roots of healthy plants when they are first set out. After planting, the control becomes established in the soil around the root zone and prevents crown gall bacteria from entering this region. However, the biocontrol agent will not cure plants which are already infected before its application and is not labeled for use on bearing plants.

Viruses

Several types of viruses infect raspberry plants causing a variety of symptoms, including mosaic yellow patterning of the leaves, leaf curl and/or crinkle, cane dwarfing and crumbly berries. Once a plant becomes infected with a virus, it cannot be cured. All infected plants, including the roots, should be removed from the planting and destroyed. Viruses are typically spread by aphids, but in some cases (e.g., crumbly berry) nematodes may be responsible. When these creatures feed on infected plants they can take in the virus and then spread it to other plants. In order to prevent the spread of viruses, start with certified, virus-free planting stock. Plant your raspberries away from any wild brambles which may be harboring viruses that could be spread to your plants. A distance of at least 600 feet between cultivated raspberries and any wild brambles is recommended. Controlling the insects which spread these diseases is usually not a practical method of preventing infection. However, some raspberry varieties are resistant to aphid feeding and are thus somewhat protected. These varieties include Canby, Titan and Royalty.

Table 42. Fungicides registered for use on brambles and their primary uses.
Fungicide FRAC
Group
Active Ingredient Botrytis Gray Mold Spur Blight Anthracnose Orange Rust Phytophthora Root Rot
Abound& 11 azoxystrobin + -- -- ++ 0
Actinovate AG BM02 Streptomyces lydicus (strain WYEC 108) + -- -- -- --
Aliette P07 aluminum tris 0 -- -- 0 +++
Badge SC/Badge X2 M01 copper oxychloride, copper hydroxide -- + + -- 0
BotryStop BM02 Ulocladium oudemansii (strain U3 ) +++ -- -- -- 0
Cabrio 11 azoxystrobin ++ -- -- ++ 0
Captan M4 captan ++ + + 0 0
Captec M4 captan ++ + + 0 0
CaptEvate 17, M4 fenhexamid, captan +++ -- -- 0 0
Confine Xtra P07 phosphorus acid 0 -- -- 0 +++
Coppers M01 copper hydroxide -- + + -- 0
Cuprofix Ultra 40 Disperss M01 basic copper sulfate -- + + -- 0
Elevate 17 fenhexamid +++ -- -- 0 0
JMS Stylet Oil /Organic JMS Stylet Oil NC paraffinic oil -- -- -- -- --
Kaligreen NC potassium bicarbonate -- -- -- -- --

Kocide/Kocide 2000-O/Kocide 3000/Kocide 3000-O

M01 copper hydroxide -- ++ + -- --
Kumulus DF M02 sulfur -- -- -- -- 0
Microthiol Disperss M02 sulfur -- -- -- -- 0
Milstop SP NC potassium bicarbonate -- -- -- -- --
Miller Lime Sulfur M02 calcium polysulfide 0 ++ ++ -- --
Nu-Cop 50 WP M01 copper hydroxide -- ++ + -- --
Orbit 3 propiconazole -- -- -- -- 0
Oxidate NC hydrogen peroxide ++ -- -- -- 0
OSO 19 polyoxin-D zinc salt +++ -- -- -- --
PERpose Plus NC hydrogen peroxide ++ -- -- -- 0
Ph-D 19 polyoxin-D zinc salt +++ -- -- -- --
pHorcepHite P07 monopotassium phosphate -- -- -- -- +++
Phostrol P07 phosphorus acid -- -- -- -- +++
Prophyt P07 Potassium phosphate -- -- -- -- +++
Pristine 7,11 boscalid, pyraclostrobin +++ -- -- ++ 0
Quilt Xcel 3,11 azoxystrobin, propiconazole 0 0 -- 0 0
Rally 3 myclobutanil 0 -- -- ++ 0
Regalia P05 Reynoutria sachalinensis -- -- -- -- --
Ridomil Gold 4 mefenoxam 0 -- -- 0 +++
RootShield PLUS WP BM02 Trichoderma harzianum (strain T22 ), T. viriens (strain G-41 ) -- -- -- -- ++
Rovral 2 iprodione +++ -- -- 0 0
Serenade Opti/Serenade Max M02

Bacillus subtilis (strain QST 713)

-- -- -- -- --
SuffOil-X NC mineral oil -- -- -- -- --
Sulforix% M02 calcium polysulfide 0 ++ ++ 0 0
Switch 9,12 cyprodinil, fludioxonil ++ -- -- 0 0
Tanos 11 famoxadone, cymoxanil -- ++ + 0 0
Tilt 3 propiconazole 0 -- -- ++ 0
Trilogy NC neem oil -- -- -- -- --

0=not effective; +=slight effectiveness; ++=moderate effectiveness; +++=very effective; --=insufficient data

=OMRI listed for organic production; go to https://www.omri.org/ for details.

Products with the same FRAC code have active ingredients with the same mode of action. Repeated use of products with the same mode of action should be avoided to reduce the risk of development of chemical resistance by the pest and reduced efficacy of the pesticde. Fungicides with two FRAC codes contain active ingredients with two different modes of action. For more information on FRAC codes and managing fungicide resistance, go to https://www.frac.info/.

* Restricted use material; pesticide applicators license required.

& This material is very toxic to some varieties of apples; use extreme caution when spraying near apples; do not use same sprayer subsequently on apples.
% Use lime sulfur only on dormant plants. Do not mix with oil.

For all products listed, read labels thoroughly for restrictions and warnings.

Table 43. Relative hardiness and disease resistance for bramble varieties recommended for New England.
  disease resistanceA
Variety hardiness zone b season spur blight anthracnose viruses Phytophthora
Summer Red Raspberries
AAC Eden 5 mid U U U U
Algonquin 4 mid R U R F
Boyne 3 early F S U F
Canby 4 mid U U U S
Encore 4 late U U U S
Festival 4 late mid R U R U
K81-6 4 late R R S S
Killarney 3 early mid F S U F

Latham

3 mid S S F U
Lauren 5 early U U F U
Newburgh 4 mid F F U G
Nova 3 mid R R R U
Prelude 4 early U U U R
Qualicum 5 mid U S R S
Reveille 4 early U U U U
Taylor 4 late S S S S
Titan 5 mid U U U S
TulaMagic 5 early U U U F
Tulameen 6 mid U U U U
Summer Black Raspberries
Allen 5 mid U U U U
Bristol 5 mid U S U U
Earlisweet 5 early U U U U
Jewel 5 mid U R U U
Mac Black 5 late U U U U
Summer Purple Raspberries
Royalty 4 late U U U U
Fall Red Raspberries
Autumn Bliss 3 early fall U U F F
Autumn Britain 3 early fall U U U G
BP-1 4 early fall U U U U
Caroline 4 early fall U U U R
Dinkum 5 early fall U U S S
Heritage 4 mid fall U U S S
Himbo Top 4 early mid fall U U U S
Jaclyn 3 early fall U U U U
Joan J 3 early fall U U U U
Polana 3 very early U U U S
Polka 4 early fall U U U U
Fall Yellow and Black Raspberries
Anne (yellow) 4 mid U U U S
Double Gold (blush) 5 mid U U U U
Kiwigold (yellow) 4 mid U U U S
Niwot (black) 5 mid U U U U

Summer Blackberries

Caddo 5 mid U U U U
Chester 5 late R U U U
Eclipse 6 mid U U U U
Galaxy 6 early U U U U
Natchez 5 early U U U U
Quachita 6 late U R U U
Sweet Ark cv Ponca 5 mid U U U U
Triple Crown 6 mid U U U U
Twilight 6 mid U U U U
Fall Blackberries
Prime Ark Freedom 5 early fall U U U U
Prime Ark 45 5 mid-late fall U U U U
a G= good, F= fair, R=resistant, S= susceptible, U= unknown; Hardiness Zone 3=very hardy to 6= very tender

Insects

Fruit and Foliage Insect Pests

Raspberry Fruitworm (Byturus unicolor): The raspberry fruitworm is a small (1/4”) brown beetle which feeds on the flower buds and leaves of raspberry plants during the spring and early summer. Female beetles lay eggs on the flowers and green fruit. The grubs that emerge are yellowish white, and feed on the fruit, attaining about 3/8” in length. Many of the flowers and fruit can be destroyed by this insect, and the larvae may end up in the harvested fruit, greatly reducing customer appeal.

