Currants and Gooseberries

General Information

Ribes Regulations in New England

Some New England states regulate aspects of Ribes spp. production within their boundaries due to their role as alternate hosts of White Pine Blister Rust (Cronartium ribicola), a disease that can seriously affect White Pine trees.  In order to determine that status and the specifics of any relevant regulations in your state, check the links below:

CT: No regulations at present
MA: http://www.mass.gov/eea/docs/agr/legal/regs/330-cmr-9-00.pdf
ME: http://www.maine.gov/dacf/mfs/forest_health/diseases/white_pine_blister_rust_rule.htm
NH: nhdfl.org/Community/Forest-Health/White-Pine-Blister-Rust-in-NH
RI: http://www.dem.ri.gov/pubs/regs/regs/agric/pinebls2.pdf
VT: No regulations at present

Production

(Descriptive text adapted from the 2013-14 Mid-Atlantic Berry Guide)

Currants and gooseberries are two closely related species within the genus Ribes. This genus is diverse with more than 150 known species and hundreds of cultivated varieties (cultivars). Currants and gooseberries can be easily distinguished by the presence or absence of thorns; gooseberries usually have thorns, while currants do not.
Ribes plants are long-lived perennial shrubs that are cold-hardy, some to USDA Zone 2. Species and cultivars vary in plant size and form but are usually upright to spreading in habit (3 to 6 feet). Disease and insect resistance is variable. The fruit is versatile and nutritious and varies in presentation, flavor, shape, size, texture, and color.

Currants

Most cultivated currants are of European origin, though many native North American species also exist. Currant color types include red, white, pink, and black. Plants are thornless and fruit is small (pea sized) and produced and harvested in a grape-like cluster called a “strig.” Cultivars may be classified under several species; yet some debate exists as to which species different types of plants belong. Species are Ribes rubrum (most red currants and some whites), R. petraeum (white), R. vulgare (pink, white, and red), and R. nigrum and R. ussurienses (black). Native currants, sometimes considered more closely related to gooseberries, belong to the species R. odoratum, the Buffalo Currant, with some selections known as Clove Currant (for example, the cultivar Crandall) because of the fragrance of their blossoms. Because of their tart flavor, currants are seldom eaten fresh but are used for processing into juices, jams, and jellies. Black currants are noted for their strong (to some, offensive) odor and astringent flavor, yet they are highly prized in Europe for juice products and their high nutrient content. Vitamin C concentrations can be as high as 250 milligrams per 100 grams of juice, even after 6 months of storage.

Gooseberries

Cultivated forms of gooseberries are divided into two major types, European (Ribes grossularia var. uva-crispa) and American (R. hirtellum). European types are native to North Africa and the Caucasus Mountains of eastern Europe and western Asia, while the American types are native to the northern United States and Canada. Within the European types, fruit size varies widely, from pea sized to small egg sized. Color varies widely as well, with fruit colors in shades of green, pink, red, purple, white, and yellow. This diversity is due to the historical popularity of the European gooseberry. Over the past two centuries, hundreds of cultivars have been developed with a focus on prize-winning fruit size and color.
Native American gooseberry species have smaller fruit size and less flavor, but they are more resistant to diseases when compared to European cultivars, which are noted for powdery mildew and leaf spot susceptibility. This problem has limited the culture of most of the European types in this country. However, disease resistance is improving through additional breeding with American types, and several new promising European cultivars have recently been introduced in the United States and Canada. In comparison, most known American cultivars in the trade today have had some historical infusion of European genetics to improve size and flavor, which can be traced to a handful of crosses made in the 1800s. All gooseberry cultivars have varying degrees of thorniness. Fruit is produced in small groups or singularly on stems and are picked individually.

Jostaberry

The jostaberry is an interspecies cross between gooseberries and black currant. Its fruit is larger than currants, similar to gooseberries, and black in color. The stems are thornless. Fruit quality has not gained wide appeal for either fresh or processed use, but it has inspired renewed breeding efforts, with new and improved crosses being developed. It has a vigorous growth habit and is resistant to white pine blister rust. Disease (mildew) resistance is similar to that of black currants.

History and Restrictions

In the early 1900s, the federal and state governments outlawed the growing of currants and gooseberries to prevent the spread of white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola). This fungal disease attacks both Ribes and white pines, which must live in close proximity for the blister rust fungus to complete its life cycle.  Spores of C. ribicola have to move from one host species (e.g. pine) to the other (e.g., Ribes) in order to complete its life cycle.   If one host is absent or highly resistant (immune), the disease does not proliferate.  Most black currants (Ribes nigrum) and white pines (Pinus strobus) are extremely susceptible, and red currants and gooseberries exhibit varying degrees of susceptibility.  There are some commercially available cultivars of black currant that are highly resistant (immune) to infection by C. ribicola.  See more about this in the 'Choosing Cultivars' section below.

Although the federal ban was rescinded in 1966, some northern states still prohibit the planting or cultivation of black currants. Check with your state’s Agriculture Department to find out the status of these regulations (and see the links above).

Some black currant types, such as the cultivars ‘Consort’, ‘Crusader’, and ‘Titania’ are hybrids that are resistant to the blister rust fungus. In some cases, they can be planted in areas where other currants and gooseberries are not permitted.

Choosing Cultivars

Ribes are a very diverse genus with hundreds of different varieties that differ in plant size, form, fruit flavor, shape, texture, color and hairiness. While most are hardy to Zone 3 or Zone 4, a few are hardy to Zone 2. Several types of interest include:

Red currants (Ribes rubrum, R. sativum and R. petraeum): Fruits range in color from dark red to pink, yellow, white and beige, and they continue to sweeten on the bush even after they appear to be in full color. Popular cultivars include 'Cascade', 'Detvan', 'Jonkeer van Tets', 'Red Lake', 'Rovada', 'Tatran', and 'Wilder'. Many people consider ‘Rovada’ to be the best red currant cultivar. Plants are dependable, vigorous, late ripening, and very productive, bearing long-stemmed clusters of large red berries that are easy to pick.

White currants: (Ribes sativum) A type of red currant, white currant cultivars are sold less frequently by nurseries. ‘Blanka’ is most commonly available. Berries are large and mild in flavor with a pale yellow color. Most people prefer ‘White Imperial’ or ‘Primus’ if they are available.

Black currants (Ribes nigrum): Black currants are the type most associated with culinary products and flavorings. As a group they are more susceptible to infection by White Pine Blister Rust. Cultivars such as ‘Consort’, ‘Crusader’, 'Ben Sarek', and ‘Titania’ are immune or resistant to this disease.

Jostaberries (Ribes x nidigrolaria): Jostaberries can be used for fresh eating or in culinary products. Until recently only one cultivar, 'Jostaberry', was available.  Recently another has been released, 'Orus 8'. 

