Grapes

General Information

Recent trends indicate a rapidly increasing interest in production of both wine and table grapes in New England. European varieties, Vitis vinifera, are very sensitive to cold temperatures. Throughout most of New England, special cultural care must be taken to overwinter V. vinifera varieties. Native American varieties including V. labrusca varieties, such as Concord and Niagara, are hardier and more resistant to endemic disease problems. French-American hybrids vary in their cold hardiness, and several can perform well on warmer sites throughout New England.

Site selection is critical to success with grapes. Ideal sites seldom experience winter temperatures below -5˚F, are unlikely to experience late spring frosts, and offers a frost-free growing season of at least 165 to 180 days. Grapes will do best on a well drained loam soil with a pH of 5.5 to 6.5. Potassium, manganese, and iron deficiency problems may develop if the soil pH is above 6.5.

There are many training system options for grapes; but whatever system is used, sufficient light exposure on selected canes and the proper severity of pruning (generally determined using the balanced pruning formula for each specific variety) are the keys to maximizing productivity and fruit quality.

In New England, the use of multiple trunks (and systematic trunk renewal) is highly recommended to minimize the risk of severe low temperature injury and the development of Eutypa dieback disease and crown gall. Overcropping also significantly increases the risk of winter injury.

Table 51. Recommended optimal soil characteristics for growing grapes.
Soil Characeristic Desirable Range*
pH 5.5 (V. labrusca) - 6.5 (V. vinifera)
Organic Matter 4 to 6%
Phosphorus 20-50 ppm
Potassium 120-150 ppm
Base Saturation > 3.0
Magnesium 100-150 ppm
Base Saturation > 5.0
Calcium 1000-1500 ppm
Base Saturation > 50.0
*Desirable range will vary with soil type (sand, silt, or clay), soil organic matter, and pH.
Table 52. Sufficiency ranges for nutrient concentrations in vineyard petiole analyses
Nutrient Petiole samples at bloom Petiole samples at veraison
Total Nitrogen (N) 1.2-2.2 % 0.8-1.2 %
Phosphorus (P) 0.17-0.30 % 0.14-0.30 %
Potassium (K) 1.5-2.5 % 1.2-2.0 %
Calcium (Ca) 1.0-3.0 % 1.0-2.0 %
Magnesium (Mg) 0.3-0.5 % 0.35-0.75 %
Boron (B) 25-50 ppm 25-50 ppm
Iron (Fe) 30-100 ppm 30-100 ppm
Manganese (Mn) 20-1,000 ppm 100-1,000 ppm
Copper (Cu) 5-15 ppm 5-15 ppm
Zinc (Zn) 30-60 ppm 30-60 ppm
Molybdenum (Mo) 0.5 ppm 0.5 ppm
Adapted from Bates and Wolf (2008). Vineyard Nutrient Management. In: Wine Grape Production for Eastern North America. T. Wolf (ed.). NRAES, Ithaca NY.

 

Diseases

Fruit Rots

Black Rot (Guignardia bidwellii): This is probably the most damaging grape disease in New England. Most loss is caused by damage to the berries, though leaves, tendrils and new shoots are also damaged. The fruit is susceptible from fruit set until veraison; resistance increases as fruits transition from pea-size to veraison.

This disease is caused by a fungus that overwinters in mummified berries and stem lesions. Mummies on the soil surface release spores when rain soaks them in the spring. There is a continuous production of spores throughout the spring and summer. These are carried to new plants by wind. The duration of leaf wetness required for infection to occur varies with temperature (Table 53). Young tissue is infected in less than 12 hours between 60˚- 90˚F. Spores germinate and produce mycelium resulting in symptoms in 8 to 25 days, depending on the weather. New leaves and half-grown berries are most susceptible. Secondary infections occur when new spores are produced on the current year’s infections. Secondary spores are produced into August, and are spread by splashing rain.

On leaves, infections appear as yellowish-tan spots in late spring. These spots enlarge and become reddish-brown with a dark outline. Lesions are roughly circular in shape. Shoots develop sunken, elliptical lesions, black in color up to 2 cm in length. On the berry, symptoms do not appear until the fruit is half grown. Lesions start as a small whitish dot and quickly engulf the whole berry. The infected area develops a reddish brown color. The berry wrinkles and blackens completely within a few days. These fruit become mummies that are very hard and stony, and supply inoculum for the following year.

Management: Sanitation is very important. Destroy all mummies and canes with lesions. Remove infected tendrils from vines. Plant grapes in locations having good air circulation, taking advantage of prevailing winds and sun. Black rot is more likely to occur near woodland borders than in full sin, and it occurs much more severely in wet years than in dry ones. Protectant fungicides offer good control if applied initially when the shoots are 10-16 cm long and continued until the berries contain approximately 5% sugar. Strobilurins (Abound, Elite, Flint, Sovran, Nova and others) are excellent eradicant and protectant materials. See pest management schedule for recommended materials and timing. Varietal resistance is another control option (see Table 59). 

Bitter Rot (Greeneria uvicola): Bitter rot, while most common in southern grape regions, may infect grapes in New England. If 10% of the berries in a wine pressing are infected with bitter rot, the wine can be undrinkable. Bitter rot may be easily confused with black rot. Infected berries first develop brownish, water-soaked lesions. The bitter rot fungus infects ripe grapes, and unlike the black rot fungus, does not infect green berries. Bitter rot susceptibility increases right at veraison. Lesions often have concentric rings in white-fruited varieties. Berries turn brown but retain their shape. In 3 or 4 days black pustules erupt on the berry. If overripe berries become infected, they are not easily detected, because pustules do not form. These berries are the most bitter, and the most likely to be mistakenly harvested.

Warm, humid weather at the time berries ripen favors the disease. The fungus grows rapidly, and berries can rot in 5 to 7 days. Wounding promotes fungal growth.

Management: Good air circulation for good drying in the vineyard. Fungicides used for the control of other diseases usually will also control bitter rot. If conditions are right for infection, late season sprays should not be omitted. Most varieties have some degree of resistance to the fungus.

Botrytis Bunch Rot (Botrytis cinerea): Botrytis rot can cause serious losses in susceptible varieties. While some rot is acceptable in wine grapes, and may even be desirable, the disease can get out of control. The fungus which causes the disease is present in grape mummies, debris on the vineyard floor and in organic matter around the planting. Spores are released in moist, cool weather in spring, and then throughout the growing season. These first spores infect blossoms at the end of bloom. A second infection occurs at berry maturity. The fungus uses senescing or dead material as a base to spread into healthy tissue. Botrytis-infected berries are at first soft and watery. The berries usually become covered with gray, fuzzy fungal mycelium within a few days. Rotted berries shrivel, then drop to the ground to eventually become mummies.

Management: Good air circulation and vineyard sanitation are helpful. Leaf removal around the clusters has shown excellent control of the disease in California. White-fruited varieties (particularly Riesling and Seyval) are highly susceptible. Protective fungicides should be used when wet weather occurs near bloom and berry ripening. See pest management schedule for recommended materials and timing. Fungicides should be used thoughtfully to avoid promoting resistance by the fungus.

Ripe Rot (Colletotrichum acutatum, C. gloeosporioides, Glomerella cingulata): Ripe rot is a disease affecting grapes at or near harvest time which has largely been confined to the southeastern U.S. but has caused problems in recent years in southern New England. Rotted berries turn uniformly dark-brown over part or all of the berry and sometimes have pink or orange spore masses on the surface. As infected fruit mature, lesions appear as slightly sunken or flattened rotted areas. As lesions expand, the entire grape eventually rots, and may drop or become shriveled or mummified as it decays. Ripe rot infections can occur at any stage of fruit development, but fruit that is infected in when unripe does not rot until it begins to ripen. In these berries the fungus remains in a latent state until conditions allow it to further develop in the tissue. Once infected grapes begin to rot and produce spores in the vineyard, the disease can spread rapidly to other uninfected fruit, within the same bunch or neighboring bunches. The most devastating losses occur on susceptible cultivars during warm rainy harvest seasons. Generally, darker-skinned cultivars are more resistant while white cultivars are more susceptible.

Management: Before spring arrives, remove or disk into the soil all overwintered mummies left on the trellis and ground from the previous season. Good canopy management practices are essential for control of ripe rot. Shoot thinning, leaf removal, pruning, cluster thinning and shoot positioning are all cultural practices that open the vine canopy to increase airflow and light, reduce the amount of moisture trapped within the canopy, and allow better penetration and coverage by fungicides. Timely harvesting of all ripe grapes is recommended, to prevent overripe fruit with fungal sporulation from hanging on the vines too long. Where the disease is a problem, fungicide applications are critical during the period between bloom and pre-harvest. Captan and Pristine are the best fungicide choices for control of the disease.

Foliage and Cane Diseases

Downy Mildew (Plasmopara viticola): This disease causes damage primarily by attacking the vine, though all parts of the plant are susceptible to injury. The optimum conditions for the disease are cool to moderate temperatures, and wet weather. The disease is caused by a fungus which needs living tissue as a host. In spring, spores of the fungus come from dead tissue on the ground. Free water is required for infection, and infections may occur during high humidity throughout the season. Splashing water or handling wet plants may readily spread the spores. The spores grow into cottony masses, producing many new spores which can spread the infection. As tissue dies, it falls to the ground where the fungus overwinters. Severe epidemics can defoliate the vine.

On leaves, new infections are difficult to see. They appear first as generally angular, pale-yellow spots delimited by veins which later become brown. On the underside of the leaf the cotton-like ‘downy’ growth appears. Fruit infection occurs at two times. First, when the berries are the size of small peas, infections will cause berries to turn light brown and soft. Berries will shatter easily. Sometimes the downy growth covers the berries. During the heat of the summer, little fruit infection occurs. The second infections occur in the late summer or early autumn. These berries do not turn soft or develop downy growth, but turn dull green, then purplish-brown. Shoots and tendrils develop water-soaked lesions, become stunted and distorted, and may die.

Management: Remove debris from the vineyard floor. Maximize air circulation to improve drying. European grapes are generally more susceptible than American grapes. The most serious epidemics occur when a wet winter is followed by a wet spring and a warm summer with frequent precipitation. Fungicides should be applied when disease pressure is high. Apply just before bloom; 7-10 days later; 10-14 days later; 3 weeks later. See pest management schedule for recommended materials and timing.

Powdery Mildew (Uncinula necator): Powdery mildew causes losses by infecting leaves and berries. It is primarily a problem on European grape varieties, although American varieties may be damaged. It may be confused with downy mildew (see above). Losses are not generally heavy from the disease, although it can build up over several years.

The fungal pathogen overwinters in specialized structures on or in living tissue. In spring, spores are released that attack new tissue. Unlike other grape diseases, rain and free moisture are not important to the spread of powdery mildew. Dry conditions with low relative humidity favor this disease. Wind carries newly produced spores from infected areas into new locations. Infected leaves have the appearance of being coated with a white powder. Severely infected leaves curl and defoliation may occur. Leaves of American varieties like Niagara and Concord are very susceptible. Young fruit and blossoms may be misshapen by infections; mature fruit is immune.

Management: Cultural practices can help reduce disease incidence. Planting in sites with good air circulation and sun exposure and the use of appropriate training systems which allow for good air movement are highly advisable.Use fungicides where infections are known to occur. Copper and lime sulfur dormant applications provide good early season control. However, there are label restrictions. Check with your state Extension Specialist for recommendations. Because some varieties are sensitive to sulfur, this material should always be applied at cooler temperatures (<85˚F). Strobilurin (group 11) fungicides are also effective, but care should be taken to avoid selecting for resistance by the fungus. See pest management schedule for recommended materials and timing.

Eutypa Dieback (Eutypa armeniacae): This disease also has been known as “dead arm.” It causes limbs to die back and forms cankers. Recently, it was shown to occur in conjunction with Phomopsis, causing the dead arm symptoms. Cankers are frequently found around old pruning cuts. They are usually under the bark, and show only as a flattened area on the surface. The cankers run lengthwise along the limb. Infections occur on pruning cuts in early spring. Over several years, the infection increases, causing new leaves to emerge small and yellowed. New shoot growth has shortened internodes, leaves are small and cupped and all growth is chlorotic. After about 5 years, the bark sloughs off, and eventually, the cane dies. This is seldom seen in vineyards younger than 8 years old.