Management: There is some evidence suggesting that this insect is more of a problem in weedy plantings. If early damage is noted, (e.g., small holes chewed in flower buds and skeletonizing of leaves), cover sprays should be applied prior to bloom. Adults (beetles) tend to be most active and noticeable on plants in the early evening hours. See pest management schedule for recommended materials and timing.

Tarnished Plant Bug (Lygus lineolaris): The tarnished plant bug (TPB) is a small (1/4”) bronze-colored insect with a triangular marking on its back. The immature stage, or nymph, is smaller and bright green, resembling an aphid, but much more active. Both adults and nymphs feed on the developing flowers and fruit, sucking out plant juices with straw-like mouthparts. This results in deformed fruit, with a few to many drupelets not enlarging, depending on the severity of the damage. Such fruit tend to crumble easily, and are generally unmarketable.

Management: Controlling weeds in and around the planting may reduce populations of this insect, but insecticide sprays may be necessary, applied prebloom and repeated after petal fall. If mowing around fields, do so after insecticides have been applied (to control migrating insects). Avoid planting alfalfa (which attracts high populations of TPB) near raspberries. White sticky traps are available for monitoring tarnished plant bug adults. These traps are used as an indication of when plant bugs begin their activity in the spring and a relative indication of their abundance, not as an indication of when to control this insect. Immature TPB (nymphs) are sampled by shaking flower trusses over a flat white surface. Thirty flower clusters should be sampled evenly from across the field (typically 6 clusters at 5 locations or 5 clusters at 6 locations). If 4 or more flower clusters are infested with nymphs (regardless of how many) a spray is recommended. A follow-up spray application may be made after bloom if TPB are still present in high numbers (check harvest interval before selecting material). See pest management schedule for recommended materials and timing. Do not apply insecticides during bloom.

Strawberry Bud Weevil (Anthonomus signatus): The strawberry bud weevil or “clipper” is an important pest of strawberries, but will also attack bramble fruit. This insect is a very small beetle (1/8”) with a copper-colored body and a black head with a long snout. The female weevil chews a small hole in unopened flower buds and lays an egg in the hole. She then girdles the stem just below the bud. The flower bud dries and dangles from the stem, eventually falling to the ground. The immature weevils, or grubs, develop in the girdled buds, emerging as adults in the early summer, and then migrating to wooded areas. These insects are not always present and may only cause minimal damage in raspberries.

Management: Examine the plants before bloom, and look for dead or clipped-off buds. Insecticides which are applied prebloom for control of raspberry fruitworm may also control this insect. See pest management schedule for recommended materials and timing.

Two-Spotted Spider Mites (Tetranychus urticae): Spider mites are very small (1/50”), insect-like creatures that feed on raspberry foliage, sucking out plant juices and causing a white stippling or bronzing of the leaves. Under heavy infestations, leaves will turn brown and be covered in a fine webbing. Adults may also move onto the fruit, reducing consumer appeal by their presence. There is currently little available for chemical control of this pest.

Management: Several companies commercially produce predatory mites which feed on spider mites. These predators can be released in raspberry plantings when mite populations are low, before the population gets out of control, and may provide some control of spider mites. It is important, however to encourage natural enemies of spider mites by reducing the use of pesticides which harm natural enemies. See source list at end of this guide for predatory mites. Spider mite outbreaks have also been associated with high levels of nitrogen fertilization.

Aphids: Aphids are small, pear-shaped, soft bodied insects which feed on plant sap with straw-like sucking mouthparts. Several species of aphids ranging from 1/16” to 1/8” in size, and dull yellow to bright green in color feed on raspberries. Most are wingless and slow moving. These insects tend to congregate on the underside of leaves, where their feeding causes the leaves to curl downward and be deformed. The most damaging aspect of aphid feeding is the spread of viruses. Aphids will take in a virus from infected plants, and later inject it into healthy plants. The virus then spreads throughout the plant, resulting in symptoms such as mosaic, leaf curl or stunting.

Management: To reduce the incidence of aphids and the transmission of viruses, start with certified virus-free plants; eliminate all wild brambles from within 600 feet of the planting; apply insecticides when aphids are first noticed in a planting; and rogue out all plants which exhibit virus symptoms. See pest management schedule for recommended materials and timing. The varieties Canby, Titan and Royalty are resistant to aphid feeding.

Japanese Beetles (Popillia japonica): Japanese beetles are about 1/2” long and copper-colored, with metallic green markings. They feed on raspberry foliage, skeletonizing the leaves during the mid and late summer. The larvae, or grubs, live in the soil, feeding on roots of grasses until late fall.

Management: The beetles can be controlled with insecticide sprays. However, pay close attention to days to harvest restrictions if fruit is present. Traps are available which use a sex and/or feeding attractant to capture the bugs in a can or plastic bag, but such traps generally do not provide adequate control. Place traps at least 100’ away from the planting. Traps placed within a planting may cause localized damage from beetles which are attracted to, but don’t fall into the trap.

Yellowjackets: Yellowjackets (aka hornets or wasps), are black and yellow stinging insects. They are closely related to the larger bald-faced hornets. Both groups of these insects are very aggressive and will sting with little provocation.

There are several species of these wasps found in the Northeast and, depending on the species, may build underground nests, large paper nests in trees or on houses. Many scavenge food, often dead insects or pieces of flesh from dead animals. Yellowjackets also have a great fondness for ripe fruit and can be found on pears, apples, raspberries, etc.

This fondness for fruit makes this insect a severe nuisance pest in raspberries, especially fall bearing varieties. They are a danger and annoyance to pickers. To help discourage the yellowjacket from feeding on raspberries, be sure to harvest berries as soon as they begin to ripen, even though there may be only a few early berries. Once the yellowjackets have discovered the berries, it is almost impossible to discourage them.

Management: Insecticide sprays for control of yellowjackets are not effective or recommended unless you know where a nest is and can eradicate it with a household hornet spray. This is best done in the evening when most of the members of the colony are in the nest. Yellowjackets can be discouraged by sanitation, which is regular and thorough, picking of all berries as soon as they begin to ripen, and frequent removal of overripe fruit and fruit debris.

There are many yellowjacket traps on the market, and various baits have been used with some success. Our (eastern) species of yellowjackets do not respond to trapping as well as western species. Different baits and traps may have to be tried to determine if any traps/baits will work in a particular raspberry planting. If traps are to be used, the key to success is to get the traps out early. Once yellowjackets have found the ripened fruit, the traps will probably not be of much help.

Potato Leafhopper (Empoasca fabae): Nymphs and adults are small (1/8”) green soft bodied insects. They move very quickly, often sideways, when disturbed. The potato leafhopper feeds on the underside of leaves leaving small chlorotic areas and causing a downward cupping of the leaves. Most feeding is on the upper, more succulent leaves on primocanes and often causes a stunting of those canes.

Management: This pest does not overwinter in New England but is brought up every year from the south on storm fronts. Insecticide applications may be needed when damage is observed. Plants recover quickly once these applications are made and normal growth resumes.

Brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) (Halyomorpha halys): Adult BMSB are approximately 3/4 inch long and are shades of brown on both the upper and lower body surfaces. They are the typical “shield” shape of other stink bugs, almost as wide as they are long. To distinguish them from other stink bugs, look for lighter bands on the antennae and darker bands on the membranous, overlapping part at the rear of the front pair of wings; a black and white triangle shaped pattern along the edge of the abdomen; and rounded shoulder tips. Masses of 20-30 eggs are laid on underside of leaves. The 5 nymphal stages range in size from 1/8 - 1/2 inch. Nymphs and adult BMSB feed on many hosts including small fruits, tree fruits, vegetables, ornamentals, and seeded crops such as corn and soybeans. BMSB feeds by puncturing the fruit with piercing/sucking mouthparts, and injecting saliva which allows the insect to suck up the plant material through its mouthparts.

BMSB has become a serious insect pest throughout much of the mid-Atlantic states and southern New York. BMSB is known to be in all New England states and since 2014 has become an agricultural pest in southern New England.

 

Spotted wing Drosophila (SWD) (Drosophila suzukii): SWD are invasive vinegar flies (fruit flies) that can attack unripened fruit. Female SWD cut into intact fruit with their serrated ovipositor to lay eggs under the skin. This allows larvae of SWD to be present during ripening, leading to a risk of detection in ripe fruit after harvest. There is a greater risk of fruit contamination at harvest from SWD compared with native species that lay eggs only in already-damaged and rotting fruit. SWD seem to prefer brambles over all other hosts.