Gooseberries: There are two types of gooseberry plants -- American (Ribes hirtellum) and European (Ribes uva-crispa).  Cultivars of the American type are smaller but more resistant to mildew. They tend to be healthier and more productive. American cultivars include ‘Poorman’, ‘Oregon Champion’, ‘Hinnonmaki Red’, ‘Hinnonmaki Yellow’, ‘Captivator’, and ‘Pixwell’.  The fruits of the European cultivars are larger and better flavored and include ‘Invicta’, ‘Leveller’, ‘Careless’, ‘Early Sulfur’, ‘Catherina’, ‘Achilles’, and 'Tixia™'.  'Tixia™' has the advantage of having fewer and softer thorns than many of the others.

Sources of gooseberry and currant plants can be found at: http://www.hort.cornell.edu/fruit/mfruit/gooseberries.html

Site Selection and Soil Preparation

Unlike most other fruit crops, currants and gooseberries tolerate partial shade and prefer a cool, moist growing area. Northern slopes with protection from direct sun are ideal. Planting along the side of a building or shady arbor is suitable as well.

Avoid sites with poor air circulation, which increases the incidence of powdery mildew. Sloping ground alleviates this condition. Also avoid light-textured, sandy soils. Rich, well drained soils that have a high moisture holding capacity are best. Incorporate organic matter (compost, peat, or manure) to improve the soil, particularly if it is somewhat sandy. The ideal soil pH is about 6.5.

Planting

Purchase strong, well-rooted plants from a reliable nursery, selecting either one- or two-year-old vigorous stock. Because currants and gooseberries begin growth very early in the spring, you should plant them in the early fall or very early in spring, before the plants begin to grow.

Before planting, remove damaged roots and head back the tops to 6 to 10 inches. Do not allow the root systems to dry out. Set plants as soon as possible in properly prepared soil, slightly deeper than they grew in the nursery. Firm the soil around the roots. Space plants according to the vigor of the cultivar, keeping in mind that plants are more vigorous on very fertile soil. As a general rule, plants should be spaced 3 to 5 feet apart in the row with 8 to 10 feet between rows.

Trellising gooseberries increases air circulation (decreasing disease problems), makes fruit easier to harvest, and allows you more plants in less space. Gooseberries are easily propagated through tip layering or stool bedding (mound layering).

Fertilizing

Currant and gooseberry plants are heavy nitrogen feeders. To give the plants a healthy start, work manure into the soil before planting. Annual top-dressings of composted manure are beneficial as well. If plants are not vigorous, lightly broadcast about .25 to .5 pound of 10-10-10 per plant. Avoid fertilizers containing muriate of potash (potassium chloride).

Mulching

Mulch keeps the soil cool in the summer, retains moisture, and controls weeds. Spread 2 to 3 inches of mulch around plants and replenish it yearly. Suitable mulches include straw, lawn rakings, composted manure, compost, wood chips, or similar materials. Grass clippings make excellent mulch. If you use fresh straw or sawdust, you may need to apply nitrogen fertilizer because these high-carbon mulches tie up nitrogen while they decompose.

Harvest

Remove any flowers so that plants don’t develop fruit during their first season of growth. Expect a light crop the second year and a full crop by the third. Currants and gooseberries ripen in June and July, depending on cultivar. Berries do not drop immediately upon ripening, so they usually can be harvested in one or two pickings. Currants can be picked in clusters, and gooseberries are picked as individual fruits. Expect mature plants to yield about 90 to 150 pounds per 100 feet of row. Wait for fruit to turn color before picking. Gooseberries come off easily when they are ripe. Currants require some trial and error to determine the right time.

Pruning

Prune currants and gooseberries when the plants are dormant in late winter or early spring. Remove any branches that lie along the ground as well as branches that are diseased or broken. Ribes species produce fruit at the base of one year old wood. Fruiting is strongest on spurs of two and three year old wood.

After the first year of growth, remove all but six to eight of the most vigorous shoots. At the end of the second growing season, leave the 4 or 5 best one-year-old shoots and up to 3 or 4 two-year-old canes. At the end of the third year, prune so that approximately 3 or 4 canes of each age class should remain. By the fourth year, the oldest set of canes should be removed and the new canes allowed to grow. This system of renewal ensures that the plants remain productive because young canes always replace those that are removed. A strong, healthy, mature plant should have about eight bearing canes, with younger canes eventually replacing the oldest.

Pest Management

Visit the Cornell Berry Diagnostic Tool for assistance in diagnosing problems with currants and gooseberries.

Currant aphids, fourlined plant bug, currant borer, imported currant worm, gooseberry fruitworm, sawflies, leaf spot, white pine blister rust (on susceptible varieties), and powdery mildew are the most common problems that plague currant and gooseberry plantings. All disfigure or damage leaves, and can cause defoliation; except for the currant borer which can weaken and kill canes and gooseberry fruitworm which infests fruit.  Spotted Wing Drosophila may also be a serious pest although the fruiting season is early enough that populations may still be below injurious levels.

Diseases

Botrytis Dieback and Fruit Rot (Botrytis cinerea): This disease commonly affects many plants.  It can infect leaf and stem tissue but is most damaging when it infects flower and fruit tissue leading to fruit rot.  It overwinters in dead leaves and plant debris and on stems. Inoculum is produced from fruiting structures on canes, from dead leaves, and from mummified berries in the spring.

Management: To help minimize the disease, choose a planting site with good air movement and prune out weak canes to speed the drying of plants. Also eliminate weeds to aid in quicker drying of foliage and fruit and harvest fruit before it is overripe. Fungicides should be applied during bloom, with additional applications made during harvest, if necessary. See the following Pest Management Table for specific recommendations and rates.

Powdery mildew (Podosphaera mors-uvae): This fungal disease overwinters on currant and gooseberry twigs.  In early summer, a whitish, powdery growth appears on the surface of leaves, shoots, and branch tips. Infected berries become cracked and may shatter. Infected leaves may drop prematurely during hot weather. If left unchecked, the fungus can progress to the berries. Later in summer, the growth may turn from white to brown. Warm, humid conditions with poor air circulation favor powdery mildew. Prune and dispose of infected branch and shoot tips in early spring.  Severe infections can cause plants to become stunted and die. Some growers are experimenting with trellising gooseberries to improve disease management and harvestability. Certain horticultural oils (check labels) applied at first sign of mildew can prevent spread.