Management: Infected material should be removed; in some cases it may be necessary to remove the whole plant. Make cuts well below cankers. Destroy all prunings. Prune directly after a rain to minimize risk for infection, as the atmospheric spore load has been washed out temporarily. Prune late in the dormant season to promote rapid healing of wounds. Multiple trunk systems are recommended with renewal on an 8- to 10-year cycle. This helps minimize risk of losses due to both Eutypa dieback and crown gall. All commercial varieties are susceptible.

Phomopsis cane and leaf spot (Phomopsis viticola): This is a fungal disease that causes reddish-brown lesions on canes, leaf spots and fruit rot. Small black spots at the base of developing shoots are the first sign of infection. These areas may crack, and late in the season may appear bleached. Leaf infections appear as small, dark lesions with yellow margins. Usually the lower leaves are affected first. While berry infections are rare, and symptoms are similar to those of black rot. The fungus overwinters in lesions in wood. In spring, spores are released and spread by rain. Cool, wet weather promotes spread of the disease.

Management: Prune and destroy infected canes. Late dormant fungicide applications help to kill the overwintering fungal fruiting bodies on the surface of the vine. Two applications of Captan (at 1” and at 6” shoots) provide good management under normal conditions. Protectant fungicides (especially Abound and Mancozeb) are helpful at preventing infection if they are less susceptible to the fungus. See pest management schedule for recommended materials and timing. Concord, Catawba, Chelois, Delaware, Niagara, and Rougeon are the most susceptible varieties.

Anthracnose (Elsinoe ampelina): This disease, like several of the others discussed, is worst during those growing seasons which are warm, humid and rainy. It reduces the quantity and quality of the berries. Circular “birds-eye” lesions are produced on the leaves with brown to black angular-shaped margins. If infection is severe, numerous lesions may coalesce, making large areas of the leaf necrotic. Often lesions will be concentrated on the veins. Necrotic tissue may drop out, leaving a “shot hole.” Youngest leaves are the most susceptible.

Lesions on the stems and shoots may also be numerous; coalescing lesions will split open the tissue into the pith. Margins will be raised and purplish to brown in color. Lesions on the rachis and pedicels of the fruit cluster are similar to the stem lesions. If infections are numerous, berries may drop off entirely, or they may develop cracking. Numerous spores are released from overwintering lesions on stems or berries and are dispersed by rainfall. Spores are infectious over a wide temperature range, but need water in order to penetrate susceptible tissue. Hail injury may especially favor infection by this fungus.

Management: Do not plant highly susceptible varieties in heavy soils with poor drainage. Dormant fungicide applications help to reduce inoculum of the pathogen. Protectant sprays beginning when shoots are 5-10 cm long and continuing at 2-week intervals are recommended. A fungicide should be applied 24 hours after hail injury.

Root and Trunk or Crown Diseases

Crown Gall (Agrobacterium vitis): Crown gall is a bacterial disease that infects more than 2,000 species of plants (including grapes). Crown gall of grape is a major problem in cold climate regions. The disease affects all grape cultivars. Vines with galls at their crowns or on their major roots grow poorly and have reduced yields. Severe economic losses result in vineyards where a high percentage of vines become galled within a few years of planting.

Wounds are necessary for infection to occur. Observations suggest that freeze injury and mechanically-caused wounds are highly conducive to infection. The disease is particularly severe following winters that result in freeze injury on cold-sensitive cultivars, such as those of Vitis vinifera. Crown gall is characterized by galls or overgrowths that usually form at the base of the trunk. Aerial galls may form as high as 3 feet or more up the trunk. Galls generally do not form on roots. 

Early in the disease development, galls are small, more or less spherical, white or flesh-colored, and soft. Because they originate in a wound, the galls at first cannot be distinguished from callus. However, they usually develop more rapidly than callus tissue. As galls age, they become dark brown, knotty, and rough. The bacterium can survive in the soil for many years even in the absence of grapevines.

Management: Control procedures include: (1) planting only nursery stock that is free of any obvious galls on crowns or roots: (2) not planting into a field where crown gall has occurred previously, unless a non-host crop, such as strawberries or most vegetables, is grown for two or more years before replanting; and (3) minimizing winter injury to root and crown systems.

In addition to be above procedures, a nonpathogenic bacterium, Agrobacterium radiobacter strain K-84, is commercially available for biological control of grown gall. The biocontrol agent may be applied to roots of healthy plants when they are first set out. After planting, the control becomes established in the soil around the root zone and prevents crown gall bacterium form entering this region. However, the biocontrol agent will not cure plants that were already infected before its application.

Table 53. Temperature - leaf wetness duration combinations necessary for grape foliar infection by black rot.
Temperature (˚F) Minimum leaf wetness duration for light infection (hr)
50 24
55 12
60 9
65 8
70 7
75 7
80 6
85 9
90 12

Table 54. Effectiveness of Fungicides on Grape Diseases

Table 54. Effectiveness of fungicides on grape diseases.
Fungicide FRAC Group Active Ingredient Phomopsis Cane and Leaf Spot Black Rot Downy Mildew Powdery Mildew Botrytis Rot Bitter Rot Anthracnose
Abound/Azakaa 11 azoxystrobin ++ +++ +++ +++ + -- +++
Actinovate AG BM02 Streptomyces lydicus (strain WYEC 108) -- -- -- + + -- --
Aliette P07 aluminum tris 0 0 +++ 0 0 0 0
Aprovia 7 benzovindiflupyr -- ++ 0 +++ + -- ++
Armicarb NC potassium bicarbonate 0 0 0 ++ 0 0 --
Badge SC/Badge X2 BM02

copper oxychloride,

copper hydroxide

+ + +++ + 0 -- --
Bordeaux mixb M01,M02 copper sulfate, lime ++ ++ +++ +++ ++ -- --
Captan/Captec M04 captan +++ + +++ 0 + ++ ++
Champ Formula 2 M01 copper hydroxide + + +++ + 0 -- --
Copper & lime M01,M02 copper, lime + + +++ ++ 0 -- --
Cueva M01 copper octanoate + + ++ + 0 -- --
Double Nickel BM02 Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (strain D747) -- -- -- ++ ++ -- --
Elevate 17 fenhexamid 0 0 0 + +++ 0 --
Elited 3 tebuconazole 0 +++ 0 +++ 0 0 ++
Endura 7 boscalid 0 0 0 +++

++/+++

0 +++
Ferbam M03 ferric dimethyldithiocarbamate + +++ + 0 0 + --
Fixed Copperc M01 various coppers + + +++ ++

0

+ --
Flinta 11 trifloxystrobin

++

+++ + +++ ++/+++ 0 --
Fracture BM01 (BLAD) Lupine seed extract -- 0 0 +/++ ++/+++    
Gavel M03 mancozeb ++ ++ +++ + 0 -- +
Inspire Super 3,9 difenoconazole, cyprodinil 0/+ +++ 0 +++ +++ -- ++
JMS Stylet Oil NC mineral oil 0 0 0 +++ + 0 --
Kaligreen NC potassium bicarbonate 0 0 0 ++ 0 0 0
Kumulus DFh M02 sulfur + 0 0 +++ 0 -- --
Lifegard BM02 Bacillus mycoides (isolate J) ++ ++ +++ +++ 0 0 0
Luna Experience 3,7 tebuconazole + +++/+ 0 +++ +++/+ -- --
Manzate/Dithane/ Penncoebf M03 mancozeb +++ +++ +++ + 0 -- +
Meteor 2 iprodione 0 0 0 0 +++ -- --
Milstop NC potassium bicarbonate 0 0 -- ++ 0 0 0
Miller Lime Sulfur M02 calcium polysulfide + -- 0 0 0 0 +
Mettle 3 tetraconizole -- +++ 0 +++ 0 0 +++
Nordox M01 cuprous oxide + + +++ + 0 -- --
Nu-Cop 50 WP M01 copper hydroxide + + +++ + 0 -- --
Orius 3 tebuconazole 0 +++ 0 +++ 0 -- --
OSO 19 polyoxin-D zinc salt -- -- 0 ++ ++ -- --
Oxidate NC

hydrogen peroxide

-- -- -- + -- -- --
Ph-D 19 polyoxin-D zinc salt -- -- 0 ++ ++ -- --
pHorcepHite P07 monopotassium phosphate 0 0 ++ 0 0 0 0
Presidio 43 fluopicolide 0 0 +++ 0 0 0 0
Pristine 7,11 boscalid, pyraclostrobin ++ +++ +++ +++ ++/+++ -- +++
Procure/Viticured 3 triflumizole 0 ++ 0 +++ 0 0 --
ProPhyt/Phostrol P07 potassium phosphite 0 0 +++ 0 0 0 --
Quadris Topa 11,3 azoxystrobin, difenoconazole ++ +++ +++ +++ + -- +++
Quintec 13 quinoxyfen 0 0 0 +++ 0 0 0
Rallyd 3 myclobutanil 0 +++ 0 +++ 0 0 +++
Rampart P07 phosphorus acid 0 0 +++ 0 0 0 --
Ranman 21 cyazofamid 0 0 +++ 0 0 0 0
Reason 11 fenamidone 0 0 +++ 0 0 0 0
Regalia P05 Reynoutria
sachalinensis
extract
-- -- ++/+++ 0 -- -- --
Revus 40 mandipropamid 0 0 +++ 0 0 0 0
Revus Top 40,3 mandipropamid, difenoconazole 0/+? +++ +++ +++ 0 0 ++
Rhyme 3 flutriafol 0 +++ 0 +++ 0 -- --
Ridomilg 4 mefenoxam + + +++ + 0 ++ --
Ridomil Gold MZg 4,M03 mefenoxam, mancozeb ++ ++ +++ -- 0 -- --
Ridomil Gold Copperg 4,M03 mefenoxam, copper hydroxide -- -- +++ + -- -- --
Rovrale 2 iprodione 0 0 0 0 +++ 0 --
Scala 9 pyrimethanil 0 0 0 + +++ 0 --
Serenade BM02 Bacillus subtilus (strain QST 713) 0 0 0 0 + -- --
Sonata BM02 Bacillus pumilus (strain QST 713) -- -- + ++ + -- --
Sovrana 11 kresoxim-methyl ++ +++ ++ +++ ++ 0 +++
SuffOil-X NC mineral oil 0 0 0 -- -- 0 0
SulfOMEX M02 monopotassium phosphate, sulfur 0 0 0 -- 0 0 0
Sulforix M02 calcium polysulfide + -- 0 0 0 0 +
Sulfurh M02 sulfur + 0 0 +++ 0 0 --
Switch 9,12 cyprodinil,
fludioxonil
0 0 0 + +++ -- --
Thioluxh M02 sulfur + 0 0 +++ 0 -- --
Topguard 11,3 axoxystrobin, flutriafol + +++ ++ +++ + -- --
Topsin-Mi 1 thiophanate-methyl ++ + 0 +++ ++i ++ +++
Torino U06 cyflufenamid 0 0 0 +++ 0 -- --
Trilogy IRAC 18B neem oil -- -- -- ++ -- -- --
Vangard 9 cyprodinil 0 0 0 + +++ 0 --
Vintage 3 fenarimol 0 ++ 0 +++ 0 0 ++
Vivando 47/50 metrafenone 0 0 0 +++ 0 0 0
Zampro 45,40 ametoctradin, dimethomorph 0 0 +++ 0 0 -- --
Ziram M03 ziram +++ +++ ++ 0 0 0 ++

0=not effective; +=slight effectiveness; ++=moderate effectiveness; +++=very effective; --=insufficient data

=OMRI listed for organic production; go to http://www.omri.org/ for details.