Management: Although flies are relatively easy to kill with insecticides, keeping berries free from infesation can be difficult because of near constant pressure of countless flies. Pest pressure is lower earlier in the season, during harvest of summer-bearing varieties, compared to very high pest pressure during harvest of fall-bearing varieties. To date, only frequent and repeated insecticide application throughout the ripening and harvest period have proven effective. Sprays would be recommended as a preventative measure on any fruit starting to ripen in the first weeks of August. Weekly coverage may be adequate under low pressure, but twice weekly sprays may become necessary for high pest pressures. Choose insecticides based on efficacy and preharvest interval and rotate between IRAC classes. Add 4-16 ox NuFilm P/100 gal with all materials to improve residual efficacy.

Cane Insect Pests

Cane Borers: Raspberries are attacked by two types of cane borers. The raspberry cane borer is a 1/2” long, slender black beetle with an orange band just below the head and has long antennae. The female beetles girdle the tips of young raspberry canes by chewing two rings, about a half inch apart, around the stems about 6" to 8” below the top. An egg is inserted into the cane between the two girdled rings. When the larvae, or grubs, emerge, they feed inside the cane, tunneling downward, and eventually destroying the cane. Soon after the cane tips are girdled, they wilt, blacken, and may fall off.

Management: As soon as the wilted tips are noticed, they should be cut off several inches below the lowest girdle mark. Remove the infested tips from the field and destroy them. Also eliminate any wild brambles near the field which may be harboring this pest.

The red necked cane borer is 1/4” long, slender, black with a “coppery” neck. Unlike the raspberry cane borer, it has short antennae. The red necked cane borer also causes a different sort of damage. The females insert an egg into young canes, usually within 10” of the base of the cane from late spring through mid-summer. They do not girdle the cane, but the presence of the egg, and later the grub, causes a swelling in the cane which can vary in length from 1/2” to nearly 3”. Larvae feeding within the canes weakens them and many may break off. Remove any canes showing swelling near the base.

Root and Crown Insect Pests

Raspberry Crown Borer (Pennisetia marginata): The adult phase of raspberry crown borer is an attractive clear-winged moth which resembles a wasp. These moths lay eggs on the underside of raspberry leaves in late July and August. When the eggs hatch, the young larvae crawl down the cane and into the soil to overwinter. The following spring, they bore into the base of the raspberry canes and feed on the plant tissue. This feeding interrupts the flow of water and nutrients to the cane, causing them to wilt and become weak and spindly. Early symptoms may include browning of the leaf margins on new canes. Eventually, the entire crown may die. Infected canes are easily pulled out of the ground.

Management: Elimination of all wild brambles in the area can reduce local populations of this pest.

Table 44. Insecticides registered for use on brambles and their primary uses.
Insecticides IRACa GROUP Active Ingredient Aphid Leafhopper Spider Mite Japanese Beetle Tarnished Plant Bug Sap Beetle Thrips Brown Marmorated Stink Bug Spotted Wing Drosophila
Acramite 4SC 20 bifenazate -- -- +++ 0 -- 0 -- -- --
Actara 4A thiamethoxam +++ +++ -- ++ ++ -- -- -- ++
Admire Pro 4A imidacloprid +++ +++ -- +++ -- -- +++ ++ ++
Altacor 28 chlorantraniliprole -- -- -- ++ -- -- -- -- --
*Asana 3 esfenvalerate ++ -- -- ++ -- -- -- -- --
Assail 30SG 4A acetamiprid ++ -- ++ ++ ++ + + -- +++
Aza-Direct UN azadirachtin + -- -- + -- -- -- -- --
AzaSol UN azadirachtin + -- -- -- -- -- -- -- +
*Bifenture 3 bifenthrin ++ ++ + -- +++ +++ -- ++ +++
BioCeres WP UN Beauveria bassiana strain ANT-0 -- -- -- -- ++ -- -- -- --
*Brigade 3 bifenthrin ++ ++ + -- +++ +++ -- ++ +++
*Danitol 2.4 3 fenpropathrin ++ ++ + +++ +++ ++ -- ++ +++
Delegate 5 spinetoram -- -- -- -- -- --

+++

-- +++
Des-X   potassium salts ++ -- + -- -- -- -- -- --
Entrust 5 spinosad -- -- -- 0 -- -- +++ -- ++
Exirel 28 cyantraniliprole + -- -- ++ -- -- + -- ++
Grandevo UN Chromobacterium subtsugae -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- +
*Hero 3A zeta-cypermethrin & bifenthrin +++ ++ -- +++ ++ ++ -- ++ +++
JMS Stylet Oil   mineral oil  ++ -- ++ -- -- -- -- -- --
Magister SC IRAC 21A, FRAC 39 fenazaquin -- -- +++ -- -- -- -- -- --
*Malathion 1B malathion +++ ++ -- + -- + ++ ++ ++
Molt-X UN azadirachtin -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- +
M-Pede 28 potassium salts ++ -- + -- -- -- -- -- --
*Mustang Maxx 3A zeta-cypermethrin -- ++ -- ++ -- -- -- ++ +++
Mycotrol WPO UN Beauveria bassiana Strain GHA -- -- -- -- ++ -- -- -- --
Neemix 18 azadirachtin -- -- -- + -- -- -- -- --
NemaShield HB N/A Heterorhabditis bacteriophora -- -- -- + -- -- -- -- --
Onager OPTEK 10A hexythiazox -- -- +++ 0 -- -- -- -- --
Pyganic 3 pyrethrins + -- -- + -- -- -- -- +
Pyrenone 3 pyrethrins +PBO + -- -- + -- -- -- -- +
Sevin XLR 1A carbaryl -- ++ -- +++ ++ ++ -- -- ++
Success 5 spinosad -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- ++
SuffOil-X   mineral oil -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
 Surround   kaolin clay -- -- ++ ++ -- -- -- -- --
Trilogy   neem oil -- -- -- + -- -- -- -- --
Venerate XC UN Burkholderia spp. -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Suppression
Verdepryn 100SL 28 cyclaniliprole -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Suppression ++
Zeal 10B etoxazole -- -- +++ -- -- -- -- -- --

0=not effective, +=poor, ++=good, +++=excellent, --=insufficient data

Products with the same IRAC group number act by the same mode of action. Repeated use of the same mode of action should be avoided, in order to avoid reductions in pesticide efficacy via development of chemical resistance in the pest population. For more on information on managing pesticide resistance, go to www.irac-online.org.

*Restricted use material; pesticide applicators license required.      OMRI listed - organic production; go to www.omri.org for details. 
   

Table 45. Summer Bearing Bramble Pest Management Table

Table 45. Summer fruiting bramble pest management table†.
For resistance management do not make more than 2 sequential applications of fungicides in the same FRAC group or insecticides in the same IRAC group. See product labels or RAC GROUP column in this table for groups.
Pest RAC
GROUP
Spray Material, Rate/A (pre harvest interval PHI) Cultural Practices and
Scouting Notes
Comments
Dormant or Delayed Dormant (prior to budswell)
Crown borers
IRAC
28
3
3
3
 
Altacor, 3.0-4.5 (1)
*Bifenture 10 DF, 16 oz (3)
*Brigade WSB, 16 oz (3)
*Hero, 10.3 oz (3)
When applying materials as soil drench, use at least 200 gallons water. During the growing season, destroy dying canes and those showing evidence of infestation. Eradicate wild brambles in the area, because they may harbor the pest.
Be careful of seasonal total application limitations on these materials especially if you want to use them for SWD or BMSB later in the season.
Phytophthora root rot
FRAC
P07
P07
4
 
BM02
BM02

    P07

 
4
 
Phostrol, 4.5 pt (0)
Prophyt, 4 pt (0)
Ridomil Gold SL, 1/4 pt/1000 row ft (45)
Actinovate AG, 3-12 oz (0)
Rootshield PLUS WP, 16-32 oz (0)
pHorcepHite, 2-4 qt (0)
 
for RASPBERRY ONLY:
Ridomil Gold GR, 5 lb/1000 row ft (45)
Plant only in well-drained soils.
Planting on raised beds also significantly reduces Phytophthora incidence.
Cultivars Bristol, Cherokee, Jewel, Latham and Newburgh appear to be somewhat resistant. Purple and black raspberries relatively resistant.
Apply Ridomil in 3 ft wide band over the row in early fall; repeat in early spring before growth begins.
Apply Phostrol in sufficient water to thoroughly wet the foliage.
Apply Actinovate as soil drench; best if introduced before disease becomes well established.
Apply Rootshield PLUS as transplant starter solution or in-furrow spray 
pHorcepHite limited to 4 applications/season
Anthracnose
Spur blight
Cane blight
FRAC
M01
M01
 