Management: Conditions of high humidity are most likely to lead to mildew problems.  Any cultural practices like pruning and plant spacing that can help improve air circulation and reduce humidity will reduce incidence of mildew infections. Sprays are most necessary during humid or wet weather in the spring. Apply when the first signs of powdery mildew are apparent and repeat as necessary. If oil is used, multiple applications may delay ripening or reduce sugar accumulation in the berries. The oil kills powdery mildew colonies on contact, thus, high water volumes and thorough coverage of the leaves and developing fruit are essential for good results. Many common pesticides (including sulfur) are phytotoxic when applied with or close to oil sprays; check label for specific restrictions. See the following Pest Management Table for specific recommendations and rates.

Anthracnose Leaf Spot and Septoria Leaf Spot (Drepanopeziza ribis and Mycosphaerella ribis): These diseases can both become serious problems, especially in wet, humid years. Symptoms range from brown spots and yellowing on leaves, young shoots, and stems to early defoliation. The fungi overwinter in infected dead leaf tissue.  Spores are released from this leaf debris in the spring and infect new leaf tissue. Small brown spots appear in early to mid-June and at this point both diseases are visually indistinguishable. Currant fruit may also become infected with Anthracnose. Severe infections cause berries to crack and drop. 

Management: These diseases can be suppressed by raking out and removing infected leaves after they have fallen and apply mulch to cover any inoculum that might remain.  Prune and trellis to improve air circulation and promote leaf drying. Overhead irrigation creates conditions especially favorable leaf spot development. Irrigate during morning hours to allow foliage to dry before the evening.  Fungicides applied before bloom, after petal fall and after harvest are also recommended. See the following Pest Management Table for specific recommendations and rates.

White Pine Blister Rust (Cronartium ribicola): This disease is the primary reason for limited commercial production of Ribes in the North America.  It is a complex disease that requires two hosts, susceptible varieties of Ribes and 5-needled pines (e.g., Eastern White Pine).  Symptoms on Ribes consist of yellow to orange spots appearing on less susceptible plants first in the spring. Larger patches of orange 'rust' appear on the underside of the leaves later in the summer. Symptoms are usually not severe on Ribes (although severe infections can defoliate plants), but infections in White Pines can lead to tree death.

Management: Black currants 'Ben Sarek', 'Consort, Crusader', 'Coronet' and 'Titania' are considered resistant. Titania is the most widely planted variety in New England (where it is permitted) and was considered immune to WPBR in the past.  That immunity may no longer be stable and so some states are revising their regulations as related to allowing this and other 'immune' varieties.  It is important to check with your local Extension Specialists to determine the most recent status of this disease. Gooseberries, red and white currants are generally less susceptible. Ribes species 'Red Lake', 'Jumbo Cherry' and 'White Currant' are known to be less susceptible than 'Red Jacket', 'Green Hansa', 'Poorman' and 'Pixwell'. Avoid planting in high-risk areas (check with your University Extension office for help determining the risk category of your site) or within 1 mile of pine trees stands. If Rally fungicide is used for powdery mildew or anthracnose, it should also control white pine blister rust. See the following Pest Management Table for specific recommendations and rates.

Currant Cane Blight or Botryosphaeria Canker (Botryosphaeria ribis): Initial symptoms appear as yellowing foliage and leaf wilting of young shoots during spring and summer. Affected shoots may resemble currant borer damage, but will have not borer larvae or exit holes. Once the cane is dead and no longer transporting nutrients, the fungus will make small (2mm in diameter) round black survival structures, stromata, which burst through the epidermis near tips of infected shoots. This disease causes canes to become extremely weak and consequently break off during high winds in the fall and subsequent winter. All currant varieties may be affected however gooseberries are not known to be affected. 

Management: Watch for a rapid blight of young shoots during early fruit development, and scout mature canes for the small black survival structures prior to budbreak. Prune out and burn infected canes in spring. There are differences in resistance among cultivars, but it is variety specific and not linked to color traits. 

Insects

San Jose Scale (Quadraspidiotus perniciosus): These insects occasionally infest currant and gooseberry plants. They feed by sucking valuable plant juices, and in severe cases they affect the fruit as well. Scale insects are easily seen on the dormant wood.

Management: Prune out and destroy infested canes before new growth begins in the spring. Certain dormant oils applications (check labels) can help reduce infestations. See following Pest Management Table for recommended materials and rates.

Currant Aphid (Cryptomyzus ribis): These tiny, soft-bodied insects feed under young leaves toward the shoot tips, causing affected leaves to curl downward, blister, and become reddish. In severe cases, leaves become excessively distorted and fall off and the fruit does not ripen properly.

Management: Monitor for leaf symptoms early in the season to identify infestations early.  Naturally occurring beneficials may keep populations in check over time.  Insecticidal soap and certain horticultural oils (check labels) can help control aphid infestations not controlled by natural predators. Early bud break insecticide applications can also be made. See following Pest Management Table for recommended materials and rates.

Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Halyomorpha halys): Direct feeding on fruit by adults and all stages of nymphs can cause serious damage.  Adults are mottled brown, about 3⁄4 inch long, and nearly as wide with a shield shape. Adults can be differentiated from common brown stink bugs by alternating brown and white bands on their antennae and along the edges of their abdomens. Nymphs are smaller and, like adults, exhibit white bands on brown antennae. Their coloration varies with instar, but each has some yellow or red coloration, and their eyes are red. Eggs are yellowish green, oval, and laid in clusters that are attached side to side on leaf undersides.  Adults overwinter in protected locations and emerge in spring. They lay eggs from May through August. Nymphs progress through five instars.

Management: Monitor using traps recommended by your Extension Specialists. If found, Pyrethroids are the most effective chemical class. Nymphs should be targeted during pesticide applications as they cannot fly away; a direct hit of nymphs or adults is necessary for efficacy. Natural enemies are present, but they have a wide host range and thus currently provide insufficient control.

Fourlined Plant Bug (Poecilocapus lineatus): Nymphs and adults feed on leaves with piercing mouthparts and cause stippling of leaves. The spots may turn from yellow to brown or black. Most damage is seen on the youngest leaves. The feeding injury can be easily confused with leaf spot disease. The plant bugs overwinter as eggs which are inserted in the shoots. In Connecticut, egg hatch begins in mid-May. The nymphs are red to yellow with stripes on their wing pads. Adults are yellowish-green with four black stripes, about 1/4 inch long, and appear by early June. There is one generation per year.

Management: The eggs are relatively visible on the canes, usually near bud scales, during the dormant season. These can be pruned off and destroyed. Dormant oil may have some effect on overwintering eggs. Insecticides should be targeted at the nymphal stage. Once the plant bugs become adults they may be harder to kill; they also may have started laying eggs. Malathion, when used for other pests, is very effective on fourlined plant bug nymphs.