Products with the same FRAC code have active ingredients with the same mode of action. Repeated use of products with the same mode of action should be avoided to reduce the risk of development of chemical resistance by the pest and reduced efficacy of the pesticde. Fungicides with two FRAC codes contain active ingredients with two different modes of action. For more information on FRAC codes and managing fungicide resistance, go to https://www.frac.info/.

* Restricted use material; pesticide applicators license required.
For all products listed, read labels thoroughly for restrictions and warnings of phytotoxicity from tank mixes or sensitivity of certain cultivars.

 

a Do not use FRAC group 11 (azoxystrobin (Abound/Azaka), kresoxim methyl (Sovran), or trifloxystrobin (Flint)) continuously. Rotate with other fungicide groups as per label. Azoxystrobin can cause serious injury to some apple cultivars. Avoid drift to apples and do not spray apples with equipment used for spraying Abound. Flint should not be used on Concord grapes. Sovran can injure some cherry cultivars.
b Bordeaux mix is a mixture of copper sulfate and hydrated lime; it may be purchased prepacked or mixed fresh by the applicator.
c There are many fixed copper compounds and formulations registered for use on grapes. The main drawback of copper fungicides is the potential for severe injury to grape foliage, depending on variety and weather conditions, and for reduced vine vigor and yields even in the absence of visible foiar injury. Cool wet weather generally makes copper toxicity worse. Phytotoxicity can be lessened by adding spray loime. One should be very careful mixing other pesticides with preparations containing lime: many of these combiniations are incompatible. Excessive use of copper within 30 days of harvest may interfere with wine making.
d Rally and Elite can control black rot after infection has occurred. For effective control, infection periods must be monitored and funcide applied within 3 days after the start of an infection period. Consult the NEWA grape disease models to monitor disease development.  Application of these materials and Procure to sporulating lesions of powdery mildew should be avoided to prevent development of resistant strains of the pathogen. Continuous heavy use of this group of fungicides may result in the development of resistant strains of fungi.
e Continuous heavy use of Rovral (iprodione) may result in the development of fungal strains that are resistant to it (especially Botrytis). Iprodione-resistant strains of Botrytis have been found in east coast vineyards. Do not routinely apply more than two iprodione sprays per season.
f Trade names for mancozeb include formulations of Manzate, Dithane, and Penncozeb.
g The Ridomil MZ formulation (Ridomil + mancozeb) will give moderate control of Phomopsis and black rot, due to the partial rate of mancozeb that is provided by applying the labeled rate of this product. The Ridomil Copper formulation will provide moderate suppression of powdery mildew, particularly on moderately resistant cultivars (e.g., Concord), due to the amount of copper provided by applying it labeled rate.
h Sulfur may cause damage to sensitive varieties, it should always be used under cool temperatures.
Topsin-M is a benzimidazole fungicide very similar to Benlate. It is recommended only for protecting pruning wounds from canker diseases.

 

Table 55. Relative Disease Susceptibility and Chemical Sensitivity for Selected Grape Cultivars.

Table 55. Relative Disease Susceptibility and Chemical Sensitivity for Selected Grape Cultivars.
Cultivar

black

rot

downy

mildew

powdery

mildew

botrytis

bunch rot

phomopsis eutypa

crown

gall

anthracnose Sulfura Copperb
Arandell +++ + + + +++ ? ++ ? yes ?
Aromella + ++ ++ + ? ? ++ ? no ?
Aurore +++ ++ +++ +++ ++ +++ ++ ++ no ++
Baco Noir +++ + ++ +++ + ++ ++ + no ?
Cabernet Franc +++ +++ +++ + ? ? +++ ++ no +
Cabernet Sauvignon +++ +++ +++ + +++ +++ +++ ? no +
Canadice +++ ++ + ++ ? ? ++ ++ slight ?
Cascade + + ++ + ++ ++ + ? no ?
Catawba +++ +++ ++ + +++ + + ++ no ++
Cayuga White + ++ + + + + ++ +++ no +
Chambourcin ++ ++ +++ + ++ ? ? + yes ?
Chancellor + +++ +++ + +++ +++ ++ ++ yes +++
Chardonel ++ ++ ++ ++ ? ? ++ ++ no ?
Chardonnay +++ +++ +++ +++ +++ ++ +++ +++ slight +
Concord +++ + ++ + +++ +++ + + yes +
Corot Noir + ++ + + ? ? + + no ?
Cynthianna/Norton + ++ + + + ? + + yes ?
DeChaunac + ++ ++ + +++ +++ ++ ++ yes +
Delaware ++ +++ ++ + +++ + + ++ no +
Einset Seedless +++ +++ ++ + ? ? + ? no ?
Fredonia ++ +++ ++ + ++ ? + +++ no ?
Frontenac
++
+
++
+
?
?
+
+
slight
+
Frontenac Gris ++ + ++ + ? ? + + slight +
Gewürtzraminer +++ +++ +++ +++ ? ? +++ +++ no +
Himrod ++ + ++ + ? ? ? +++ no ?
Jupiter ++ +++ +++ + + ? ? + ? ?
LaCrescent ++ ++ ++ + ? ? + + slight +
LaCrosse +++ ++ ++ +++ ++ ? ? + slight +
Lemberger +++ +++ +++ + ? +++ +++ ? no ?
Leon Millot + ++ +++ + + + ? + yes +
Marechal Foch ++ + ++ + ? +++ + ++ yes +
Marquette + + ++ ++ + ? + ? slight +
Marquis +++ ++ ++ + + ? ? +++ slight ?
Mars + + + + + ? + + ? ?
Melody +++ ++ + + ? ? + + no ?
Merlot ++ +++ +++ ++ +++ +++ +++ ++ no ++
Moore's Diamond +++ + +++ ++ ? ++ ? ? slight ?
Niagara +++ +++ + + +++ + ++ ++ no +
Noiret + ++ + + ? ? ++ + no +
Pinot Gris +++ +++ +++ +++ ? ? +++ ? no +
Pinot Noir +++ +++ +++ +++ ? ? +++ + no +
Reliance +++ +++ ++ + ++ ? ? +++ no +
Riesling +++ +++ +++ +++ ++ ++ +++ + no +
St. Croix ? ++ ++ ++ ? ? ? + ? ++
St. Vincent + ++ + + + + + + no ?
Seyval ++ ++ +++ +++ ++ + ++ + no +
Steuben ++ + + + ? ? + + yes ?
Traminette + ++ + + ? ? + + no ?
Vanessa +++ ++ ++ + + ? + ? no ?
Vidal Blanc + ++ +++ + + + ++ +++ no +
Vignoles + ++ +++ +++ +++ ++ ++ +++ no +
BR=black rot, DM=downy mildew, PM=powdery mildew, Bot=botrytis bunch rot, PH=phomopsis, EUT=eutypa, CG=crown gall, ANT= anthracnose
+++=highly susceptible or sensitive, ++=moderately susceptible or sensitive, +=slightly susceptible or sensitive
no=not sensitive, yes=sensitive, ?=relative susceptibility or sensitivity not established.
a Sulfur injury may occur on tolerant cultivars under high temperatures (85˚F or above).
b Copper injury may occur under cool, slow drying conditions.

Insects

Fruit Pests

Grape Berry Moth (Paralibesia viteana): The grape berry moth (GBM) is about 3/8 - 1/4” long and has a broad gray band across the middle of its wings. The larva is grayish-green and about 3/8” long when full grown. Larvae are found in the blossoms, young fruit clusters, and newly-formed berries; later they are found in green and ripening berries. Larvae feeding in the green and ripening berries cause most losses. Infested green berries will be seen to have a maroon coloration on one side, especially where the berry comes closest to or contacts a nearby berry in the same cluster. Such coloration indicates that a larva has fed on one berry, burrowed into another, and connected them with webbing. Ripening berries infested with larvae are detected by the wrinkled, shrunken appearance of the fruit.

Management: Remove wild grape plants from areas adjoining the vineyard. Till between rows to bury overwintering larvae. Pheromone traps are available to monitor onset of activity and pressure. Traps should be placed in the vineyard prior to the onset of GBM activity, usually around bloom. Threshold numbers for these traps have not been verified for New England, but they are useful to determine the onset of GBM activity.

Brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) (Halyomorpha halys): Adult BMSB are approximately 3/4 inch long and are shades of brown on both the upper and lower body surfaces. They have the typical “shield” shape of other stink bugs, almost as wide as they are long. To distinguish them from other stink bugs, look for lighter bands on the antennae and darker bands on the membranous, overlapping part at the rear of the front pair of wings. Masses of 20-30 eggs are laid on underside of leaves. The 5 nymphal stages range in size from 1/8 - 1/2 inch. Nymphs and adult BMSB feed on many hosts including small fruits, tree fruits, vegetables, ornamentals, and seeded crops such as corn and soybeans. BMSB feeds by puncturing the fruit with piercing/sucking mouthparts, and injecting saliva which allows the insect to suck up the plant material through its mouthparts. Fruit tissue at the point of entry and just below into the flesh, then dies and the rest of the fruit grows around it. This leaves a sunken area on the skin at the point of entry, and browning, dead tissue in the flesh.

BMSB has become a serious insect pest throughout much of the mid-Atlantic states and southern New York. As of 2020, BMSB has not caused economic damage to farms in New England. It is unknown at this time whether there will be one or two generations per year.

Management: Monitor for the presence of BMSB using suitable traps (see appendices for sources).  If found, see pest managment table for recommended materials and rates.

Spotted wing Drosophila (SWD) (Drosophila suzukii): SWD are invasive vinegar flies (fruit flies) that can attack unripened fruit. Female SWD cut into intact fruit with their serrated ovipositor to lay eggs under the skin. This allows larvae of SWD to be present during ripening, leading to a risk of detection in ripe fruit after harvest. During egg-laying and larval feeding, sour rot and fungal diseases can also be introduced, further affecting fruit quality. There is a greater risk of fruit contamination at harvest from SWD compared with native species that lay eggs only in already-damaged and rotting fruit.

Management: SWD do not appear to severely threaten grapes at this time. Thin-skinned grapes may be more damaged than thick-skinned grapes and red grapes may be more damaged than green grapes. If SWD have damaged grapes in previous years, apply insecticides when grapes begin to turn color through harvest. Choose insecticides based on efficacy and preharvest interval. Most insecticides will be made more effective by adding sugar to stimulate SWD feeding.

Foliage and Cane Pests

Grape flea beetle (Altica chalybea): This is a metallic blue beetle about 3/16 - 1/4” long that jumps when disturbed. It is found on swelling buds during the spring. The flea beetles overwinter as adults and emerge during April. They chew holes in the ends and sides of buds that are beginning to swell. Such damage destroys the capacity of a bud to develop a primary or secondary shoot. Once the buds have grown to a length of 1/2” or more, the beetles cannot cause significant injury.

Management: See pest management table for recommended materials and timing.

Grape Phylloxera (Phylloxera vitifoliae): The presence of this soft-bodied insect ( about 1/16” or less in length) is indicated by galls or knob-like protrusions on the underside of leaves. It is found primarily on leaves of Vitis vinifera varieties, especially after bloom. The damage results from new leaves remaining curled and unproductive on the vine.

Management: Plant resistant rootstocks. Remove infected leaves. Spray applications should be made immediately after bloom and again 10 days later. See pest management table for recommended materials and timing.

Grape Leafhopper (Erythroneura comes) and Potato Leafhopper (Empoasca fabae): These soft-bodied, elongated insects about 1/8” long, walk quickly when disturbed and hop when touched. The grape leafhoppers are yellow and white or red and white. The potato leafhopper is light green and has a distinctive side-ways walk. Leafhoppers appear primarily in mid-summer and are found on the underside of leaves, especially young ones. Feeding activity causes white blotches on leaves, leaf curling, and eventual leaf drop.

Management: Sample by examining 25-50 leaves per block.  When populations of leafhoppers build up to 3 or more per leaf, apply an insecticide. See pest management table for recommended materials and timing.