M01
 
M02
P07
M02
M01
M01
 
Cuprofix Ultra, 2.5-3.0 (0)
Kocide 2000/Kocide 2000-O, 3 lb (0)
Kocide 3000/Kocide 3000-O/Kocide, 1.75 lb (0)
Miller Lime Sulfur, 6-12 gal
pHorcepHite, 2-4 qt (0)
Sulforix, 3% solution (0)
Badge SC, 1.75-3.5 pt (0)
Badge X2, 1.75 lb (0)
Prune out all canes which have fruited, thin remaining canes to only 3 to 4 per foot of row. Plant rows should be no wider than 2 feet. Remove and destroy all prunings and diseased canes.
DO NOT apply sulfur after buds are 1/4 inch long or plant damage will result.
Observe maximum seasonal rate per acre for copper products.
 
pHorcepHite suppression only
New cane emergence
Anthracnose
Spur blight
FRAC
11
11
M4
17, M4
 
M01
M01
19
P07
7, 11
3,11
11, M4
M01
M01
M01
NC
 
Abound, 6.0-15.5 oz (0)¥
Cabrio EG, 14 oz (0)
Captan 80WDG, 2.5 lb (3)
Captevate 68WDG, 3.5 lb (3) 
(for RASPBERRY ONLY)
Cuprofix Ultra, 2.5-3.0 (0)
Kocide 3000, 0.75 lb (0)
Ph-D, 6.2 oz (0)
pHorcepHite, 2-4 qt (0)
Pristine, 18.5-23 oz (0)
Quilt Xcel, 14-21 fl oz (30)
Tanos, 6-10 oz (0) PLUS Captan
Badge X2, 0.75 lb (0)
Badge SC, 1-2.25 pt (0)
NuCop 50DF, 4 lb (0)
Trilogy, 1-2% sol. (0)
Apply when new canes are 6-8 inches tall, repeat when canes are 12-15 inches tall.
Abound should be used with extreme caution to avoid phytotoxicity to apples. See label for further information.

Cabrio may only have 4 applications per season and no more than 2 sequential applications.
Do not tank mix Pristine with any other material.
Ph-D - no more than 3 applications per season.
Observe maximum seasonal rateper acre for copper products.
pHorcepHite suppression only
Orange rust
 
 
Inspect plantings when plants are 12–18 inches high for symptoms (see text
for description). Remove infected plants before orange spores are produced.
Fungicides for orange rust have no purpose until orange spores are present. Plantings should be monitored for presence of orange spores starting in midspring. Once found, fungicides listed under “Prebloom” for orange rust may be used.
Pre-bloom to initiation of bloom
Crown borers
IRAC
28
3
3
3
 
Altacor, 3.0-4.5 (1)
*Bifenture 10 DF, 16 oz (3)
*Brigade 2EC, 6.4oz (3)
*Hero, 10.3 fl oz (3)
 
When applying materials as soil drench, use at least 200 gallons water. Do not make both soil drench and foliar application pre-bloom.
Raspberry
fruit worm
Raspberry Sawfly
IRAC
4A
5
1A
UN
5
UN
UN
3
 
UN
 
Assail 30SG, 4.5-5.3 oz (1)
Delegate WG, 3-6 oz (1)
Sevin XLR Plus, 2 qt (7)
Aza-Direct, 1-3.5 pts (0)
Entrust 1.25-2 oz (0)
Grandevo DF (0), 1-3 lbs
Molt-X, 8 oz (0)
Pyganic EC, 4.5-18 oz (0)
SuffOil-X, 1-2% by volume (0)
Venerate XC (0), 1-8 qt
Keep planting free of weeds.
Apply to foliage when blossom buds separate and again when blossoms just begin to open. Do not spray insecticides during bloom.
 
Include adjuvant with Grandevo DF and Venerate XC.
 
 
Tarnished plant bug
IRAC
4A
4A
3
1A
UN
 
UN
11
3
 
Actara 25WDG, 3 oz (3)
Assail 30SG, 4.5-5.3 oz (1)
Pyrenone Crop Spray, 2-12 oz (0)
Sevin XLR Plus, 1.5-2 qt (7)
Aza-Direct, 1-3.5 pts (0)
Des-X, 2% sol (0)
Molt-X, 8 oz (0)
Mycotrol O, .25-1 qt (0)
Pyganic EC, 4.5-18 oz (0)
Keep planting free of weeds. Adults migrate to fruit when adjacent fields are mowed.
See description of sampling procedures in the description of TPB in the text.
Apply pre-bloom if adults found in planting, but avoid insecticide spays during bloom.
Apply sprays in evening.
 
Strawberry bud weevil
IRAC
3
1
UN
 
*Brigade 2EC, 6.4oz (3)
Sevin XLR Plus, 1-2 qt (7)
Aza-Direct, 1-3.5 pts (0)
Scout planting for live adult weevils or clipped buds, especially at edges near woods and hedgerows.
Brigade application may eliminate natural enemies of spider mites leading to mite outbreak.
Spraying late in the day may be more effective than morning sprays.
Cane borers
IRAC
4A
 
 
Admire Pro, 10.5-14 oz (7)
 
Cut off infested tips below girdle marks, remove canes showing swellings.
Destroy nearby unmanaged or wild brambles.
Cultural practices are the most important control measures. If an outbreak occurs, direct insecticide spray at lower foliage or base of canes and soil drench. Keep insecticide off blooms and fruiting shoots.
 
Aphids
Thrips
IRAC
4A
3
4A
1B
UN
 
UN
 
UN
UN
 
Actara 25WDG, 3 oz (3)
*Asana XL, 4.8-9.6 oz (7)
Assail 30SG, 2.5-5.3 oz (1)
Malathion 57EC, 3 pt (1)
Aza-Direct, 1-3.5 pts (0)
Des-X, 2% sol (0)
Neemix, 5-7 oz (0)
SuffOil-X, 1-2% by volume (0)
Trilogy, 1-2% sol (0)
Venerate, 4-8 qt (0)
Check tender cane growth and underside of leaves.  Aphid sprays can also suppress blackberry pslyllid.  Aphids can vector viruses which pose more risk than feeding damage alone.
Do not apply Asana within 7 days of pollination as it will repel bees.
 
Actara is highly toxic to bees, use with caution.

Venerate for suppression only; apply early when populations low, newly hatched.
Anthracnose
Spur Blight
 
Same as New Cane Emergence
Sprays for anthracnose and spur blight at this time will also control cane blight.
 
Powdery Mildew
FRAC
11
11
M02
3
19
7, 11
3, 11
3
3
BM02
NC
NC
M02
NC
NC
 
NC 
P05
NC
NC
 
Abound 6.0-15.5 oz (0)
Cabrio EG, 14 oz (0)
Microthiol Disperss, 6-15 lb (0)
Orbit, 6 fl oz (30)
Ph-D, 6.2 oz (0)
Pristine, 18.5-23 oz (0)
Quilt Xcel, 14-21 oz (30)
Rally 40W, 1.25-2.5 oz (0)
Tilt, 6 oz (30)
Actinovate, 3-12 oz (0)
JMS Stylet Oil, 3-6 qt (0)
Kaligreen, 2.5-3 lbs (1)
Kumulus DF, 6-15 lb (0)
Milstop SP, 2.5-5 lb (0)
Oxidate, 1:200-1:400 preventative, 1:100 curative (0)
PERpose Plus, 1:100 (0)
Regalia, 1-4 qts (0)
SuffOil-X, 1-2% by volume (0)
Trilogy, 1% sol. (0)
 
Apply no more than three applications of Abound per season.
Abound is extremely phytotoxic to certain apple varieties. DO NOT apply where drift may reach apple trees. DO NOT treat apple trees with equipment that has been previously used to apply Abound
Be aware of the long PHI for some of these products.
Orange Rust
FRAC
11
7, 11
3,11
3
NC
 
Cabrio EG, 14 oz (0)
Pristine, 18.5-23 oz (0)
Quilt Xcel, 14-21 oz (30)
Rally 40W, 2.5 oz (0)
SuffOil-X, 1-2% by volume (0)
Red raspberries are immune to this disease.
Spray while orange pustules are visible, on a 10-14 day schedule until temps are >75˚F.
BLOOM - DO NOT APPLY INSECTICIDES DURING BLOOM
         
Botrytis fruit rot
(gray mold)
FRAC
11
11
M4
17
19
7, 11
3, 11
2
9, 12
BM02
BM02
BM02
NC
 