Currant Borer (Synanthedon tipuliformis): Adults are about 1/2 inch long, clear-winged, blue-black, wasp-like moths with yellow bands on their abdomen. Adults are active from approximately June 1 to mid-July in Connecticut. The females lay eggs in the stems, particularly around leaf axils. These eggs hatch during the summer and the larvae burrow into the currant and gooseberry canes; where they overwinter until the following spring. Some larvae may take 2 years to complete development. Infested canes put out sickly growth in the spring. Repeated infestations may cause the death of canes.

Management: To prevent the next generation of moths from emerging, remove and destroy infested canes before June 1. Proper pruning to remove old canes is the best control. Insecticides may help with control of adult moths if timed properly. Use pheromone traps to monitor for adult flight activity. Danitol is labeled for currant borer but may cause an increase in two-spotted spider mites due to effects on natural predators. PyGanic has a short residual and may need repeated applications. Bt products may have some effect on young larvae before they enter stems. See following Pest Management Table for recommended materials and rates.

Currant Stem Girdler (Janus integer): Sawfly lays eggs on shoot tips and girdles the tips, which eventually die and fall off. The larvae can bore into and feed within canes.

Management: Cut off affected tips in May or June about 3 to 4 inches below the girdle, or if left until later in the season, about 8 inches below the girdle. See following Pest Management Table for recommended materials and rates.

Imported Currant Worm (Nematus ribesii): The full-grown sawfly larva is 3 inches long; it is green with yellowish ends, has a black head, and is covered with black spots. Shortly after the leaves are out in the spring, the larvae feed first in colonies and later singly, voraciously stripping the plants of foliage. A second brood occurs in early summer, and a partial third brood may appear depending on the weather. If numerous, they can strip a bush of its foliage in a few days.

Management: Monitor for and remove leaves harboring eggs by hand. Watch for larvae starting just after bloom as the fruits start to enlarge. Cultural control involves being observant of growing conditions and keeping plants vigorous. Insecticide applications may be made as soon as larvae are found feeding on the leaves.  See following Pest Management Table for recommended materials and rates.

Gooseberry Fruitworm (Zophodia convolutella): This greenish caterpillar feeds in fruit causing it to color prematurely and fall off. The adult is a grayish moth with a wingspan of about an inch. Larvae are about 3⁄4 inch long with a brownish head and green body with dark stripes along the sides when fully grown.  Hollowed-out berries that change color prematurely and dry up or fall to the ground. Clusters of berries and part of the stem may be wrapped in a silken webbing.

Management: Hand-picking infested berries provides some control. An insecticide may be needed starting at early fruit development and again 10 days later. See following Pest Management Table for recommended materials and rates.

Spotted Wing Drosophila (Drosophila suzukii): This pest is similar in appearance to other vinegar flies or fruit flies. Most adult males have one large black spot near the tip of each wing.  Adult females lack wing spots, but they have a large sawlike ovipositor visible with magnification. Larvae are 2–3 millimeters long, white, and have no obvious head. These tiny white larvae can be found in otherwise marketable fruit. Tiny holes surrounded by sunken tissue may be found where oviposition wounds were made. Spotted wing drosophila is a new pest and while it will feed on Ribes, it is not known if Ribes fruit are preferred over other available fruit in a given location.

Management: Vinegar traps can be bought or made and are used to monitor for pest presence, but they are not a method of control. Traps containing vinegar should be hung in the crop as the fruit begins to color. Pruning and canopy management to create an open bush with light penetration to the base and good air circulation will make the planting less desirable for SWD and reduce their abundance during fruiting.  Clean, thorough and frequent harvest is also important for managing the damage from this pest.  Do not allow fruit to drop or stay on the ground beneath the bushes as this gives SWD a good place to feed, lay eggs and proliferate.  When spraying, a tight spray schedule with thorough coverage and rotating IRAC classes (to avoid resistance development) is important.  Pyrethroids and spinosads are effective on the adults; neonicotinoids and some other broad-spectrum materials are considered less effective.  No effective control for larvae is currently available. See following Pest Management Table for recommended materials and rates.

Japanese Beetle (Popillia japonica): Japanese beetles have an exceptionally large host range, feeding on the leaves of over 300 species of plants, including apples, grapes, blueberries, raspberries, roses and plums. These beetles are metallic green, while the wing covers are a shiny bronze. Five white patches of hair along each side of their body and two white patches on the tip of their abdomen helps confirm identification.  Adult beetles may become serious pests skeletonizing leaves and scaring berries. Adults overwinter as grubs deep in the soil.  The grubs consume feeder roots and may also girdle or clip off larger roots. In spring, they move near the soil surface, where they finish feeding and pupate. Pupae are first cream color and become light reddish-brown with age. Beetles emerge as adults in late June or early July and can fly a long distance to feed. Infested plants may not show any outward signs of injury until a period of drought stress, when the reduced root system cannot provide enough water to the plant. Damaged bushes show low vigor and reduced production. 

Management: Beetles are best controlled as adults. Physical removal is a viable option for small growers. Remove the beetles by hand and put them in soapy water. Hand picking is most effective as the beetles first arrive. The best time to handpick beetles is in the evening and early morning, when they are less active. Research has shown that Japanese beetle traps attract more beetles than they catch, and will typically cause more damage to plants in a garden. Adults are generally easy to control with foliar sprays, but timing is difficult since these are highly mobile insects that may suddenly appear in the field. Unfortunately, sampling for white grubs may damage the roots of bushes. Growers should check new sites for white grubs before establishing a field, and take actions against grubs before planting. Adults are generally easy to control with foliar sprays, but timing is difficult since these are highly mobile insects that may suddenly appear in the field. Insecticides can help manage adults especially when small to moderate numbers of Japanese beetles are present.  Several contact, residual insecticides are available. See following Pest Management Table for recommended materials and rates.

Slugs and Snails (various species): Slugs are soft-bodied mollusks that resemble snails without a shell. Slugs feed on leaves of all Ribes species. They are most active at night and during cool, wet weather. Populations are greatest when weather is damp and the planting is mulched. Translucent silver to whitish slime trails are visible on damages plants. During cold weather, snails and slugs hibernate in the topsoil. During hot, dry periods or when it is cold, snails seal themselves off with a parchment like membrane and often attach themselves to tree trunks, fences, or walls. Snails and slugs feed on a variety of living plants and on decaying plant matter. They chew irregular holes with smooth edges in leaves and flowers and can clip succulent plant parts. They also can chew fruit and young plant bark. Because they prefer succulent foliage or flowers, they primarily are pests of seedlings and herbaceous plants, but they also are serious pests of ripening fruits that are close to the ground. Look for the silvery mucous trails to confirm slugs or snails caused the damage and not earwigs, caterpillars, or other chewing insect.