Japanese Beetle (Popillia japonica) and Rose Chafer (Macrodactulus subspinosus): These clumsy, large beetles can feed heavily on the foliage of many different plants. Japanese beetles are a shiny copper color, almost round in shape with legs that tend to stick out. They will play dead when disturbed, dropping to the ground. Rose chafers are very similar behaviorally but dull green in color and more oval in shape. They can be found on both leaves and fruit. The feeding damage to leaves results in skeletonizing of the leaves with only the veins left; injured fruit is unsalable. Japanese beetles are about 1/2” long and copper-colored, with metallic green markings. They feed on grape foliage, skeletonizing the leaves during the mid and late summer. The larvae, or grubs, live in the soil, feeding on roots of grasses.

Management: The beetles can be controlled with sprays of labeled insecticides. Traps are also available which use a sex and/or feeding attractant to capture the adults in a can or plastic bag, but such traps may not provide adequate control. Place traps near, but not in the planting, as traps within a planting may suffer increased localized damage from beetles which are attracted, but do not fall into the trap. See pest management table for recommended materials and timing.

Two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae): Spider mites are very small (1/50”), insect-like creatures that feed on grape foliage, sucking out plant juices and causing a white stippling or bronzing of the leaves. Under heavy infestations, leaves will turn brown and be covered in a fine webbing. Adults may also move onto the fruit, reducing consumer appeal by their presence. 

Management: There have been some reports that soaking sprays of water applied at relatively high pressure may temporarily suppress mite populations. Foliar applications of broad-spectrum insecticides such as diazinon and Danitol may suppress populations of spider mites, but these materials may also reduce populations of natural predators which feed on the spider mites. Several companies now commercially produce predatory mites which feed on spider mites. These predators can be released in grape plantings and may provide some control of spider mites, but research is needed to determine appropriate release rates and timing. It is important, however, to encourage natural enemies of spider mites by reducing the use of pesticides which may harm natural enemies. See pest management table for recommended materials and timing.

Grapevine Aphid (Aphis illinoisensis): These aphids are dark brown and about 1/32 - 1/16” in length. They appear on young shoots and leaves during summer months. When abundant, aphids prevent proper extension of shoots, expansion of leaves, and development of fruit.

Management: When present, an overhead irrigation system can be used to reduce aphid numbers on the vines. This is not a “tested” method but has been recommended anecdotally. Similarly, spraying with water at high pressure can have the same result: washing the aphids off the vine.

Grape Tumid Gallmaker (Janetiella brevicauda): The grape tumid gallmaker (GTM) is a tiny midge (a type of fly) that lays eggs on developing leaves, stems and fruit clusters, causing large galls that can interfere with fruit development and yield.  There are several generations during the season, but the first generation in the spring is the most problematic. The larvae are well protected within the galls making them difficult to kill with contact insecticides.  The adults only live one day, making it difficult to time insecticide applications. 

Management: Pesticide applications for GTG are not economically prudent unless the infestation is heavy or the vineyard has a history of tumid gall problems. Treatment should be timed to kill adults of the overwintered generation as they emerge. Since adults are difficult to detect, it may be most feasible to base control measures on the first sign of larval entrance into vine tissues or on the first indication of gall formation. Systemic insecticides timing application is not as critical, but should be applied as early as possible after sufficient foliage is present (10” stage). Growers might also consider burying the pupae by mounding soil up under the vines early in the season (late April). This form of cultural control might prevent adults from reaching the soil surface.

Vertebrate Pests

Birds: Birds are a major pest problem in grapes. Left unchecked, they can destroy enough of the crop to ruin the profitability of a vineyard. The loss of chemical deterrents has made bird control a more difficult task in recent times, but effective means are still available.

Netting is the most effective way to keep birds out of the vineyard. Although initial costs can be high, most netting will last for many years if cared for properly. Netting should be hung over some sort of support structure built around the vineyard. Usually posts are set nine feet above the ground around the perimeter of the vineyard, and wire is run from pole to pole to form a grid over the planting. The netting is hung over this grid when the fruit begins to turn color. Some temporary nine foot poles may be placed within the vineyard at intersections of the grid to keep the netting from drooping. Bury the edges of the netting or anchor it to the ground to keep birds from crawling underneath. Remove the netting when the harvest is complete, and store in a cool, dry place.

Visual scare devices have variable effectiveness on birds. Scarecrows, balloons, kites, or stuffed owls may work on certain bird species in certain areas, but none seem to have widespread dependability. When using scarecrows, “scare eye” balloons, stuffed owls, or snakes, put them in the vineyard only when the fruit begins to ripen, and move them regularly, at least once a day. Six scare-eye balloons per acre are recommended. Take them out of the field as soon as harvest is over. This will reduce the chance of birds becoming accustomed to the devices, and increase the longevity of their effectiveness. Kites and helium-filled balloons positioned high above the planting with a silhouette of a hawk hanging from them have provided good results in some areas.

Noise deterrents, such as propane cannons, alarms and recorded distress calls seem to have the least effect on birds in vineyards, but may greatly annoy neighbors. A combination of noise and visuals may be effective, however. Several operations have hired people to regularly drive motorcycles and/or ATVs through the vineyard when the fruit is ripe, and this seems to keep birds away quite well. Be sure to make drivers aware of where pickers are however, to avoid possible accidents.

Bird Shield™, a repellent formulated from methyl anthranilate, is currently being registered for use on blueberries, cherries, and grapes. Methyl anthranilate is commonly used as a grape flavoring in human food preparations. Bird avoidance is based on odor quality and irritation. To humans, this chemical has a grape-like or fruit odor and a slightly bitter, pungent taste. Unfortunately, efficacy data do not support recommending this material at this time.

For a complete discussion of bird control in fruit crops, see Bird Damage Prevention for Northern New England Fruit Growers by Dr. Alan Eaton of the University of New Hampshire.

Table 56. Effectiveness of insecticides and miticides for management of grape pests.
Insecticides IRACa Group Active Ingredient

grape

berry moth

leafhopper

grape 

phylloxera

japanese 

beetle

grape cane girdler

Grape cane gallmaker

grape

flea beetle

climbing cutworm red-banded leafroller spider mite brown marmorated stink bug spotted wing drosophila
Actara 4A thiamethoxam 0 ++ 0 ++ 0 0 0 0 0 ++ 0
Admire Pro 4A imidacloprid 0 +++ ++ + 0/+ 0 0 0 0 ++ +
Altacor 28 chlorantraniliprole +++ 0 0 ++ ++/? + ++ ++ 0 -- --
Assail 4A acetamiprid 0 +++ ++ ++ ++ -- -- -- 0 -- +++
Avaunt 22A indoxacarb ++ + -- ++ ++ -- -- -- 0 -- --
Aza-direct UN azadirachtin -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
*Baythroid 3A beta-cyfluthrin +++ +++ -- +++ +++ ++ ++ ++ 0 -- +++
Belt 28 flubendiamide +++ 0 0 ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ 0 -- --
Biobit 11 Bacillus thuringiensis spp. kurstaki + 0 0 0 0 0 -- -- 0 0 0
*Brigade 3 bifenthrin +++ +++ -- +++ +++ ++ ++ ++ -- ++ +++
Closer SC 4C sulfoxaflor -- ++ -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
*Danitol 3 fenpropathrin +++ +++ ++ ++ +++ ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ +++
Delegate 5 spinetoram +++ 0 0 0 0 -- -- +++ 0 -- +++
Des-X UN potassium salts 0 ++ ++ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 --
DiPel 11 Bacillus thuringiensis spp. kurstaki + 0 0 0 0 0 -- -- 0 0 0
Entrust 5 spinosad -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- ++
Grandevo UN Chromobacterium subtsugae -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
Imidan 1B phosmet +++ ++ -- +++ +++ ++ ++ +++ 0 -- --
Intrepid 18 methoxyfenozide +++ 0 0 0 0 0 0 -- 0 -- --
*Leverage 3,4A imidacloprid, beta-cyfluthrin +++ +++ -- +++ +++ ++ ++ ++ -- ++ +++
Movento 23 spirotetramat 0 0 +++ 0 0 0 0 0 + -- --
M-Pede UN potassium salts of fatty acids ++ ++ 0 0 0 0 0 -- 0 0 --
*Mustang Max 3 zeta-cypermethrin +++ +++ 0 ++ 0 0 0 0 0 0 +++
Neemix UN azadirachtin -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
Pasada 4A imidacloprid 0 +++ ++ + 0/+ 0 0 0 0 ++ +
Platinum 4A thiamethoxam 0 +++ ++ + 0/+ 0 0 0 0 ++ +
Pyganic 3 pyrethrins -- + -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- +
Scorpion 4A dinotefuran 0 +++ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 +++ --
Senstar 23/7C spirotetramat, pyriproxyfen 0 0 ++ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Sevin 1A carbaryl +++ +++ 0 +++ ++ +++ +++ + 0 -- ++
SuffOil-X UN mineral oil -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- ++ -- --
Tourismo 28/16 flubendiamide, buprofezin +++ 0 0 0 ++ 0 0 ++ 0 ++ --
Trilogy UN neem oil -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
Venerate UN Burkholderia spp. -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
Venom 4A dinotefuran 0 +++ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 +++ --
Voliam flexi 4A chlorantraniliprole, thiamethoxam +++ +++ ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ 0 -- --
Miticides    
Acramite 4A bifenazate 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 +++ 0 0
*Agri-Mek 6 abamectin ++ + 0 0 0 0 0 0 ++ 0 0
Apollo 10A clofentezine 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ++ 0 0
Fujimite 21 fenpyroximate 0 + 0 0 0 0 0 0 +++ 0 0
Nealta 25 cyflumetofen 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ++ 0 0
Nexter 21A pyridaben 0 ++ 0 0 0 0 0 0 +++ 0 0
Onager OPTEK 10A hexythiazox 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ++ 0 0
Portal 21A fenpyroximate 0 ++ 0 0 0 0 0 0 +++ 0 0
Vendex 12B fenbutatin-oxide 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 +++ 0 0
Zeal 10C etoxazole 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 +++ 0 0

0=not effective, +=poor, ++=good, +++=excellent, --=insufficient data

Products with the same IRAC group number act by the same mode of action. Repeated use of the same mode of action should be avoided, in order to avoid reductions in pesticide efficacy via development of chemical resistance in the pest population. For more on information on managing pesticide resistance, go to www.irac-online.org.

*Restricted use material; pesticide applicators license required.       OMRI listed - organic production; go to www.omri.org for details.


Always read the label for important restrictions or warnings about tank mix compatibility or phytotoxicity warnings.

Table 57. Grape Pest Management Table

 

Table 57. Grape pest management table.
For resistance management do not make more than 2 sequential applications of fungicides in the same FRAC group or insecticides in the same IRAC group. See product labels for groups.
Pest RAC
Group
Spray Material, Rate/A (PHI) Cultural Practices and Scouting Notes Comments
Dormant and Delayed Dormant
Anthracnose, Black Rot,
Phomopsis cane blight
FRAC
M02
M02
 
Lime Sulfur, 1 gal/10 gal water (0)
Sulforix, 1-2 gal (0)
Dormant applications may reduce overwintering inoculum enough to warrant this spray on highly susceptible cutlivars like 'Marquette' and 'Reliance' or in blocks where these diseases have been severe in the past.  Thorough coverage is essential for good results. 
Canker Diseases (Eutypa, Botryosphaeria)
FRAC
1
3
 
Topsin M 70WSB, 3.2 oz/gal water
Mettle 1ME, 5 oz (14)
 
Apply Topsin M as a paint or directed spray to wounded surfaces after pruning and before the next rain. This recommendation is primarily for large pruning cuts, but has been shown to be beneficial under such conditions.
Apply Mettle as spray withing 24 hrs after pruning (12hr REI).
European red mite
and/or scale insects

    IRAC

       UN

Superior Oil, 2.5% sln (0)

Do not apply after growth has started or pytotoxicity may occur. Thorough coverage is needed to achieve control.
Bud Swell (before buds show green)
Grape flea beetle, Steely beetle
IRAC
3
4A, 3
1A
3
3, UN
3A
 
*Danitol 2EC, 5.3-10.6 oz (21)
*Leverage 360, 3.2-6.4 oz (3)
Sevin 4F, 1-2 qt (7)
Tersus, 4.5-17 oz (0)
Azera, 1-3.5 pt (0)
 Pyganic EC5, 4.5-17 oz (0)
Scout weekly to determine need for control of these insects.  Look for feeding injury or presence of adult beetles which are most active on warm sunny days.
 