BM02
BM02
NC
BM02
 
 
17, M4
 
Abound, 6.0-15.5 oz (0)
Cabrio EG, 14 oz (0)
Captan 80WDG, 2.5 lb (3)
Elevate, 1.5 lb (0)
Ph-D, 6.2 oz (0)
Pristine, 18.5-23 oz (0)
Quilt Xcel, 14-21 oz (30)
Rovral 4F, 1-2 pt (0)
Switch, 11-14 oz (0)
Actinovate, 3-12 oz (0)
Double Nickle 55, 0.25-3 lb (0)
Double Nickle LC, 0.56-6 lb  (0)
Oxidate, 1:200-1:400 preventative, 1:100 curative (0)
PERpose Plus, 1:100 (0)
Serenade Opti, 14-20 oz qt (0)
Milstop SP, 2.5-5 lbs (0)
BotryStop, 3 lbs (0)
 
for RASPBERRY ONLY:
Captevate 68WDG, 3.5 lb (3) 
Space rows at least 8 feet apart, prune canes to a density of 3 to 4 canes per sq. ft. to improve air circulation.
Apply most fungicides at 5% bloom and again at full bloom. Repeat application only if weather is wet.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
BotryStop - do not use a stomatal flooding or penetrant adjuvant.
Powdery Mildew
 
Same as prebloom recommendations
Orange Rust
 
Same as prebloom recommendations
Petal Fall through harvest
Tarnished
plant bug
 
Same as pre-bloom application
         
Spotted Wing Drosophila
(SWD)
IRAC
4A
4A
4A
UN
3
3
3
5
28
3
1B
3
1A
5
28
5
UN
3
UN
 
Actara, 2-3 oz (3)
Admire Pro, 2.8 oz (3)
Assail 30SG 4.5-5.3 oz (1)
AzaSol, 6 oz/50 gal/A (0)
*Bifenture 10DF, 5.3-16 oz (3)
*Brigade WSB, 5.3-16 oz (3)
*Danitol 2.4EC, 10.6-16 oz (3)
Delegate WG, 3-6 oz (1)
Exirel, 13.5-20.5 fl oz (1)
Hero, 4-10.3 oz (3)
Malathion 5EC, 3 pt (1)
*Mustang Maxx, 4.0 oz (1)
Sevin XLR, 1.5-2 qt (7)
Success, 4-6 fl oz (1)
Verdepryn 100SL, 11 fl oz (1)
Entrust, 1.25-2 oz (1)
Grandevo, 2-3 lb (0)
Pyganic EC, 1-2 pt (0)
Venerate XC, 1-4 qt (0)
Use traps baited with apple cider vinegar plus ethanol alcohol (90% apple cider vinegar plus 10% ethanol) and/or fermenting yeast, grape juice, or yellow sticky cards with a commercial lure, or purchase commercially available traps and lures, to monitor populations.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Spray once SWD adults are captured and fruit begins to turn color, or when first larva observed in fruit.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Success labeled for Maine, New Hampshire only.
 
 
 
 
Venerate XC for suppression only
Aphids
IRAC
4A
4A
4A
3
1B
1B
UN
 
 
UN
 

UN
 
Assail 30SG, 2.5-5.3 oz (1)
Actara 25WDG, 2-3 oz (3)
Admire Pro, 2.8 oz (3)
*Asana XL, 4.8-9.6 oz (7)
Malathion 57 EC, 3 pt (1)
Malathion 8F, 2-4 pt (1)
Aza-Direct, 12.5-42 oz (0)
Des-X, 2% sol (0)
M-Pede, 1-2% solution (0)
Neemix, 5-7 oz (0)
SuffOil-X, 1-2% by volume (0)
Trilogy, 1-2% sol (0)
Venerate, 4-8 qt (0)
Aphids can vector viruses which pose more risk than feeding damage alone.
Admire Pro can be soil applied. Check the label for rate.

Venerate for suppression only; apply early when populations low; newly emerged.
Sap beetles
IRAC
4A
1B
3
UN
UN
3
 
Assail 30SG, 4.5-5.3 oz (1)
Malathion 8F, 2-4 pt (1)
Pyrenone Crop Spray, 2-12 oz (0)
Aza-Direct, 1-3.5 pt (0)
Molt-X, 8 oz (0)
Pyganic 5EC, 4.5-18 oz (0) 
Keep planting as clean as possible of over-ripe fruit
Only raspberries labeled for this use.
Use 1.0% non-phytotoxic crop oil with Molt-X.
Two-spotted spider mite
IRAC
UN
UN
3
3
21A,39
10A
10B
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Acramite 50WS, 0.75-1 lb (1)
Aza-Direct, 1-3.5 pt (0)
*Bifenture 10DF, 16 oz (3)
*Brigade 2EC, 6.4 oz (3)
Magister SC, 32-36 oz (7)
Onager OPTEK, 12-32 oz (3)
Zeal, 2-3 oz (0)
Des-X, 2% sol (0)
Grandevo DF, 1-3 lbs (0)
JMS Stylet Oil, 3-6 qt (0)
M-Pede, 1-2% solution (0)
SuffOil-X, 1-2% by volume (0)
Predatory mites may help. Avoid use of pesticides which will kill natural enemies of mites. Contact your local Extension Specialist for sources of predatory mites.

Acramite may only be applied twice per season; Onager OPTEK, Magister SC and Zeal may each only be applied once per season. Magister SC impacts all motile stages. Onager OPTEK targets eggs and immature motile stages.
Brigade is a restricted use material and may be applied once pre-bloom and once post-bloom.
 

JMS Stylet oil should not be sprayed on wet foliage or when temperatures are below 32˚F or above 90˚F and may be phytotoxic in combination or applied close to certain other materials. Read the label.

 

Apply Surround on fresh market berries only up to the first 3 weeks after fruit set as trace residues can be difficult to remove after harvest.

Potato Leafhopper
IRAC
4A
4A
4A
1B
1B
1A
 
 
Assail 30SG, 2.5-5.3 oz (1)
Actara 25WDG, 2-3 oz (3)
Admire Pro, 2.8 oz (3)
Malathion 57EC, 1.5pt (1)
Malathion 8F, 1-3.5 pt (1)
Sevin XLR Plus, 2 qt (7)
Des-X, 2% sol (0)
Scout for stunted growth and downward cupping leaves.
Japanese beetle
IRAC
4A
28
4A
1B
1A
UN
 
3
 
 
Actara 25WDG, 3 oz (3)
Altacor, 4.5 oz (1)
Assail 30SG, 4.5-5.3 oz (1)
Malathion 57EC, 3 pt (1)
Sevin XLR Plus, 1-2 qt (7)
Aza-Direct, 1-3.5 pt (0)
NemaShield HB, 1 billion (0)
PyGanic EC, 4.5-18 oz (0)
Surround WP, 20-50 lb (0)
 
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug
(BMSB)
IRAC
4A
4A
3
3
3
1B
3
 
Actara, 3 oz (3)
Admire Pro, 2.1-2.8 oz (3)
*Bifenture 10DF, 5.3-16.0 oz (3)
*Brigade WSB, 5.3-16.0 oz (3)
*Danitol 2.4EC, 10.6 oz (3)
Malathion 5E, 2.5-3 pt (1)
*Mustang Maxx 4.0 oz (1)
 
Brown marmorated stink bug has been found in all New England states and as of 2014 has been an agricultural pest in southern New England.
Botrytis fruit rot
 
Same as bloom application
Same as bloom application
See bloom section. Check labels for harvest restrictions.
Powdery mildew
 
same as bloom recommendations
 
 
Late Leaf Rust
FRAC
11
7, 11
3
NC
 
Cabrio EG, 14 oz (0)
Pristine, 18.5-23 oz (0)
Rally, 1.25-1.5 oz (0)
SuffOil-X, 1-2% by volume (0)
Plant and prune for good air circulation and drying conditions.
Primarily a problem on fall-bearing raspberries. ‘Festival’ summer red raspberry is susceptible. Black raspberries and blackberries are not susceptible.
Post harvest and thereafter
Phytophthora root rot
FRAC
P07
P07
P07
4
 