Management: A good snail and slug management program relies on a combination of methods. The first step is to eliminate, as much as possible, all places where they can hide during the day. Handpicking can be very effective if done thoroughly on a regular basis. After the population has noticeably declined, a weekly handpicking can be sufficient.To draw out snails and slugs, water the infested plants in the late afternoon. After dark, search them out using a flashlight; pick them up placing in a plastic bag or a bucket with soapy water and dispose of them. Snail and slug traps are commercially available. Snails and slugs have many natural enemies including ground beetles, pathogens, snakes, toads, turtles, and birds, but most are rarely effective enough to provide satisfactory control. Snail and slug baits can be effective when used properly in conjunction with a cultural program incorporating the other methods discussed above. However, baits alone won’t effectively control snails or slugs. Baits are toxic to all snails and slugs, including the predatory decollate snail and native species. Several types of snail and slug bait products are available. The timing of any baiting is critical; baiting is less effective during very hot, very dry, or cold times of the year, because snails and slugs are less active during these periods. Irrigate before applying a bait to promote snail activity, and apply the bait in the late afternoon or evening.

Table 49. Currant and Gooseberry Pest Management Table

Table 49. Currant and Gooseberry pest management table†.
For resistance management do not make more than 2 sequential applications of fungicides of the same FRAC group or insecticides in the same IRAC group. See product labels for groups.
Pest

RAC
GROUP

Spray Material, Rate/A
(pre harvest interval-PHI)
Cultural Practices and
Scouting Notes
Comments
DORMANT
San Jose Scale
IRAC  
UN
UN
UN 
UN
UN
 
 
 
 
 
Dormant Spray Oils, 4-6 gal/100 gal water (0) - some are OMRI listed
Lime-Sulfur Solution, 10-12 gal/100 gal water (0) - some are OMRI listed 
Molt-X, 10 oz (0) or 
AzaGuard, 10-16 oz/A (0)
SuffOil-X, 1-2 gal/100 gal water(0)
Light infestations can be pruned out during winter pruning.
Apply Dormant spray oils before  buds swell and burst in the spring. Phytotoxicity is possible, thus avoid weather extremes. Do not use oil sprays 48hr before and after a frost. Avoid using oils in very hot (over 85°F) and under humid conditions.
Lime sulfur should cover shoots thoroughly. 48hr REI.
Apply Molt-X or AzaGuard to target crawlers. Use with 0.25-1% non-phytotoxic crop oil in enough water to cover twigs and leaves. 4hr REI.
Budbreak through full leaf
Currant Aphid  
IRAC
4A
4A
4A
3A
1B
4D
UN
UN
UN
UN
UN
3A
UN
UN
 
*Actara, 3-4 oz (3)
*Admire Pro, 1-1.4 oz (3) - foliar application
Assail 30SG, 2.5-5.3 oz (1)
*Brigade WSB, 5.3-16 oz (1) or Brigade 2E, 2.1-6.4 oz (1) 
Malathion 57EC, 2 pt/200 gal water (1) - currants only
Sivanto 200SL, 7-10.5 oz/25 gal water (3)
AzaGuard, 10-16 oz (0)
BioCeres WP, 1-2 lb (0) 
Grandevo WDG, 1-3 lb (0)
Molt-X, 10 oz (0)
M-Pede, 1-2% v/v (0)
PyGanic EC 5.0II, 4.5-17 oz (0) or PyGanic 1.4 ECII, 16 oz (0)
Sil-MATRIX, 0.5-1% solution (0)
SuffOil-X, 1-2 gal/100 gal water (0)
Scout plantings for infestations to determine need for control measures.
Sivanto has 4hr REI and a max of 7 days between applications is required.  
Apply Molt-X in combination with 0.25-1% non-phytotoxic crop oil in sufficient water to cover undersides of leaves.
Use Grandevo when populations are low and/or during younger aphid stages. 4hr REI. 
Sil-MATRIX should be applied before leaf hardening. 4hr REI.
Imported Currant Worm or Currant Sawfly
IRAC
1B
UN 
UN 
3A
UN

 

 
 
 
Malathion 57EC, 2 pt (1) - currants only
AzaGuard, 10-16 oz (0)
Molt-X, 10 oz (0)
PyGanic EC 5.0II, 4.5-18 oz (0) 
SuffOil-X, 1-2 gal/100 gal water (0)
 
Scout plantings for adults soon after budbreak and larvae after fruitset.
Sawfly larva resemble lepidopteran caterpillars, but are not related and therefore not controlled by Bt products.
Apply Molt-X when pests first appear. 
See label for AzaGuard tank mix restrictions. 
Currant Stem Girdler
IRAC
3A
 
*Danitol 2.4EC, 10.6-16 oz/50 gal water (3) - currants only

Adult sawflies lay eggs in young, succulent shoot tips, then girdle tips below the eggs. Shoots tips die, reducing cane length. Cut off affected tips below evidence of insect activity.

Do not exceed 3 applications per season of Danitol. Apply at first sign of pest activity. 
Powdery Mildew
FRAC
11
11
7, 9
3
19
UN
7, 11
3
P7
UN
UN
M1
NC
UN 
M2
UN
UN
UN
UN
 
Abound, 6-15.5 oz (0)
Cabrio EG, 14 oz (0)
Luna Tranquility, 13.6-27 oz (0)
Mettle 125ME, 3-5 oz (14) - gooseberries only
Oso 5%SC, 3.75-13 oz (0)
PERPose Plus, 1:100 (0)
Pristine, 18.5-23 oz (0)
Rally 40WSP, 5 oz (0)
Rampart, 1-3 qt/20 gal water (0)
Rendition, 48 oz/100 gal water (0)
Actinovate AG, 3-12 oz (0)
Cueva FC, 0.5-2 gal (0)
JMS Stylet Oil-Organic, 3-6 qt (0)
Kaligreen, 2.5-3 lb (0)
Kumulus DF, 6-15 lb (0)
MilStop,  2.5-5 lb (1)
M-Pede, 1-2% v/v  solution (0)
Sil-MATRIX, 0.5-1% solution (0)
SuffOil-X, 1-2 gal/100 gal water (0)
Abound is very toxic to some apple varieties. Do not spray in proximity to apple trees or with sprayer also used for apple trees.
Luna Tranquility is a broad spectrum fungicide. Do not exceed 54.7 fl oz/A/year. 12hr REI.
Begin Mettle 125ME application at pre-bloom and continue as  needed in 14-day intervals. Do not exceed 3 applications per season. Note long PHI. 12hr REI.
Oso 5% SC should be applied as preventative and continue on a 7-14day interval as needed. 4hr REI.
Kumulus DF and other sulfur based products should not be applied during bloom as some gooseberries may be damaged especially during warm weather. 
Rendition should be applied when weather conditions favor disease development. 4hr REI. 
Cueva should be applied at onset of bloom when weather conditions favor disease development. 4hr REI.
JMS Stylet Oil should be applied at first sign of disease. Multiple applications may delay ripening or reduce sugar accumulation. Thorough coverage is essential. Many common pesticides are phytotoxic when applied with or close to oil sprays. 
Kaligreen should not be mixed with highly acidic products or nutrients. Some gooseberry varieties will be damaged by sulfur sprays, especially during warm weather. Test first if sulfur sensitivity is unknown.
Sil-MATRIX should be applied before leaf hardening for best results. 4hr REI.
Pre-Bloom
White Pine Blister Rust
FRAC
3
3
UN
UN
 