Climbing cutworm
IRAC
3
3
5
4A, 3
3
1A
4A, 28
11
5
 
*Brigade 2EC, 3.2-6.4 oz (30)
*Danitol 2EC, 10.7 oz (21)
Delegate WG, 3-5 oz (7)
*Leverage 360, 3.2-6.4 oz (3)
*Mustang Max, 2-4 oz (1)
Sevin 4F, 2 qt (7)
Voliam Flexi, 4.5 oz (14)
DiPel DF, 0.5-2 lb (0)
Entrust, 4-8 oz (0)
Scout weekly to determine need for control of these insects.   Bud damage above 2% warrents treatment.
Many of these products have application restrictions.  Read the labels thoroughly to understand these restrictions.
Bud Break to 10 inch shoots
Flea beetle,
Climbing cutworm,
Banded grape bug,
Grape plume moth
IRAC
3
5
1B
4A, 3
1A
11
5

*Danitol 2.4EC, 10.67-21.3oz (21)
Delegate 25WG, 3-5 oz (7)
Imidan 70W, 1.33-2.12 lb (14)
*Leverage 360, 3.2-6.4 oz (3)
Sevin 4F, 2 qt (7)
DiPel DF, 0.5-1 lb (0)
Entrust, 4-8 oz (0)
Scout weekly to determine need for control of these insects.
Several of these pests are more common in areas of the vineyard near woods or brushy areas so scouting those areas is recommended.
DiPel DF has activity on caterpillars/moths only. 
European Red Mite
Two-Spotted Mite
IRAC
UN
6
10A
21
25
21
10A
21
12B
10C
UN
UN
UN
 
 
 
Acramite 50WS, 0.75-1lb (14)
*Agri-Mek 0.15EC, 8-16 oz (28)
Apollo 1SC, 4-8 oz (21)
Fujimite 5EC, 2 pt (14)
Nealta, 13.7 oz (14)
Nexter 75WP, 4.4-10.67 oz (7)
Onager Optek, 12-24 oz (7)
Portal, 2 pt (14)
*Vendex 50WP, 1.25-2 lb (28)
Zeal, 2-3 oz (14)
JMS Stylet Oil, 1-2%, (0)
Trilogy, 0.5-1%, (0)
Biomite, 1-2qt/100gal; 100-400 gal/acre (0)
Scout weekly to determine need for control of these pests.
Predatory mite releases may also be useful. See Resource Listing at the end of this guide for predatory mite sources.
Read labels carefully for specific restrictions.
Apply Nealta at first sign of mites, before population increases.

Do not use JMS Stylet Oil w/in 14 days of using Captan or phytotoxicity will result.
Do not use Trilogy after bloom on table grapes.
Use Nexter at 8.8-10.67 oz/a for two-spotted spider mites.
 
Black rot
FRAC
M03
3,9
M03
1
3
40,3
3
11
11,3
M03
M01
M01
M01
 
Dithane DF, 2-4 lb (66)
Inspire Super, 16-20 (14)
Manzate Pro-Stick 74DF, 2-4lb (66)
Mettle 1ME, 3-5 oz (14)
Rally 40WSP, 3-4 oz (14)
Revus Top 4SC, 7 oz (14)
Rhyme 2.08SC, 4-5 oz (14)
Sovran 50WG, 3.2-6.4 oz (14)
Topguard EQ, 5-6 oz (14)
Ziram 76DF, 3-4lb (21)
Badge X2, 0.75-1.75 lb (0)
Champ WG, 2-4 lb (0)
Nu-Cop 50DF, 2lb (1)
Use resistant varieties when possible. See table 55.
Sanitation - Remove all dead wood, infected wood and pruning stubs, mummies or other overwintering material that may harbor inoculum from the canopy during dormant pruning operations.
Canopy management - Prune and train the vines to promote air circulation and speed drying of the shoots and clusters.  In some instances performing “cane pruning” rather than “spur or cordon pruning” in vinifera and hybrids will result in ensuring new wood is laid down on the  fruiting wire every year.
Vineyard management. Orient rows to improve air movement within the vineyard.
Badge, NuCop, Champ and other copper products may cause slight to severe foliar injury to certain varieties. Use on a small area first to confirm lack of sensitivity before treating large areas. Read label carefully for cautions.
Do not use Flint, Inspire Super, Pristine, Quadris Top, or Revus Top, on Concord Grapes (or related varieties) as injury may occur.  Read label carefully for cautions.
Phomopsis Cane
and Leaf Spot
FRAC 
M04
M03
M03
M03
M01
M01
M01
M02
M01
M01
M02
 
Captan 50W, 2-4 lb (varies)
Dithane DF, 2-4 lb (66)
Manzate Pro-Stick, 2-4 lb (66)
Ziram 76DF, 3-4lb (21)
Badge X2, 0.75-3.5 lb (0)
Champ WG, 2-6 lb (0)
Cueva, 0.5-2.0 gal (1)
Kumulus DF, 2-10 lb (0)
Nordox 75 WG, 1.25 lb (0)
Nu-Cop 50DF, 2 lb (1)
Micro Sulf, 3-10 (-)
Same cultural practices as above.
Check label carefully for reentry interval and pre-harvest interval for various Captan formulations.
Captan may cause phytotoxicity in combination with oil or oil based sprays.
NuCop, Champ and other copper products or Kumulus and other sulfur products may cause slight to severe foliar injury to certain varieties. Use on a small area first to confirm lack of sensitivity before treating large areas. Read label carefully for cautions.
Downy Mildew
FRAC 
M04
M03
M03
P07
P07
P07
21
40
45,40
M01
M01
M01
P06
NC
M01
M01
BM02
 
Captan 50WP, 2-4 lb (varies)
Dithane DF, 3-4 lb (66)
Gavel 75DF, 2-2.5 lb (66)
Phostrol, 2.5-5 pt (0)
Prophyt, 1.8-3.6 pt (0)
Rampart, 2-6 pt (0)
Ranman 400SC, 2.1-2.75 oz (30)
Revus 2SC, 8 oz (14)
Zampro 4.4SC, 11-14 oz (14)
Badge X2, 0.75-3.5 (0)
Champ WG, 2-6 lb (0)
Cueva, 0.5-2.0 gal (1)
Lifegard, 4.5 oz (0)
Milstop, 2-5 lb (0)
Nordox 75WG, 1.25 lb (0)
Nu-Cop 50DF, 2 lb (1)
Serenade MAX, 1-3 lbs (0)
Same cultural practices as above
NuCop, Champ and other copper products may cause slight to severe foliar injury to certain varieties. Use on a small area first to confirm lack of sensitivity before treating large areas. Read label carefully for cautions.
Do not use Flint, Inspire Super, Pristine, Quadris Top, or Revus Top, on Concord Grapes (or related varieties) as injury may occur.  Read label carefully for cautions.
Powdery Mildew
FRAC
3,9
3
3
3
3
3,40
M02
U06
3
M01
NC
NC
M02
P06
NC
M01
M01
IRAC UN
 
Inspire Super, 16-20 (14)
Mettle 1ME, 3-5 oz (14)
Orius 45DF, 3-4 oz (14)
Procure 480, 6-8 oz (7)
Rally 40WSP, 3-5 oz (14)
Revus Top 4SC, 7 oz (14)
Sulfur, various products (0)
Torino 120SC, 3.4 oz (3)
Vintage 1SC, 3-4 oz (21)
Badge X2, 0.75-3.5 (0)
JMS Stylet Oil, 1-2%, (0)
Kaligreen 82 SP, 2.5 LB (0)
Kumulus DF, 2-10 lb (0)
Lifegard, 4.5 oz (0)
Milstop, 2-5 lb (0)
Nordox 75WG, 1.25 lb (0)
Nu-Cop 50DF, 2 lb (1)
Trilogy 1-2% (0)
Same cultural practices as above.
Early control of Powdery Mildew is critical on susceptible cultivars. Infections can be hard to detect and lead to serious problems later in the season.
Do not use Flint, Inspire Super, Pristine, Quadris Top, or Revus Top, on Concord Grapes (or related varieties) as injury may occur.  Read label carefully for cautions.
Kumulus and other sulfur products may cause slight to severe foliar injury to certain varieties. Use on a small area first to confirm lack of sensitivity before treating large areas. Read label carefully for cautions.
Do not use Trilogy after bloom on table grapes
Ten Inch Shoots to Bloom
Flea Beetle Larvae
 
Same as for Budbreak to 10” shoots
Redbanded
Leafroller
Rose Chafer
IRAC
28
4A
3
5
18
1A
3
5
 
Altacor, 3.0-4.5 oz (1)
Assail 30SG, 2.5 oz (7)
*Danitol 2.4EC, 5.3-21.3 oz (21)
Delegate WG, 3-5 oz (7)
Intrepid 2F, 10-16 oz (30)
Sevin 4F, 2 qt (7)
Tersus, 4.5-17 oz (0)
Entrust 80WP, 1.25-2.5 oz (7)
Scout weekly to determine need for control of these pests.
*Pheromone traps for redbanded
leafroller will indicate if they are present and help determine the need for control.
Read labels carefully for specific restrictions. Be especially aware of long harvest restrictions.
European Red Mite
Two-Spotted Mite
 
Same as for Budbreak to 10” shoots
Phomopsis Cane
and Leaf Spot
FRAC
M04
M03
M03
M03
M01
M01
M01
M02
M01
M01
 
Captan 50W, 2-4 lb (varies)
Dithane DF, 2-4 lb (66)
Manzate Pro-Stick, 2-4 lb (66)
Ziram 76DF, 3-4lb (21)
Badge X2, 0.75-3.5 lb (0)
Champ WG, 2-6 lb (0)
Cueva, 0.5-2.0 gal (1)
Kumulus DF, 2-10 lb (0)
Nordox 75 WG, 1.25 lb (0)
Nu-Cop 50DF, 2 lb (1)
This is an important time to protect from rachis infections on susceptible cultivars.
Be aware of harvest restrictions when selecting spray materials.
Do not use Captan with or within 14 days of an oil application.
Do not use Flint, Inspire Super, Pristine, Quadris Top, or Revus Top, on Concord Grapes (or related varieties) as injury may occur.  Read label carefully for cautions.
NuCop, Champ and other copper products or Kumulus and other sulfur products may cause slight to severe foliar injury to certain varieties.
Black Rot
FRAC
M03
3,9
M03
1
3
40,3
3
11
11,3
M03
M01
M01
M01
 
Dithane DF, 2-4 lb (66)
Inspire Super, 16-20 (14)
Manzate Pro-Stick 74DF, 2-4lb (66)
Mettle 1ME, 3-5 oz (14)
Rally 40WSP, 3-4 oz (14)
Revus Top 4SC, 7 oz (14)
Rhyme 2.08SC, 4-5 oz (14)
Sovran 50WG, 3.2-6.4 oz (14)
Topguard EQ, 5-6 oz (14)
Ziram 76DF, 3-4lb (21)
Badge X2, 0.75-1.75 lb (0)
Champ WG, 2-4 lb (0)
Nu-Cop 50DF, 2lb (1)
This is an important time to protect from rachis infections on susceptible cultivars.
Strobilurin fungicides (Abound, Quadris, Sovran, Cabrio, Flint, Pristine, ) can be very effective on Black Rot, but are highly susceptible to developing resistance in the target organism and so are best saved for later in the season for high need situations.
Abound and Quadris both contain azoxystrobin and are highly toxic to apples. Do not spray grapes near apples or use the same equipment that will also be used on apples to avoid injury.
Do not use Flint, Inspire Super, Pristine, Quadris Top, or Revus Top, on Concord Grapes (or related varieties) as injury may occur.  Read label carefully for cautions.
NuCop, Champ and other copper products may cause slight to severe foliar injury to certain varieties.
Powdery Mildew
FRAC
3,9
3
3
3
3
40,3
M02
U06
3
M01
NC
NC
M02
BM02
NC
M01
01
IRAC UN
 