P07
BM01
 
4
 
Aliette WDG, 5 lb (60)
Phostrol, 4.5 pt (0)
Prophyt, 4 pt (0)
Ridomil Gold SL, 3.6 pts/1000 row ft (45)
pHorcepHite, 2-4 qt (0)
RootShield PLUS WP, 16-32 oz (0)
for RASPBERRY ONLY:
 Ridomil Gold GR, 5 lb/1000 row ft (45)
Plant only in well-drained soils.
Planting on raised beds also significantly reduces Phytophthora incidence.
Cultivars Latham and Newburgh appear to be somewhat resistant.
Apply Ridomil in 3 ft wide band over the row in early fall; repeat in early spring before growth begins.
Apply Aliette and Phostrol in sufficient water to thoroughly wet the foliage.
Begin foliar sprays in the spring after bud break and continue spraying on a 45-60 day schedule up to a maximum of 4 sprays during the growing season.
RootShield PLUS - cutting or barerooted transplant dip use 6 oz/20 gal water
Powdery mildew
 
Same as bloom recommendations
Apply no more than three applications of Abound per season.
Abound is extremely phytotoxic to certain apple varieties. DO NOT apply where drift may reach apple trees. DO NOT treat apple trees with equipment that has been previously used to apply Abound
Quilt Xcel is limited to 3 applications per season.
Anthracnose
Leaf spot
FRAC
M01
P07
 
Kocide 3000, 1.75 lb (0)
pHorcepHite, 2-4 qt (0)
 
Observe maximum seasonal rate per acre for copper products.
pHorcepHite is suppression only
Orange Rust
FRAC
11
7, 11
3
NC
 
Cabrio EC, 14 oz (0)
Pristine, 18.5-23 oz (0)
Rally 40W, 2.5 oz (0)
SuffOil-X, 1-2% by volume (0)
Red raspberries are immune to this disease.
Late summer through frost.  The late season sprays are to control a second infection period for this disease.

Where brand names for chemicals are used, it is for the reader’s information. No endorsement is implied, nor is discrimination intended against products with similar ingredients. Please consult pesticide product labels for rates, application instructions and safety precautions. Users of these products assume all associated risks.
RAC=Resistance Action Committee group for resistance management.  Fungicides=FRAC, Insecticides=IRAC
*Restricted use pesticide; pesticide applicators license required. OMRI listed for organic production.
For resistance management do not make more than 2 sequential applications of fungicides in the same FRAC group or insecticides in the same IRAC group. See product labels or RAC GROUP column in this table for groups.

Table 46. Fall Bearing (Primocane Fruiting) Bramble Pest Management Table

Table 46. FALL bearing (primocane fruiting) bramble pest management table†.
For resistance management do not make more than 2 sequential applications of fungicides in the same FRAC group or insecticides in the same IRAC group. See product labels or RAC GROUP column in this table for groups.
Pest RAC
GROUP
Spray Material, Rate/A (pre harvest interval PHI) Cultural Practices and
Scouting Notes
Comments
When canes are approximately 18 inches tall
Cane borers
IRAC
28
4A
 
Altacor, 3.0-4.5 (1)
Admire Pro, 10.5-14 oz (7)
Cut off infested tips below girdle marks, remove canes showing swellings
Scout for presence of adults. Adult cane borer activity can occur from early May through early August. Direct spray at the crown.
Japanese beetle
IRAC
4A
28
4A
1B
1B
1A
N/A
UN
3
 
 
Actara 25WDG, 3 oz (3)
Altacor, 4.5 oz (1)
Assail 30SG, 4.5-5.3 oz (1)
Malathion 8F, 1-4 pt (1)
Malathion 57EC, 1.5 pt (1)
Sevin XLR Plus, 1-2 qt (7)
NemaShield HB, 1 billion (0)
Aza-Direct, 1-3 pt (0)
PyGanic, 4.5-18 oz (0)
Surround WP, 25-50 lb (0)
Traps may reduce populations.
Place traps at least 100 feet away from planting.
Apply spray only if beetles are present.
 
Surround will leave noticeable residue on fruit if applied after petal fall.
Check labels for specific restrictions.
 
When applying nematodes, water after application and keep soil moist two weeks after application.   
From petal-fall through harvest
Spotted Wing Drosophila
(SWD)
IRAC
4A
4A
4A
UN
3
3
3
5
28
3A
1B
3
1A
5
28
5
UN
3
UNB
 
Actara, 2-3 oz (3)
Admire Pro, 2.8 oz (3)
Assail 30SG 4.5-5.3 oz (1)
AzaSol, 6 oz/50 gal/A (0)
*Bifenture 10DF, 8-16 oz (3)
*Brigade WSB, 5.3-16 oz (3)
*Danitol 2.4EC, 10.6-16 oz (3)
Delegate WG, 3-6 oz (1)
Exirel, 13.5-20.5 fl oz (1)
Hero, 4-10.3 oz (3)
Malathion 5EC, 3 pt (1)
*Mustang Maxx 4.0 oz (1)
Sevin XLR, 1.5-2 qt (7)
Success, 4-6 fl oz (1)
Verdepryn 100SL, 11 fl oz (1)
Entrust, 1.25-2 oz (1)
Grandevo, 2-3 lbs (0)
Pyganic EC, 1-2 pt (0)
Venerate XC, 1-4 qt (0)
Use traps baited with apple cider vinegar plus ethanol alcohol (90% apple cider vinegar plus 10% ethanol) and/or fermenting yeast, grape juice, or yellow sticky cards with a commercial lure; or purchase commercially available traps and lures to monitor populations.
 
Keep planting clean of over-ripe fruit.
Spray once SWD adults are captured and fruit begins to turn color, or when 1st larva found in fruit.

For resistance management do not make more than 2 sequential applications of insecticides in the same IRAC group.
 
 
 
 
 
 
Success is labeled for Maine, New Hampshire only
 
Venerate XC is suppression only
Sap beetles
IRAC
4A
1B
3
UN
UN
3
 
Assail 30SG, 4.5-5.3 oz (1)
Malathion 8F, 2-4 pt (1)
Pyrenone Crop Spray, 2-12 oz (0)
Aza-Direct, 1-3.5 pt (0)
Molt-X, 8 oz (0)
Pyganic 5EC, 4.5-18 oz (0)
Keep planting clean of over-ripe fruit.
 
Tarnished plant bug
IRAC
4A
4A
3
1A
UN
 
UN
UN
3A
 
Actara 25WDG, 3 oz (3)
Assail 30SG, 4.5-5.3 oz (1)
Pyrenone Crop Spray, 2-12 oz (0)
Sevin XLR Plus, 1.5-2 qt (7)
Aza-Direct, 1-3.5 pts (0)
Des-X, 2% sol (0)
Molt-X, 8 oz (0)
Mycotrol O, .25-1 qt (0)
Pyganic EC, 4.5-18 oz (0)
Keep planting free of weeds.
Action threshold for nymphs or adults is when 10-20% of canes are infested.
Adults migrate to fruit when adjacent fields are mowed.
Apply pre-bloom if adults found in planting, but avoid insecticide spays during bloom.
Apply sprays in evening.
 
Potato Leafhopper
IRAC
4A
4A
4A
1B
1B
1A
 
Assail 30SG, 2.5-5.3 oz (1)
Actara 25WDG, 2-3 oz (3)
Admire Pro, 2.8 oz (3)
Malathion 57EC, 1.5pt (1)
Malathion 8F, 1-3.5 pt (1)
Sevin XLR Plus, 2 qt (7)
Scout for stunted growth and downward cupping leaves.
 
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug
(BMSB)
IRAC
4A
4A
3
3
3
1B
3
 
Actara, 3 oz (3)
Admire Pro, 2.1-2.8 oz (3)
*Bifenture 10DF, 5.3-16.0 oz (3)
*Brigade WSB, 5.3-16.0 oz (3)
*Danitol 2.4EC, 10.6 oz (3)
Malathion 5E, 2.5-3 pt (1)
*Mustang Maxx 4.0 oz (1)
 
Brown marmorated stick bug has been found in all New England states and as of 2014 has been an agricultural pest in southern New England.
Botrytis fruit rot
(gray mold)
FRAC
11
M4
17
19
7, 11
2
9, 12
BM02
UN
NC
BM02
BM02
NC
 
17, M4
 
Cabrio EG, 14 oz (0)
Captan 80WDG, 2.5 lb (3)
Elevate, 1.5 lb (0)
Ph-D, 6.2 oz (0)
Pristine, 18.5-23 oz (0)
Rovral 4F,1-2 pt (0)
Switch, 11-14 oz (0)
Actinovate, 3-12 oz (0)
Milstop, 2.5-5 lbs (0)
Oxidate, 40-128 oz (0)
Serenade, 2-6 qt (0)
BotryStop, 3 lb (0)
PERpose Plus, 1:100 (0)
for RASPBERRY ONLY:
Captevate 68WDG, 3.5 lb (3):
Space rows at least 8 feet apart, prune canes to a density of 3 to 4 canes per sq. ft. to improve air circulation.
Apply at 5% bloom and again at full bloom. Repeat application only if weather is wet.
Overuse of any single materials may result in the development of resistance in the fungus.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
BotryStop: Do not use a stomatal flooding or penetrant adjuvant.
Late Leaf Rust
FRAC
11
7, 11
3
NC
 