Proline 480SC, 5.7 oz (7)
Rally 40WSP, 5 oz (0)
JMS Stylet Oil-Organic, 3-6 qt/100 gal water (0)
SuffOil-X, 1-2 gal/100 gal water (0)
Plant resistant (immune) varieties whenever possible. Check with nursery supplier for resistance rating of varieties.
Apply Proline 480SC at the first sign of disease. Repeat applications as needed using a 7-10day interval if conditions remain favorable. 12hr REI.
Bloom
White Pine Blister Rust
 
same recommendations as pre-bloom
Powdery Mildew
 
same recommendations as budbreak - full leaf
Anthracnose leaf spot and Septoria leaf spot
FRAC
11
11
M1
7,9
3
3
3
P7
UN
M1
M1
M1
M1
44
M1
UN
 
Abound, 6-15.5 oz (0) 
Cabrio EG, 14 oz (0) 
Kocide 3000, 4.25 lb (0) 
Luna Tranquility, 16-27 oz (0) 
Mettle 125ME, 3-5 oz (14) - gooseberries only
Proline 480SC, 5.7 oz (7) 
Rally 40WSP, 5 oz (0) - gooseberries only
Rampart, 1-3 qt (0)
Rendition, 48 oz/100 gal water (1)
Badge X2, 4.25-9 lb (0)
Basic Copper 53, 4.7-7.5 lb (0)
Cueva FC, 0.5-2 gal (0)
Champ WG, 5-8 lb (0)
Double Nickel 55, 0.25-3 lb (0) or Double Nickel LC, 0.5-6 qt (0)
Kocide 3000-O,  4.25 lb (0)
Serenade Opti, 14-20 oz (0) or Serenade Max, 1-3 lb (0)
Prune and trellis to improve air circulation and promote leaf drying.
Avoid overhead irrigation.
Remove or cover fallen leaves (source of overwintering inoculum) with mulch to interrupt disease cycle.
Do not apply Rally 40 WSP after bloom; post harvest sprays are permitted. 
Apply Rendition during bloom when weather conditions favor disease development. 4hr REI. 
Double Nickel formulas may improve postharvest fruit quality. 4hr REI.
Serenade formulas are labeled for Anthracnose fruit rot. Apply prior to disease onset. Add surfactant for improved performance. 4hr REI.
Kocide and Basic Copper 53 have 48hr REI. 
Botrytis
FRAC
17
7, 9
29
19
UN
7, 11
3
3
UN
2
9, 12
44
     P5
UN
BM02
 
Elevate 50WDG, 1.5 lb/50 gal water (0)
Luna Tranquility, 16-27 oz (0) 
Omega 500F, 1.25 pt (30)
Oso 5%SC, 3.75-13 oz (0)
PERPose Plus, 1:100 (0)
Pristine, 18.5-23 oz (0)
Proline 480SC, 5.7 oz (7)
Quash, 2.5 oz (7)
Rendition, 16-48 oz/100 gal water (0)
Rovral 4F, 1-2 pt/100 gal water (0)
Switch 62.5WG, 11-14 oz (0)
Double Nickel 55, 0.25-3 lb or Double Nickel LC, 0.5-6 qt (0)
Regalia, 1-4 qt/50 gal of water (0)
Serenade Opti, 14-20 oz (0) or Serenade Max, 1-3 lb (0)
BotryStop, 2-4 lb (0)
 
Prune and trellis to improve air circulation and promote leaf drying.
Avoid overhead irrigation, especially during bloom.

Wet years may require repeated applications 

Omega may only be used early due to longer PHI. 
Oso 5% SC applications should begin at flowering. 4hr REI. 
Apply Proline 480SC at the first sign of disease. Repeat applications if conditions remain favorable for disease. 12hr REI. 
See Quash supplemental label for bushberries which includes Ribes.
Rendition should be applied during bloom when weather conditions favor disease. 4hr REI.
Double Nickel formulas may improve postharvest fruit quality. 4hr REI. 
Serenade applications should begin prior to disease onset. For improved performance add a surfactant to spray tank. 4hr REI.  
From petal-fall through the beginning of harvest
Currant Borer
IRAC
11A
3A
UN
UN
 3A
 
Bacillus thuringiensis - Bt roducts, various rates (0)
*Danitol 2.4EC, 10.6-16 oz/50 gal water (21) - currants only
AzaGuard, 10-16 oz (0) 
Molt-X, 10 oz (0)
PyGanic EC 5.0II, 4.5-18 oz (0)

Treat in June before larvae enter stems and when adults are present

Bt products are effective only on larvae. Some are OMRI with restrictions. Read labels carefully. 
Danitol has long PHI for currants only.  Use early or after harvest. See label for restrictions. 
Gooseberry Fruit
Worm
IRAC
3A
UN
3A
 
*Brigade WSB,  5.3-16oz (1) or Brigade 2EC, 2.1-6.4 oz (1)
Molt-X, 8 oz (0)
PyGanic EC 5.0II, 4.5-18 oz (0)
Shallow mechanical cultivation under bushes can help expose and kill pupae.
Treat as soon as webbing is seen, usually as the berries are turning color. Repeat at 7 day intervals.
Molt-X requires addition of 0.25-1% non-phytotoxic crop oil.
Two-spotted
Spider Mites
IRAC
20D
3A
3A
20B
10A
UN
UN
UN
UN
 UN
 