Inspire Super, 16-20 (14)
Mettle 1ME, 3-5 oz (14)
Orius 45DF, 3-4 oz (14)
Procure 480, 6-8 oz (7)
Rally 40WSP, 3-5 oz (14)
Revus Top 4SC, 7 oz (14)
Sulfur, various products (0)
Torino 120SC, 3.4 oz (3)
Vintage 1SC, 3-4 oz (21)
Badge X2, 0.75-3.5 (0)
JMS Stylet Oil, 1-2%, (0)
Kaligreen 82 SP, 2.5 LB (0)
Kumulus DF, 2-10 lb (0)
Lifegard, 4.5 oz (0)
Milstop, 2-5 lb (0)
Nordox 75WG, 1.25 lb (0)
Nu-Cop 50DF, 2 lb (1)
Trilogy 1-2% (0)
This is an important time to protect from rachis infections on susceptible cultivars.
Be aware of harvest restrictions when selecting spray materials.
Do not use JMS Stylet Oil with or within 14 days of a Captan application.
Kumulus and other sulfur products may cause slight to severe foliar injury to certain varieties. Use on a small area first to confirm lack of sensitivity before treating large areas. Read label carefully for cautions.
Do not use Flint, Inspire Super, Pristine, Quadris Top, or Revus Top, on Concord Grapes (or related varieties) as injury may occur.  Read label carefully for cautions.
Do not use Trilogy after bloom on table grapes.
Downy Mildew
FRAC
M04
M03
M03
P07
P07
P07
21
40
45,40
M01
M01
M01
P06
NC
M01
M01
BM02
 
Captan 50WP, 2-4 lb (varies)
Dithane DF, 3-4 lb (66)
Gavel 75DF, 2-2.5 lb (66)
Phostrol, 2.5-5 pt (0)
Prophyt, 1.8-3.6 pt (0)
Rampart, 2-6 pt (0)
Ranman 400SC, 2.1-2.75 oz (30)
Revus 2SC, 8 oz (14)
Zampro 4.4SC, 11-14 oz (14)
Badge X2, 0.75-3.5 (0)
Champ WG, 2-6 lb (0)
Cueva, 0.5-2.0 gal (1)
Lifegard, 4.5 oz (0)
Milstop, 2-5 lb (0)
Nordox 75WG, 1.25 lb (0)
Nu-Cop 50DF, 2 lb (1)
Serenade MAX, 1-3 lbs (0)
This is an important time to protect from rachis infections on susceptible cultivars.
Be aware of harvest restrictions when selecting spray materials.
NuCop, Champ and other copper products may cause slight to severe foliar injury to certain varieties. Use on a small area first to confirm lack of sensitivity before treating large areas. Read label carefully for cautions.
 
Immediate Pre-Bloom
Flea Beetle Larvae, Rose Chafer, Redbanded Leafroller
 
Same as 10-inch shoot
Set pheromone traps for Redbanded Leafroller along with Grape Berry Moth at this time.
 
Grape Phylloxera (leaf forms)
IRAC
4A
3
23
4A
4A, 28

Assail 30SG, 2.5 oz (7)
*Danitol 2.4EC, 10.7-21.3 oz (21)
Movento 2EC, 6-8 oz, (7)
Scorpion, (foliar app) 2-5 oz (1)
Voliam Flexi 40SG, 4.5 oz (14)
Light infestations can be suppressed by leaf pulling infested leaves as they appear.
Apply when first galls are forming; spray again 10-12 days later. Many varieties can withstand extensive galling.
 
Movento requires use of specific adjuvant; read label for specifics.
Grape Phylloxera (root form)
 
IRAC
4A
23
4A
4A

Admire Pro, 14 oz (30)
Movento 2EC, 6-8 oz, (7)
Platinum, 8-17 oz (60)
Scorpion (soil app) 9-10.5 oz (28)
Control the root gall form of grape phylloxera by using rootstocks derived from American grapes. Native American grapes (Eastern U.S.) are highly resistant to this pest. Admire Pro applied through drip irrigation lines can help control the root form of Phylloxera.  Other soil applied insecticides include Scorpion, and Venom though these only suppresses grape phylloxera.
Phomopsis cane and leaf spot and rachis infections
FRAC
11
11
M04
M03

     7,11

11,3
11
M01
M01
M01
M01
M01
M01
 
Abound 2SC, 11-15 oz (14)
Azaka 2SC, 11-15 oz (14)
Captan 80WDG, 2-2.5 lb (0)
Dithane DF, 3-4 lb (66)
Pristine 38WG, 8-12.5 oz (14)
Quadris Top, 12-14 oz (14)
Sovran 50WG, 3.2-4.0 oz (14)
Topguard EQ, 6-8 oz (14)
Badge X2, 0.75-1.75 lb (0)
Champ WG, 2-4 lb (0)
Cueva, 0.5-2.0 gal (1)
Nordox 75 WG, 1.25 lb (0)
Nu-Cop 50DF, 2 lb (1)
Fruit infections can take place during this period and not become evident until just before harvest so protecting vines where high levels of inoculum are suspected is recommended.
 
Prune and train vines to promote air circulation and rapid drying of shoots and clusters.
 
CAUTION: Do not use Abound, Azaka, Quadris Top, Sovran or Topguard near apples or with equipment that is also used to spray apples as severe phytoxicity may result.
 
CAUTION: Do not use Revus Top, Pristine, Quadris Top or related materials on Concord or related cultivars as damage may occur.
Black Rot
FRAC
11
11
M03
11
3,9
3,7
3
7,11
3,11
40,3
3
11
11,3
M03
M01
M01
M01
M01
M01
NC
 
Abound 2SC, 11-15 oz (14)
Azaka 2SC, 11-15 oz (14)
Dithane DF, 3-4 lb (66)
Flint 50WG, 1.5-2.0 (14)
Inspire Super, 16-20 oz (14)
Luna Experience, 6.0-8.6 (7)
Mettle 1ME, 5 oz (14)
Pristine 38WG, 10-12.5 oz (14)
Quadris Top 2.7SC, 12-14 oz (14)
Revus Top 4SC, 7 oz (14)
Rhyme 2.08SC, 5 oz (14)
Sovran 50WG, 3.2-4.0 oz (14)
Topguard EQ, 5-6 oz (14)
Ziram 76DF, 3-4 lb (21)
Badge X2, 0.75-3.5 lb (0)
Champ WG, 2-6 lb (0)
Cueva, 0.5-2.0 gal (1)
Nordox 75 WG, 1.25 lb (0)
Nu-Cop 50DF, 2lb (1)
Oxidate 2.0, 32-128 oz (0)
Immediate pre-bloom through early post-bloom are the most important times to control Black Rot and where this disease has been a problem and in highly susceptible cultivars, this is a critical time to manage this disease.
 
Prune and train the vines to promote air circulation and rapid drying of the leaves and fruit. Establish new plantings away from wooded areas, where wild grapes can serve as a source of black rot spores.
 
CAUTION: Do not use Abound, Azaka, Quadris Top, Sovran or Topguard near apples or with equipment that is also used to spray apples as severe phytoxicity may result.
 
CAUTION: Do not use Revus Top, Pristine, Quadris Top or related materials on Concord or related cultivars as damage may occur.
 
Powdery Mildew
FRAC
11
7
11
7
11
3,9
3,7
3
19
19
7,11
3
11,3
13
3
40,3
3
11
M02
3,11
U06
47/50
BM02
BM02
NC
NC
M02
BM02
NC
P05
IRAC UN
 
Abound 2SC, 11-15 oz (14)
Aprovia 0.83SC, 8.6-10.5 oz (21)
Azaka, 2SC 11-15 oz (14)
Endura 70WG, 4.5 oz (14)
Flint 50WG, 1.5-2.0 (14)
Inspire Super, 16-20 (14)
Luna Experience, 6-8.6 oz (7)
Mettle 1ME, 3-5 oz (14)
Oso 5SC, 6.5 oz (7)
Ph-D 89WDG, 6.2 oz (0)
Pristine 38WG, 10-12.5 oz (14)
Procure 480SC, 6-8 oz (7)
Quadris Top 2.7SC, 12-14 oz (14)
Quintec 2SC, 3-4 oz (14)
Rally 40WSP, 4-5 oz (14)
Revus Top 4SC, 7 oz (14)
Rhyme 2.08SC, 5 oz (14)
Sovran 50WG, 3.2-4.0 oz (14)
Sulfur, various products (0)
Topguard EQ, 5-6 oz (14)
Torino 120SC, 3.4 oz (3)
Vivando 2.5SC, 10.3-15.4 oz (14)
Actinovate-AG, 3-12 oz (0)
Double Nickel 55, 1-3lb (0)
JMS Stylet Oil, 1-2%, (0)
Kaligreen 82 SP, 2.5 LB (0)
Kumulus DF, 2-10 lb (0)
Lifegard, 4.5 oz (0)
Milstop, 2-5 lb (0)
Regalia, 1-4 qt (0)
Trilogy 1-2% (0)
This is a critical time to achieve control of this disease especially on highly susceptible cultivars and where high levels of inoculum are present from the previous year.  Spray applications should be made to every row and rates adjusted upward to get good coverage on larger canopies. 
 
Be sure to rotate chemistries (FRAC Groups) to avoid the development of fungicide resistance to this disease in your vineyard.
 
CAUTION: Do not use Abound, Azaka, Quadris Top, Sovran or Topguard near apples or with equipment that is also used to spray apples as severe phytoxicity may result.
 
CAUTION: Do not use Revus Top, Pristine, Quadris Top or related materials on Concord or related cultivars as damage may occur.
 
Downy Mildew
FRAC
11
11
M04
M03
M03
P07
11,7
P07
7,11
P07
21
40
40,3
4,M03
11
11,3
45,40
M01
M01
M01
P06
NC
M01
M011
BM02
 
Abound 2SC, 11-15 oz (14)
Azaka 2SC, 11-15 oz (14)
Captan 50WP, 3-4 lb (varies)
Dithane DF, 3-4 lb (66)
Gavel 75DF, 2-2.5 lb (66)
Phostrol, 2.5-5 pt (0)
Pristine 38WG, 8-12.5 oz (14)
Prophyt, 2-4 pt pt (0)
Quadris Top 2.7SC, 12-14 oz (14)
Rampart, 2-6 pt (0)
Ranman 400SC, 2.1-2.75 oz (30)
Revus 2SC, 8 oz (14)
Revus Top 4SC, 7 oz (14)
Ridomil Gold MZ, 2.5 lb (66)
Sovran 50WG, 3.2-4.0 oz (14)
Topguard EQ, 5-6 oz (14)
Zampro 4.4SC, 11-14 oz (14)
Badge X2, 0.75-1.75 (0)
Champ WG, 2-4 lb (0)
Cueva, 0.5-2.0 gal (1)
Lifegard, 4.5 oz (0)
Milstop, 2-5 lb (0)
Nordox 75 WG, 1.25 lb (0)
Nu-Cop 50DF, 2lb (1)
Serenade MAX, 1-3 lbs (0)
This is a critical time to achieve control of this disease especially on highly susceptible cultivars and where high levels of inoculum are present from the previous year.  Spray applications should be made to every row and rates adjusted upward to get good coverage on larger canopies. 
 
Be sure to rotate chemistries (FRAC Groups) to avoid the development of fungicide resistance to this disease in your vineyard.
CAUTION: Do not use Abound, Azaka, Quadris Top, Sovran or Topguard near apples or with equipment that is also used to spray apples as severe phytoxicity may result.
 
Group 11 materials labeled for DM should be used with care during this time to avoid the development of resistance.
 
CAUTION: Do not use Revus Top, Pristine, Quadris Top or related materials on Concord or related cultivars as damage may occur.
 