Cabrio, 14 oz (0)
Pristine, 18.5-23 oz (0)
Rally 40W, 1.25-2.5 oz (0)
SuffOil-X, 1-2% by volume (0)
 Plant and prune for good air circulation and drying conditions.
Primarily a problem on fall-bearing types. Red and yellow fall-bearing raspberries are susceptible. 
Fruit rot sprays or special sprays
Two-spotted
spider mite
IRAC
UN
3
3
21A,39
10A
10B
 
UN
 
 
 
 
Acramite 50WS, 0.75-1 lb (1)
*Bifenture 10DF, 16 oz (3)
*Brigade 2EC, 6.4 oz (3)
Magister SC, 32-36 oz (7)
Onager OPTEK, 12-32 oz (3)
Zeal, 2-3 oz (0)
Aza-Direct, 1-3.5 pt (0)
Grandevo, 1-3 lbs (0)
JMS Stylet Oil, 3-6 qt (0)
M-Pede, 1-2% solution (0)
SuffOil-X, 1-2% by volume (0)
Predatory mites may help.
Avoid use of pesticides which will kill natural enemies of mites such as carbaryl or bifenthrin.
Avoid excess Nitrogen which can lead to higher mite populations.
Sulfur (80% WP) applied at 5-10 lb/100 gal for powdery mildew will provide some suppression.
Do not use M-Pede within 3 days of a sulfur application.
Magister SC, Onager OPTEK and Zeal may only be applied once per year.
Acramite is limited to 2 applications per season.
 
Add adjuvant to Grandevo
Phytophthora root rot
FRAC
4
 
4
 
P07
P07
P07
P07
BM02
BM01
 
Ridomil Gold SL, 3.6 pts/1000 row ft (45)
Ridomil Gold GR, 5 lb/1000 row ft (45) RASPBERRY ONLY
Aliette WDG, 5 lb (60)
Phostrol 4.5 pt (0)
Prophyt, 4.0 pt (0)
pHorcepHite, 2-4 qt (0)
Actinovate, 3-12 oz (0)
RootShield PLUS WP, 16-32 oz (0)
Plant only in well-drained soils.
Planting on raised beds also significantly reduces Phytophthora incidence.
 
Black raspberry cultivars are generally least susceptible to this disease.
 
Red raspberries ‘Prelude’, ‘Anne’ ‘Latham’, ‘Nova’, ‘Boyne’, ‘Josephine’, ‘Caroline’, ‘Jaclyn’. ‘Moutere’ and ‘Killarney’ appear to be the most resistant red cultivars. 
Apply Ridomil in 3 ft wide band over the row in early fall; repeat in early spring before growth begins.
Apply Aliette and Phostrol in sufficient water to thoroughly wet the foliage. Begin foliar sprays in the spring when new growth is 1-3" and continue spraying on a 45-60 day schedule up to a maximum of 4 sprays during the growing season.
Apply Actinovate as a soil drench. Since Actinovate contains live spores of a microbe, best results will be obtained if used prior to disease onset.
RootShield PLUS - cutting or barerooted transplant dip use 6 oz/20 gal water
Botrytis fruit rot
(gray mold)
 
same as petalfall section
 
 
Where brand names for chemicals are used, it is for the reader’s information. No endorsement is implied, nor is discrimination intended against products with similar ingredients. Please consult pesticide product labels for rates, application instructions and safety precautions. Users of these products assume all associated risks.
RAC=Resistance Action Committee group for resistance management.  Fungicides=FRAC, Insecticides=IRAC
*Restricted use pesticide; pesticide applicators license required. OMRI listed for organic production
.
For resistance management do not make more than 2 sequential applications of fungicides in the same FRAC group or insecticides in the same IRAC group. See product labels or RAC GROUP column in this table for groups.
 

Weeds

Bramble Weed Management

The primary goal of weed management is to optimize yields by minimizing competition between the weeds and the crop. Weeds reduce yields by competing with the crop for water, light, and nutrients. Weeds also harbor insects and diseases and encourage vertebrate pests. Timely cultivation, wise use of herbicides, and never permitting weeds to go to seed are integral parts of a good weed management system. Many of the weeds found in these fields are difficult-to-control perennial weeds that are not common in annual crop culture. New plantings usually have fewer perennial weed problems than older plantings. Annual and biennial weeds can also exist in these fields. Fields should be scouted at least twice a year (spring and fall) to determine specific weed problems. The selection of a weed management tool should be based on specific weeds present in each field. Several herbicides are labeled for use in this crop. A list of herbicides and their recommended uses is presented in Table 47.

Herbicides can be broadcast or applied as a directed spray to the base of the crop. With a band treatment, only 1 to 2 feet on either side of the row is treated. The areas between the crop row are usually maintained with a mowed cover of sod, clover, weeds, or a combination of these. This cover is used primarily for erosion control and to improve trafficability in the field. With banding, less herbicide is needed in each acre. For example, a 3 foot band (1.5 feet on either side of the row) where rows are spaced 9 feet apart will require only one third the amount of herbicide normally required for a broadcast treatment.

Weeds can develop resistance to herbicides. The Weed Science Society of America (WSSA) developed a grouping system based on the mode of action of different herbicides. WSSA Group numbers can be used as a tool to choose herbicides in different mode of action groups so mixtures or rotations of active ingredients can be planned to better manage weeds and reduce the potential for resistant species.

Cultivation and mulching are sometimes used as weed management tools. All cultivations should be timely and shallow to minimize crop root injury, to minimize loss of soil moisture, and to avoid repositioning new weed seeds to the soil surface. Mulches that are free of weed seeds and placed thickly enough can be very effective at reducing or eliminating most annual weeds from the crop row. They are seldom effective on perennial weeds. If mulches are used in combination with herbicides, use the lowest recommended herbicide rate to avoid crop injury.

Table 47. Weed Management in Brambles

Table 47. Weed management in brambles†.
Weed Problem Herbicide Rate/Acre Comments and Limitations
TRANSPLANT YEAR
PREEMERGENCE WEED CONTROL
Annual grasses and small seeded broadleaf weeds Group 15 (napropamide)
Devrinol 50DF
Devrinol 10G
8 lb
40 lb
Apply after transplanting to weed-free soil. Devrinol must be activated within 24 hrs by cultivation or enough water by irrigation or rainfall to wet the soil to a depth of 2 to 4 inches. The full rate may not be necessary at transplanting.
Group 3 (oryzalin)
Surflan AS
Surflan DF
2-6 qt
2.4-7.1 lb
Do not apply until soil has settled around the plants and no cracks are present. Irrigation or 1 inch of rain is needed within 21 days of application. Shallow cultivation will improve control. May injure newly planted tissue culture plants.
Broadleaf weeds and some grasses Group 5 (simazine)
Princep 4L
Princep Caliber 90
1-2 qt
1.1-2.2 lb
Use to improve the broadleaf weed activity of Devrinol or Surflan. Consider applying half the maximum rate after planting and half in the fall before winter annuals emerge. Do not use on newly transplanted tissue culture plants.
Broadleaf weeds only Group 29 (isoxaben)
Gallery 75D
0.66-1.33 lb NON-BEARING USE ONLY. Do not apply within 1 year of the first harvest. Do not apply over the top of plants but as a directed spray to the base of plants after the soil had settled. Does not control emerged weeds. Controls many broadleaf weeds from seed. See label for a complete list.
POSTEMERGENCE WEED CONTROL
Emerged annual and most perennial grasses Group 1
(fluazifop)
Fusilade DX
16-24 oz NON-BEARING USE ONLY. See label for best times to treat specific weeds. Will not control broadleaf weeds or sedges. Do not apply to crops to be harvested within 1 year of application. Do not apply if rainfall is expected within 1 hour or if grasses are under drought stress. Must be used with a crop oil concentrate or non-ionic surfactant.
Group 1 (sethoxydim)
Poast
1-2.5 pt See label for best times to treat specific weeds. Will not control broadleaf weeds or sedges. Do not apply to grasses under stress (e.g., drought). Crop oil concentrate must be added to the spray tank. Do not cultivate 5 days before or 7 days after application. Do not apply more than 5 pints per acre per season.
Most grass weed species Group 1 (clethodim)
Arrow 2EC
Select Max
6-8 oz
9-16 oz
Use the lower rate to control annual grasses and the perennial grasses listed to the left. Repeat the application if regrowth occurs. Always add oil concentrate to be 1 percent of the spray solution, or a minimum of 1 pint per acre, to Select 2EC. Always add oil concentrate to be 1 percent of the spray solution, or a minimum of 1 pint per acre, or nonionic surfactant to be 0.25 percent of the spray solution to Select Max. Do not tank-mix with any
other pesticide unless labeled. Do not apply within 1 hour of rainfall. Do not apply to grasses suffering from drought, heat, cold, or any other stress condition. Select 2EC is currently labeled for nonbearing fields only. Do not apply within 12 months of harvest.
Emerged annual weeds and suppression of perennial weeds (pelargonic acid)
Scythe
3-10% solution Contact material for burn down only. See Scythe comments on page in Strawberry section. See label for complete instructions.
Emerged annual and perennial weeds Group 9 (glyphosate)
Roundup, Touchdown
1 to 5 pt Apply to actively growing weeds. Apply with a wiper or a shielded/directed spray. Do not allow the spray, spray drift, or mist to contact green foliage, suckers, open wound, or other green parts of the plant. Consult the label for rates for specific weeds and other precautions. Use with a surfactant or wetting agent.
Weed Problem Herbicide Rate/Acre Comments and Limitations
ESTABLISHED PLANTINGS
PREEMERGENCE WEED CONTROL
Annual grasses and small seeded broadleaf weeds