Acramite 50WS, 0.75-1 lb (1) 
*Brigade WSB, 12.8-16 oz (1) or Brigade 2EC, 5.1-6.4 oz (1)
*Danitol 2.4EC, 10.6-16 oz (21) - for currants ; 16 oz (3) - for gooseberries
Kanemite 15SC, 21-31 oz/100 gal water (7) - gooseberries only 
Onager, 12-24 oz/10 gal water (7) - gooseberries only
AzaGuard, 10-16 oz (0) 
Grandevo WDG, 1-3 lb (0) - gooseberries only
JMS Style Oil-Organic, 3-6 qt (0)
M-Pede, 1-2% v/v solution (0)
SuffOil-X, 1-2 gal/100 gal water(0)
Predatory mites may help.
Avoid use of pesticides which will kill natural enemies.
Avoid excess nitrogen which can lead to higher mite populations.
Acramite is registered for non-bearing currants for this pest. Do not exceed more than one application per year.
Danitol has long PHI for currants. Use early or after harvest. Apply at the first signs of mites. Multiple applications may delay ripening or reduce sugar accumulation.Thorough coverage is essential. See label for additional restrictions.
Kanemite should not be applied more than 2 times/year. Do not apply within 75 ft of any aquatic areas. Do not use adjuvant or surfactants. 12hr REI.
Onager will not control adult mites. Max of 2 app/year. 12hr REI. 
Apply Grandevo when populations are low and/or during younger mite stages. 4hr REI.
Japanese Beetle
IRAC
4A
4A
3A
3A
1B
 
 UN
UN
UN
3A
N/A
 
*Actara, 4 oz (3)
*Admire Pro, foliar application: 2.1-2.8  oz (3); soil application: 7-14 oz (7)
*Brigade 2EC, 2.1-6.4 oz (1)
*Danitol 2.4EC, 10.6-16 oz (3) - gooseberries only
Malathion 57EC, 1.6 pt (1) - for currants; 1.5 pt/200 gal water (1) - for gooseberries
AzaGuard, 8-16 oz (0)
Grandevo WDG, 2-3 lb (0)
Molt-X, 8 oz (0)
PyGanic EC 5.0II, 4.5-17 fl oz (0) or PyGanic 1.4 ECII, 16-64 oz (0)
NemaShield HB, 1 billion nematodes (0)
 
Danitol should not be applied within 100 ft of any freshwater or coastal marsh. Do not make more than 2 app/season. 
Admire Pro is a systemic protectant. Do not apply pre-bloom or during bloom when bees are actively foraging. See label for restrictions for foliar and soil applications. 
 
When applying nematodes, water after application and keep soil moist two weeks after application.  
Spotted Wing Drosophila
(SWD)
 IRAC
3A
3A
5
3A
15
UN
UN
5
UN
UN
3A
 
*Brigade WSB, 5.3-16 oz (1)
*Danitol 2.4EC, 16 oz (3) - gooseberries only
Delegate WG, 3-6 oz (3)
*Mustang Maxx, 4 oz (1)
*Rimon 0.83EC, 20-30 oz (8)
AzaGuard 10-16 oz (0)
BioCeres WP, 1.2 lb (0) - gooseberries only 
Entrust SC Naturalyte, 4-6 oz (1)
Grandevo WDG, 2-3 lb (0)
Molt-X, 10 oz (0)
PyGanic EC 5.0II, 4.5-17 oz (0)

NOTE: For organic management of SWD, rotate Entrust SC (IRAC 5) to other insecticide class and active ingredient after 2 consecutive applications (read label). For some fruit crops, only 2 or 3 total applications of Entrust may be applied per season (refer to label). Save applications of Entrust for when SWD populations are high and fruit is at high risk. Rotation options for Entrust include PyGanic (a.i. pyrethrin; IRAC 3A) and Molt-X (a.i. azadirachtin; IRAC UN). While Entrust has good to excellent activity against SWD, azadirachtin and pyrethrin have fair to poor activity. Pyrethrin insecticides are highly toxic to bees and should not be used when bees are active.

 

Danitol spray may be directed at soil to control insects present on fallen berries. Max of 2 app/season. Start application at first sign of pest activity. Apply to  gooseberry only for SWD.
Rimon 0.83EC  may cause phytotoxicity under high temps or drought conditions. Note long PHI. 12hr REI
Grandevo WDG is a suppressant. Apply when SWD populations are low and/or during younger stages. 4 hr REI.
Powdery Mildew
 
Same recommendations as budbreak through full leaf.
White Pine
Blister Rust
 FRAC
11
3
UN
 
Cabrio EG, 14 oz (0)
Proline 480SC, 5.7 oz (7) 
JMS Stylet oil-Organic, 3-6 qt/100 gal water (0)
 
Plant resistant (immune) varieties where allowed. Check with nursery supplier for resistance rating of varieties. Check state regulations for restrictions before planting (see text section of this chapter for more information). 
Where brand names for chemicals are used, it is for the reader’s information. No endorsement is implied, nor is discrimination intended against products with similar ingredients. Please consult pesticide product labels for rates, application instructions and safety precautions. Users of these products assume all risks.
RAC=Resistance Action Committee group for resistance management.  Fungicides=FRAC, Insecticides=IRAC
* Restricted use pesticide: pesticide applicator license required. OMRI approved for organic production.
For resistance management do not make more than 2 sequential applications of fungicides of the same RAC group.

Weeds

Ribes Weed Management

Good weed control begins years before planting. Begin by identifying perennial weed problems in the field. Eliminate these weeds before planting.  Early to mid-fall applications of glyphosate products can be very effective.

A permanent sod such as hard fescue between the rows is effective in controlling weeds in established plantings. Within-row weeds can then be controlled with appropriate herbicides or landscape fabric.

Herbicides labeled for use in bearing and nonbearing currants and gooseberries are certain glyphosate products (Roundup, Touchdown, and others), Gramoxone SL 2.0, Rely, and Surflan AS. Devrinol 50DF and Scythe are labeled for use on bearing and nonbearing currants. Fusilade DX, Select Max, and Gallery 75DF are labeled for use only on nonbearing currants and gooseberries (plants that won’t be harvested for at least one year). Other formulations with the same active ingredients may exist that are labeled for the same uses.

Glyphosate products and Gramoxone, Scythe and Rely are nonselective postemergence materials. Glyphosate products are translocated within and therefore kill the entire plant, even though only a portion of the plant may have come in contact with the herbicide. Fusilade and Select are selective postemergence materials that are also translocated in the plant, but are effective only on grasses. Gramoxone and Scythe are non-translocated contact herbicides, and kill only the portion of the plant with which they come in contact. Because of this feature, the roots of treated weeds survive, and control of perennial weeds is only temporary. Good coverage is a necessity, as untreated portions of the leaves and stems will continue to live. Rely is partially translocated. Gallery, Surflan, and Devrinol are preemergence materials, so they must be applied before weeds have germinated. Gallery is effective against annual broadleaves, while Suflan and Devrinol are effective against annual grasses and certain annual broadleaves.  Before use, always consult the herbicide labels for precautions, reentry intervals, and other restrictions.

Weeds can develop resistance to herbicides. The Weed Science Society of America (WSSA) developed a grouping system based on the mode of action of different herbicides. WSSA Group numbers can be used as a tool to choose herbicides in different mode of action groups so mixtures or rotations of active ingredients can be planned to better manage weeds and reduce the potential for resistant species.