Bloom
Black Rot
Phomopsis
Downy Mildew
Powdery Mildew
 
Same as Pre-Bloom
If wet weather persists during bloom or if the interval between the pre-bloom and shatter sprays is greater than 7-10 days, a fungicide application during bloom may be needed
Botrytis Bunch Rot
FRAC
17
7
11
BM01
3,9
3,7
2
7, 11
2
9
9,12
9
NC
P05
BM02
 
Elevate 50WDG, 1 lb (0)
Endura 70WG, 8 oz (14)
Flint 50WG, 3 oz (14)
Fracture, 24.6-36.6 oz (1)
Inspire Super, 16-20 oz (14)
Luna Experience, 6.0-8.6 oz (7)
Meteor 4F, 1.5-2 pt (7)
Pristine 38WG, 18.5-23 oz (14)
Rovral 4F, 1.5-2 pt (7)
Scala 5SC, 18 oz (7)
Switch 62.5WG, 11-14 oz (1)
Vangard 75WG, 10 oz (7)
Oxidate 2.0 32-128 oz (0)
Regalia Biofungicide, 1-4 qt (0)
Serenade Max, 1-3 lb (0)
Sanitation - Remove all dead wood, infected wood and pruning stubs, mummies or other overwintering material that may harbor inoculum from the canopy during dormant pruning operations.
Canopy management - Prune and train the vines to promote air circulation and speed drying of the shoots and clusters. In some instances performing “cane pruning” rather than “spur or cordon pruning” in vinifera and hybrids will result in ensuring new wood is laid down on the fruiting wire every year.
Vineyard management. Orient rows to improve air movement within the vineyard.
This spray is critical in vineyards or on varieties (especially French hybrids or Vinifera) where Botrytis bunch rot has been a problem.
Do not use Flint, Inspire Super, Pristine, Quadris Top, or Revus Top, on Concord grapes (or related varieties) as injury may occur. Do not use Intuity on V. labrusca or hybrids where sensitive is not known. Read label carefully for cautions.
 
Only 1 application of Meteor per season allowed on table grapes; 4 applications allowed on wine grapes.
 
Be sure to rotate materials from different FRAC groups to avoid promoting fungicide resistance development.
Shatter (7-10 days after bloom when unfertilized berries fall from clusters)
Grape Berry Moth
IRAC
28
22A
4A
3
3
5
1B
18
3,4A
3
1A
3A
28,16
4A
4A
4A
UN
3,UN
11
11
5
UN
UN
 
Altacor, 2-4.5 oz (14)
Avaunt, 5-6 oz (7)
Belay, 6 oz (0)
*Brigade 2EC, 3.2-6.4 oz (30)
*Danitol 2.4EC, 10-21 oz (21)
Delegate WG, 3-5 oz (7)
Imidan 70W, 1.3–2.1 lb (14)
Intrepid 2F, 8-16 oz (30)
*Leverage 360, 3.2-6.4 oz (3)
*Mustang Maxx, 4 oz (1)
Sevin XLR Plus, 2 qt (7)
*Sniper, 3.2-6.4 (30)
Tourismo, 10-14 oz(7)
Scorpion, 1.75-5.25 fl oz (1)
Venom, 1-3 oz (1)
Voliam Flexi, 4.5 oz (14)
Aza-Direct, 1-2 pt (0)
Azera, 1-3.5 pt (0)
Biobit HP, 0.5-1 lb (0)
DiPel 2X, read label (0)
Entrust SC, 4-8 oz (7)
Grandevo, 1-3 lb (0)
Venerate, 1-8 qt (0)

Classify vineyards as low, intermediate, or high risk of grape berry moth attack. Find Risk Assessment information here. High- and intermediate-risk vineyards receive insecticide treatment at this time. This spray coincides with peak egg-laying of GBM which, in most years, occurs 7-14 days after the mid-bloom period.  Good spray coverage of the clusters must be achieved to control grape berry moth.

The Cornell Organic Production and IPM Guide for Grapes provides information for organic growers.
Monitor populations using pheromone traps to identify beginning of flight into vineyards from overwintering sites.

Vineyard Management - Avoid sites prone to heavy snowfall or those surrounded by wooded areas.  Where possible, plant rows parallel to wooded edges to allow for spot treatment of outside 4-6 rows.

Biobit and Dipel are Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) kurstaki products.  Apply two sprays per generation, 7 days apart.

Use Venom or Scorpion for 1st & 2nd generations only.

Leafhoppers

IRAC 
4A

4A

4A

16
4A

4A

3
4C
3
3, 4A

3
4A
1A

3

3
4A
4A

3


 

 


Admire Pro (foliar), 1-1.4 oz (30)

Actara, 1.5-3.5 oz (5)

Alias 4F (foliar), 1.2-1.6 oz (30)

Applaud 70DF, 9-12 oz (7)
Assail 30SG, 2.5 oz (7)

Belay, 6 oz (0)

*Brigade 2EC, 3.2-6.4 oz (30)
Closer, 2.75-5.75 oz (7)
*Danitol 2.4EC, 5.3-10.6 oz (21)
*Leverage 360, 2.4-3.2 oz (3)

*Mustang Maxx, 4 oz (1)
Pasada 1.6F, 3.5 oz (0)
Sevin XLR Plus, 1-2 qt (7)

*Sniper, 3.2-6.4 (30)

Tersus, 4.5-17 oz (0)
Venom, 1-3 oz (1)
Voliam Flexi 40SG, 4.5 oz (14)

Azera, 1-3.5 pt (0)

Des-X, 2% (0)
JMS Stylet Oil, 1-2%, (0)
M-Pede, 2% solution (0)
Surround, 12.5-50 lb (0)

Scout vineyard by examining underside of leaves to determine if this pest is present. It may be possible to treat hot-spots and not the whole vineyard following thorough scouting.

Danitol is a broad spectrum insecticide and may disrupt populations of beneficial insects and predators such as mite predators resulting in increased pest populations.
Read M-Pede label prior to use to avoid plant injury.
Do not use Des-X on table grapes once they become 6-7 mm in diameter (removes waxy bloom) or use at lowest recommended rate (75 gal/a).

Do not use JMS Stylet Oil within 7 days of Captan. Read label for other restrictions.

Redbanded
Leafroller
IRAC
28
3
5
1B
18
3
28, 16
3A
11
5
UN
 
Altacor, 3.0-4.5 oz (1)
*Danitol 2.4EC, 5.3-10.6 oz (21)
Delegate 25WG, 3-5 oz (7)
Imidan 70W, 1.3–2.12 lb (14)
Intrepid 2F, 8-16 oz (30)
Tersus, 4.5-17 oz (0)
Tourismo, 10-14 oz (7)
Azera, 1-3.5 pt (0)
DiPel 2X, read label (0)
Entrust 80WP, 1.25-2.5 oz (7)
Surround 95WP, 12.5-50 lb (0)
Scout weekly to determine need for control of these pests.
Pheromone traps for redbanded leafroller will indicate if they are present and help determine the need for control.
 
Surround may leave visible residue on leaves.
Grape Mealybug
IRAC
4A
4A
16
4A
4A
4A
4C
3,4A
23
4A
UN
 
Actara, 3.5 oz (5)
Admire Pro, 1-1.4 oz (30)
Applaud 70DF, 9-12 oz (7)
Assail 30SG, 2.5 oz (7)
Belay (soil app), 6-12 oz (30)
Belay (foliar), 6 oz (0)
Closer, 2.75-5.75 (7)
*Leverage 360, 3.2-6.4 oz (3)
Movento 2EC, 6.25 oz, (7)
Voliam Flexi 40SG, 4.5 oz (14)
JMS Stylet Oil, 1-2%, (0)
Scout vineyard by examining bark scales on trunks and cordons and/or looking for evidence of sooty mold growing on honeydew secreted by this pest; ants may also be abundant where mealybug honeydew is present.
Admire is soil applied for systemic control.

Do not use Stylet Oil within 7 days of Captan. Read label for other restrictions.
 
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug
(BMSB)
IRAC
3
3
3
3, 4A
1B
28, 16
4A
4A
3A
3A, UN
 
 
*Bifenture 2EC, 6.4 oz (30)
*Brigade WSB, 6.4-32 oz (30)
*Danitol 2.4EC, 10-21 oz (21)
*Leverage 360, 3.2-6.4 oz (3)
Malathion 57EC, 1.5-3 pt (3)
Tourismo, 10-14 oz(7)
Venom 20SG, 1-3 oz (foliar 1)
Scorpion, 2-5 fl oz (1)
Tersus, 4.5-17 oz (0)
Azera, 1-3.5 pt (0)
Surround WP, 12.5-50 lb (0)
Use traps to determine presence of BMSB. 
 
 
As of 2020, brown marmorated stink bugs have been found in all New England states, but the extent of their pest status in grapes in New England is not yet known.
Mites
 
Same as Budbreak to Bloom
Botrytis Bunch Rot
Black Rot
Downy Mildew
Powdery Mildew
 
 
Same as Pre-bloom and Bloom
Sanitation - Remove all dead wood, infected wood and pruning stubs, mummies or other overwintering material that may harbor inoculum from the canopy during dormant pruning operations.
Canopy management - Prune and train the vines to promote air circulation and speed drying of the shoots and clusters. In some instances performing “cane pruning” rather than “spur or cordon pruning” in vinifera and hybrids will result in ensuring new wood is laid down on the fruiting wire every year.
Vineyard management. Orient rows to improve air movement within the vineyard.
Choose fungicide combinations according to which diseases are of greatest concern. 
See Table 54 for efficacy of listed fungicides against various diseases. Be sure to read the labels for any cautions on tank mix compatibility.
Do not use Flint, Inspire Super, Pristine, Quadris Top, or Revus Top, on Concord Grapes (or related varieties) as injury may occur.  Read label carefully for cautions.
First Cover and Subsequent Covers (at 14 day interval)
Japanese Beetle and related asiatic beetles
IRAC
4A
28
4A
22A
4A
3
3
1B
3, 4A
4A
4A
1A
3A
4A
UN
3,UN
UN
3
 
 
Actara, 1.5-3.5 oz (5)
Altacor, 4.5 oz (1)
Assail 30SG, 2.5 oz (7)
Avaunt, 3.5-6 oz (7)
Belay, 2-4 oz (0)
*Brigade 2EC, 3.2-6.4 oz (30)
*Danitol 2.4EC, 10-21 oz (21)
Imidan 70WP, 1.3-2.1 lb (14)
*Leverage 360, 3.2-6.4 oz (3)
Platinum, 8-17 oz (60)
Scorpion, 2-5 fl oz (1)
Sevin XLR Plus, 1-2 qt (7)
Tersus, 4.5-17 oz (0)
Voliam Flexi 40SG, 4.5 oz (14)
Aza-Direct, 1-2 pt (0)
Azera, 1-3.5 pt (0)
Neemix, 7-16 oz (0)
Pyganic 5EC, 5-18 oz (0)
Surround 95WP, 12.5-50 lb (0)
Use of traps is not recommended as they often draw this pest in from remote locations outside of the vineyard and increasing damage in the vineyard.
Mature vines can sustain significant amounts of feeding injury without yield or quality impact. Young vines are the most vulnerable to injury from heavy feeding that can delay the establishment of the vine or even cause vine death. Be sure to check for feeding inside grow tubes in newly planted vineyards. Remove tubes and treat if found.
Danitol and Brigade are broad spectrum insecticides and may disrupt populations of beneficial insects and predators such as mite predators resulting in increased pest populations.
Surround may leave visible residue on leaves.
Neemix and Aza-Direct act as anti-feedant and may require frequent reapplication; see label for specific recommendations.
Be aware of pre-harvest restriction on some recommended materials.
Grape Berry Moth
Leafhopper
Japanese Beetle
Mites
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug
 
Same as Shatter
Phomopsis Cane
and Leaf Spot
FRAC
11
M04
7,11
M03
 
Abound 2SC, 11-15 oz (14)
Captan 50W, 2-4 lb (0)
Pristine 38WG, 8-10.5 oz (14)
Ziram 76DF, 4 lb (21)
Fruit infections can occur from bloom to pea-sized berries and remain dormant until late summer. Severe fruit rot can result especially if wet weather prevails during the ripening period.
CAUTION: Do not use Abound, Azaka, Quadris Top, Sovran or Topguard near apples or with equipment that is also used to spray apples as severe phytoxicity may result.
 