Group 15 (napropamide)
Devrinol 50 DF

Devrinol 10G

8 lb

40 lb

Apply in the early spring before seedling weeds emerge. Devrinol must be activated within 24 hours by shallow cultivation or with enough rainfall or irrigation to wet the soil to a depth of 2 to 4 inches.

Group 3 (oryzalin)
Surflan AS

Surflan DF

2-6 qt

2.4-7.1 lb

Apply to weed-free soil in the spring. Irrigation or 1 inch of rainfall is needed within 21 days of application.
Group 12 (norflurazon)
Solicam 80DF
2.5-5 lb Apply in early spring when crop is dormant to clean and weed-free soil. May result in temporary bleaching or chlorosis of leaves from which the plant will recover. Do not use on nursery stock.
NOTE: For broad spectrum preemergence weed control, consider applying one of the above four “grass” herbicides (napropamide, oryzalin, metolachlor or norflurazon) in addition to one of the following “broadleaf” herbicides (simazine, terbacil, mesotrione or dichlobenil).
Broadleaf weeds, some grasses, and suppression of some perennial weeds

Group 5 (simazine)
Princep 4L

Princep Caliber 90

2-4 qt

2.2-4.4 lb

Apply in the spring before bud break and before weeds emerge, or in the fall. Do not apply when fruit is present. For improved control as well as quackgrass suppression apply half in the spring and half after harvest. May injure ‘Royalty’ raspberries.
Group 5
(terbacil)
Sinbar WDG
1-2 lb Apply in the early spring or in the fall as a directed spray to the base of the plants. Will also control small emerged weeds. Do not contact new shoots and avoid contact with bramble foliage. Spring application must be made before fruit set. Avoid application on plantings low in vigor. Planting must be at least 1 year old before application. Do not apply within 70 days before harvest.
Group 20 (dichlobenil)
Casoron CS
Casoron 4G
1.4-2.8 gal
100 lb
Apply at temperatures below 40˚F, preferably just before rain or snow. Soil must be settled around established plants. Uniform application is essential. Do not apply during new shoot emergence. Effective on many perennial weed species. May reduce/delay new shoot emergence in plantings that are young or lacking vigor.  There is a leaching risk with this product however both the granular ($G) and microencapsulated (CS) formulations have reduced leaching potential compared to the wettable powder formulation used previously.

Group 2 (rimsulfuron)

Matrix SG

4 oz Apply as a directed spray to the base of the crop prior to bud break in the spring. Applications should be made either pre-emergence or early post-emergence to weeds. May be applied twice per year with at least 30 days between applications. Crop should be at least 1 year old. MAINE ONLY.
Broadleaf weeds and nutsedge

Group 2

(halosulfuron)

Sandea

0.5-1 oz Applications should be made prior to primocane emergence or after cane burning. Avoid contact with canes. Contact will result in temporarty chlorosis of treated leaves. Use of a shield is recommended.
POSTEMERGENCE WEED CONTROL
Emerged annual grasses and broadleaf weeds. Suppression of emerged perennial weeds.

Group 22 (paraquat)
*Gramoxone SL2.0

*Firestorm

2-4 pt

 

1.3-2.7 pt

Contact herbicide. Use with a non-ionic surfactant. Apply as a coarse directed spray to wet the weeds. Apply before emergence of new canes or shoots to avoid injury. Use of a shield is highly recommended.

Group 14 (carfentrazone)

Aim EC

1-2 oz Apply as a directed spray to the base of the crop to burn down emerged weeds including morning glory, nightshade, bedstraw and ferns. Do not use more than 6.1 oz/year. Contact with the crop will cause damage. Requires a non-ionic surfactant or crop oil concentrate.
Emerged annual and most perennial grasses Group 1 (sethoxydim)
Poast
1-2.5 pt See label for best times to treat specific weeds. Will not control broadleaf weeds or sedges. Do not apply to grasses under stress (e.g., drought). Crop oil concentrate must be added to the spray tank. Do not cultivate 5 days before or 7 days after application. Do not apply within 45 days before harvest in brambles. Do not apply more than 5 pints per acre per season.

Group 1 (clethodim)

Select Max

9-16 oz Apply as a directed spray to the base of the crop and to actively growing grasses. Grasses under drought stress will not be controlled. Do not apply more than 64 oz/acre/year. Do not repeat applications within 14 days.
Emerged annual weeds and suppression of perennial weeds. (pelargonic acid)
Scythe
3-10% solution Contact material for burn down only. See Scythe comments in Strawberry section. See label for complete instructions.
Emerged annual and perennial weeds Group 9 (glyphosate)
Roundup Ultra, Touchdown
1-5 qt Apply to actively growing weeds. Apply with a wiper or a shielded/directed spray to the base of the plants. Do not permit herbicide solution to contact desirable vegetation, including green shoots, canes, or foliage. Do not cultivate within 7 days after application.
Broadleaf weeds and Nutsedge

Group 2

(halosulfuron)

Sandea

0.5-1 oz Applications should be made prior to primocane emergence or after cane burning. Avoid contact with canes. Contact will result in temporarty chlorosis of treated leaves. Use of a shield is recommended.
†Where brand names for chemicals are used, it is for the reader’s information. No endorsement is implied, nor is discrimination intended against products with similar ingredients. Please consult pesticide product labels for rates, application instructions and safety precautions. Users of these products assume all associated risks.
*Restricted use pesticide; pesticide applicators license required. OMRI listed for organic production
Table 48. Weed management with and without herbicides in a bramble planting.
Year Month Herbicide Options Non-herbicide Options
Planting year
  Fall prior to planting Glyphosate for emerged perennial weeds. Frequent tillage
  April-early May Surflan or Devrinol before weed seedlings emerge. Till or water in within 24 hours Plant sod in row middles. Use mulch in planting rows for 1st year. Hand weed
  Mid-June after planting Fusilade, Poast, Select or Arrow for perennial grasses before 6” of growth Cultivate/hand weed/mulch; mow row middles and borders
  Mid-July Hand weed or Glyphosate spot treatments Cultivate/hand weed; mow row middles and borders
  October Princep at low rate Cultivate/hand weed; mow row middles and borders
  Late November Casoron for grasses and broadleaf weeds. Read label carefully for specific application requirements Hand weed if needed
Fruiting years
  March-April Princep or Sinbar for broadleaf weeds. Devrinol, Surflan or Solicam for annual grasses. Poast or Select for perennial grasses. Poast or Select may need to be reapplied in 14 days or can be substituted with a cultivation if possible. Hand weed rows and mow row middles and borders
  Early May Aim, Gramoxone or Scythe before new cane emergence. Hand weed and mow row middles and borders
  Mid-Summer Poast or Select on actively growing grasses Hand weed and mow row middles and borders
  September to October Sinbar, Devrinol, Solicam, Surflan, Princep. See labels for restrictions. Hand weed and mow row middles and borders
  November Casoron if needed for grasses and broadleaves. See labels for restrictions.