Preharvest Intervals

Remember that weeds compete with each other, not just with crop plants. Therefore, controlling a particular weed or group of weeds may allow another weed species to take over, requiring adjustments to your control strategies.

Table 50. Weed Management in Currants and Gooseberries

Table 50. Weed Management in Currants and Gooseberries.
Herbicide Formulation Rate/Acre Remarks
ammonium nonanoate
Fatty acid,
Group 0
Axxe 6-15% v/v Broad spectrum non-selective for control and burndown supression of annual and perennial broadleaf and grass weeds. Also controls "spore" producing plants such as moss and liverworts. See label for detailed and specific purposes in berry crops: begetative burndown, directed and shielded sprays, pre-emergence spray and sucker control, prunning and trimming. Do not allow spray to contact any green desirable plant parts. Do not apply if rain or irrigation expected within 2 hr. Do not irrigate within 2 hrs after application. 
oryzalin
Group 3

Surflan AS
Surflan DF
Surlfan XL 2G
 

2-6 qt
2.4-7.1 lb
300 lb

Surflan is a pre-emergent herbicide for control of certain annual grasses and broadleaf weeds. Apply prior to germination of targe weeds or immediately after cultivation. Do not grase of feed forage from treated areas to livestock. Surflan AS and DF may be applied to both bearing and nonbearing plants. Rain or irrigation is needed within 21 days after application.
Surflan XL 2G should not be applied to berries that will bear fruit within 12 months after application. Do not apply more than 600 lb/year. 

dichlobenil
Group 20
Casoron 4G

100-150 lb (annuals)
150 lb (perennials)

Controls germination seeds and seedlings of annual broadleaf, grasses and some perennial weeds that survive other pre-emergent herbicides. May be used in bearing and non-bearing and nursery stock. Do not apply within 4 weeks after transplanting. Uniforme application is essential - caliabration of applicator designed for spreading granules is appropriate. See label for details of soil surface and incorporated. treatments. 
carfentrazone-ethyl and sulfentrazon
Group 14
Zeus Prime XC 7.7 to 15.2 oz Post-emergence burndown and pre-emergency activity. Broadleaf control including emergeced nutsedge. it should ONLY be applied to established plants that have been in the ground for at least two years. DO NOT apply more than 15.2 fl oz/acre (0.41lb ai) per twelve-month period. 
carfentrazone-ethyl
Group 14
Aim EC
Aim EW
1 – 2 fl oz May be applied as broad cast application during dormant stage of crop. Use as directed application for post-emergence weed control. Use lower rate for control of small weed seedling (2-3 leaf stage); use higher rate for control of larger weeds (up to 6 leaf stage). Applications beyond 6 leaf stage may result in only partial control. Requires non-ionic surfactant or crop oil concentrate.
napropamide
Group 15
Devrinol 50DF 8 lb Apply in late fall or early spring before seedling weeds emerge. Incorporate within 24 hours of application with either cultivation or water. May be applied to newly planted and established crops.
Devrinol 2XT 2 gal Pre-emergence herbicide for control of annual grasses and small seeded broadleaf weeds. Apply after spring mulch or prior to laying winter mulch. New formulations contain active ingredient more resistance to breakdown in sunlight
Devrinal DF-XT 8 lb
glyphosate
Group 9
Roundup Ultra
Weather Max
Touchdown Hitech + 0.25% NIS2

1 to 5 qt
11 fl oz-3.3 qt
10-30 fl oz 

Preplant or wiper applications only. Do not contact foliage.
glyphosate IPA plus carfentrazone ethyl
Group 9,14
 
* Rage 20-40 fl oz  Use as direct application for post-emergence weed control. Use lower rate  for small weeds (2-3 leaf stage); use higher rate for control of larger weeds (up to 6 leaf stage). Do not apply within 6-8 hr of rain, irrigation or heavy dew. Do not allow contact with green stem tissue, desirable fruit, blooms or foliage. 
glufosinate-ammonium
Group 10
* Rely 200 77 fl oz
(weeds< 8”)
115 fl oz
(weeds >8”)
Controls a broad spectrum of emerged annual and perennial grass and broadleaf weeds, and certain woody species. Apply as a broadcast, banded or spot treatment application depending on the situation. Avoid direct drift onto desirable vegetation. Do not apply more than 230 fl oz/A per year. Do not graze, harvest and/or feed treated cover crops to livestock.
Cheetah 48 to 82 oz Post-emergence control of broadleaf and grasses, biennual and perennial weeds. Avoid contact with green bark tissue or damage may occur. See label for additional instructions and restrictions. 
Lifeline 48 to 82 oz
*paraquat
Group 22
*Gramoxone SL 2.0
* Firestorm
2 to 4 pt
1.3-2.7 pt
Contact herbicide. Use with a non-ionic surfactant or crop-oil concentrate. Apply as a coarse directed spray to wet the weeds. Apply before emergence of new canes or shoots to avoid injury. Use of a shield is highly recommended.
pelargonic acid
Fatty acid,
Group 0
 
Scythe 2.25-20 gal Apply before new canes emerge in spring or after canes become woody. Do not contact desirable foliage. For burndown of vegetation followed by use of residual control of weeds mix Scythe with recommended soil-active herbicide: annuals (3-5%); perennials (5-7%); maximum burndown (7-10%).  For use on currants only
clethodim
Group 1
* Select Max
* Intensity One
9-16 oz Apply as a directed spray to the base of the crop and to actively growing weeds.  Grasses under drought stress will not be controlled.  Do not apply more than 64 oz/acre/year.  Do not repeat applications within 14 days.  Do not apply within 1 year of the first harvest.
mesotrione
Group 27
Callisto 3 -6 oz For the control of annual broadleaf weeds. May be applied as a pre-bloom post-directed spray in currants (red and black). No more than two applications per crop per year are allowed and not more than 6 fl oz/A in total per year. If two applications are made, they must be made no closer than 14 days apart.
isoxaben
Group 29
Gallery 75DF 0.66-1.33 lb NON-BEARING USE ONLY.  Do not apply within 1 year of the first harvest.  Apply as a directed spray to the base of the crop after the soil is settled.  Does not control emerged weeds.  See label for a complete list of weeds controlled from seed.
Trellis  0.66 to 1.33 lb Pre-emergence herbicide for control of annual broadleaf weeds. Use ONLY in non-bearing plantings. See lable for application instructions. 

†Where brand names for chemicals are used, it is for the reader’s information. No endorsement is implied, nor is discrimination intended against products with similar ingredients. Please consult pesticide product labels for rates, application instructions and safety precautions. Users of these products assume all associated risks.
*Restricted use pesticide; pesticide applicators license required. OMRI listed for organic production