Do not use Flint, Inspire Super, Pristine, Quadris Top, or Revus Top, on Concord Grapes (or related varieties) as injury may occur.  Read label carefully for cautions.
 
Luna Experience may only be used on wine grapes, not on table or juice grapes.
Black Rot
FRAC
11
11
11
3,9
3,7
3
3
7,11
11
3
40,3
3
11
M03
M01
M01
NC
M01
M01
 
Abound 2SC, 11-15 oz (14)
Azaka 2SC, 11-15 oz (14)
Flint 50WG, 1.5-2 oz (14)
Inspire Super, 16-20 oz (14)
Luna Experience, 8-8.6 oz (14)
Mettle 1ME, 5 oz (14)
Orius 45DF, 4 oz (14)
Pristine 38WG, 8-12.5 oz (14)
Quadris Top 2.7SC, 10-14 oz (14)
Rally 40WSP, 4-5 oz (14)
Revus Top 4SC, 7 oz (14)
Rhyme 2.08SC, 4-5 oz (14)
Sovran 50WG, 3.2-4 oz (14)
Ziram 76DF, 4 lb (21)
Badge X2, 0.75-1.75 lb (0)
Champ WG, 2-4 lb (0)
Oxidate 2.0, 32-128 oz (0)
Nordox 75 WG, 1.25 lb (0)
Nu-Cop 50DF, 2lb (1)
This is a critical spray for Black Rot control. Later in development, grape berries become resistant to infection by this pathogen.
Downy Mildew
FRAC
11
M04
M03
P07
P07
7,11
21
P07
11
40
4,M01
11
11,3
45,40
M01
M01
M01
NC
M01
BM02
 
Abound 2SC, 11-15 oz (14)
Captan 50WP, 4 lb (14)
Gavel 75DF, 2-2.5 lb (66)
Phostrol, 2.5-5 pt (0)
Prophyt, 2-4 pt (0)
Pristine 38WG, 8-12.5 oz (14)
Ranman 400SC, 2.1-2.75 oz (30)
Rampart, 2-6 pt (0)
Reason 500SC, 2.7 0z (30)
Revus 2SC, 8 oz (14)
Ridomil Gold/Copper, 2 lb (42)
Sovran 50WG, 4 oz (14)
Topguard EQ, 5-6 oz (14)
Zampro 4.4SC, 11-14 oz (14)
Badge X2, 0.75-1.75 (0)
Champ WG, 2-4 lb (0)
 Cueva, 0.5-2.0 gal (1)
Milstop, 2-5 lb (0)
 Nordox 75WG, 1.25 lb (0)
Serenade MAX, 1-3 lbs (0)
This is an important time for controlling Downy Mildew infections.
Weather conditions will dictate fungicide choice, rate, and spray interval.
Coverage is very important for control. Weather forecasting models can help identify infection periods for this disease.
CAUTION: Do not use Abound, Azaka, Quadris Top, Sovran or Topguard near apples or with equipment that is also used to spray apples as severe phytoxicity may result. Do not use any Group 11 material alone; use in combination with another material to avoid the development of resistance.

Do not use Flint, Inspire Super, Pristine, Quadris Top, or Revus Top, on Concord Grapes (or related varieties) as injury may occur.  Read label carefully for cautions.

Be aware of pre-harvest restriction on some recommended materials.
Powdery Mildew
FRAC
11
7
11
NC
7
11
3,9
3,7
3
19
19
7,11
3
11,3
13
3
40,3
3
11
M02
11,3
U06
47/50
BM02
BM02
NC
NC
M02
NC
M02
IRAC UN
 
Abound 2SC, 11-15 oz (14)
Aprovia 0.83SC, 8.6-10.5 oz (21)
Azaka 2SC, 11-15 oz (14)
Armicarb 85WG, 2.5-5.0 lb (1)
Endura 70WG, 4.5 oz (14)
Flint 50WG, 1.5-2 oz (14)
Inspire Super, 16-20 oz (14)
Luna Experience, 6.0-8.6 (7)
Mettle 1ME, 5 oz (14)
Oso 5SC, 6.5 oz (7)
Ph-D 89WDG, 6.2 oz (0)
Pristine 38WG, 10-12.5 oz (14)
Procure 480SC, 6-8 oz (7)
Quadris Top 2.7SC, 12-14 oz (14)
Quintec 2SC, 4 oz (14)
Rally 40WP, 4-5 oz (14)
Revus Top 4SC, 7 oz (14)
Rhyme 2.08SC, 4-5 oz (14)
Sovran 50WG, 3.2-4.0 oz (14)
Sulfur (various formulations)
Topguard EQ, 5-6 oz (14)
Torino 120SC, 3.4 oz (3)
Vivando 2.5SC, 10.3-15.4 oz (14) 
Actinovate-AG, 3-12 oz (0)
 Double Nickel 55, 1-3lb (0)
JMS Stylet Oil, 1-2%, (0)
Kaligreen 82 SP, 2.5 LB (0)
Kumulus DF, 2-10 lb (0)
Milstop, 2-5 lb (0)
Thiolux, 6 lb (0)
Trilogy 1-2% (0)
This is the most critical time of year for protecting against cluster infections by Powdery Mildew.
Weather conditions will dictate fungicide choice, rate, and spray interval. Coverage is very important for control. Weather forecasting models can help identify infection periods for this disease.
CAUTION: Do not use Abound, Azaka, Quadris Top, Sovran or Topguard near apples or with equipment that is also used to spray apples as severe phytoxicity may result.

Do not use Flint, Inspire Super, Pristine, Quadris Top, or Revus Top, on Concord Grapes (or related varieties) as injury may occur.  Read label carefully for cautions.

Some cultivars are sensitive to sulfur and will be damaged by sulfur sprays. Check label for cautions and see Table 55 for ratings for sensitive cultivars.
Do not use Trilogy after bloom on table grapes or following bunch closure on wine grapes.
Veraison To Harvest
Grape Berry Moth
Grape Leafhopper
Grape Rootworm
Japanese Beetle
Redbanded Leafroller
Mites
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug
 
Same as Cover Sprays
Be aware of pre-harvest intervals when choosing materials at this time.
Spotted Wing Drosophila
(SWD)
IRAC
4A
3
3
3
5
3, 4A
1B
3
1A
5
UN
 
Assail 30SG, 2.5 oz (7)
Baythroid XL, 2.4-3.2 oz (3)
*Brigade 2EC, 3.2-6.4 oz (30)
*Danitol 2.4EC, 10.7 oz (21)
Delegate 25WG, 3-5 oz (7)
*Leverage 2.7SE, 5-8 oz (3)
Malathion 5EC, 3 pts (3)
*Mustang Max 5EC, 4 oz (1)
Sevin 4F, 2 qt (7)
Entrust 80WP, 1.25-2.5 oz (7)
 Grandevo, 1-3 lb (0)
 
Fruit Flies
IRAC
3
UN
3, UN
UN
 
Tersus, 4.5-17 oz (0)
Aza-Direct, 1-2 pt (0)
Azera, 1-3.5 pt (0)
Neemix, 7-16 oz (0)
This pest may become problematic close to or after harvest and can introduce contamination to wine or juice production or reduce post harvest quality of fresh pack.
Asiatic Lady Beetle
IRAC
4A
3
4A
UN
3,UN
UN
 
Clutch 50WDG, 3 oz (0)
Tersus, 4.5-17 oz (0)
Venom, 1-3 oz (1)
Aza-Direct, 1-2 pt (0)
Azera, 1-3.5 pt (0)
Neemix, 7-16 oz (0)
Scout vineyards several days before harvest to determine the abundance of multicolored Asian lady beetle. The threshold for perceivable taint in wine = 10-12 beetles/lug
Botrytis Bunch Rot
FRAC
17
7
11
BM01
3,9
3,7
7,11
2
9
9,12
9
NC
 
Elevate 50WDG, 1 lb (0)
Endura 70WG, 8 oz (14)
Flint 50WG, 3 oz (14)
Fracture, 24.6-36.6 oz (1)
Inspire Super, 16-20 oz (14)
Luna Experience, 8-8.6 (7)
Pristine 38WG, 18.5-23 oz (14)
Rovral 50WP, 1.5-2 lb (7)
Scala 5SC, 18 fl oz (7)
Switch 62.5WG, 11-14 oz (1)
Vangard 75WG, 10 oz (7)
Oxidate 1% sln (0)
Tight clustered or highly susceptible cultivars may be more likely to require sprays at this time.
Do not use Flint, Inspire Super, Pristine, Quadris Top, or Revus Top, on Concord Grapes (or related varieties) as injury may occur. Do not use Intuity on V. labrusca or hybrids where sensitive is not known. Read label carefully for cautions.

Be aware of pre-harvest intervals when choosing materials at this time.
Powdery Mildew
Downy Mildew
 
Same as Cover Sprays
Be aware of pre-harvest intervals when choosing materials at this time.
Black Rot
 
Most cultivars will not need further spray applications after cover sprays because berries develop resistance to infection at this time.
Post Harvest
Fruit Flies
IRAC
3
UN
UN
 
Tersus, 4.5-17 oz (0)
Aza-Direct, 1-2 pt (0)
Neemix, 7-16 oz (0)
This pest may become problematic close to or after harvest and can introduce contamination to wine or juice production or reduce post harvest quality of fresh pack.
Downy Mildew
FRAC
M01
 
M04
M03
P07
P07
 
Copper compounds (several formulations)
Captan 50W, 2-4 lb (varies)
Dithane DF, 2-4 lb (66)
Prophyt, 1.8-3.6 pt (0)
Phostrol, 2.5-5 pt (0)
NuCop, Champ and other copper products may cause slight to severe foliar injury to certain varieties. Use on a small area first to confirm lack of sensitivity before treating large areas. Read label carefully for cautions.
Powdery Mildew
FRAC
M02
 
NC
NC
NC
IRAC UN
 
Sulfur compounds (several formulations)
JMS Stylet Oil, 1-2%, (0)
Kaligreen, 2.5-5 lb (0)
Milstop, 2-5 lb (0)
Trilogy, 1-2% (0)
Spray only as needed according to field scouting.

Where brand names for chemicals are used, it is for the reader’s information. No endorsement is implied, nor is discrimination intended against products with similar ingredients. Please consult pesticide product labels for rates, application instructions and safety precautions. Users of these products assume all associated risks.

RAC=Resistance Action Committee group for resistance management.  Fungicides=FRAC, Insecticides=IRAC
*Restricted use pesticide; pesticide applicators license required. OMRI listed for organic production.
For resistance management do not make more than 2 sequential applications of fungicides in the same FRAC group or insecticides in the same IRAC group. See product labels or Tables 58 and 60 respectively for groups.

Weeds

The primary goal of weed management is to optimize yields by minimizing competition between the weeds and the crop. Weeds reduce yields by competing with the crop for water, light, and nutrients. Weeds also harbor insects and diseases and encourage vertebrate pests. Timely cultivation, wise use of herbicides, and never permitting weeds to go to seed are integral parts of a good weed management system. Many of the weeds found in these fields are difficult-to-control perennial weeds that are not common in annual crop culture. New plantings usually have fewer perennial weed problems than older plantings. Annual and biennial weeds can also exist in these fields. Fields should be scouted at least twice a year (spring and fall) to determine specific weed problems. The selection of a weed management tool should be based on specific weeds present in each field. Most annual weeds can be reduced with mulches that are free of weed seeds and placed thickly, but perennial weed may require additional management. Several herbicides are labeled for use in this crop. A list of herbicides and their recommended uses is presented in Table 58 below.

Herbicides can be broadcast or applied as a directed spray to the base of the crop. With a band treatment, only 1 to 2 feet on either side of the rows is treated. The area between the crop rows is usually maintained with a mowed cover of sod, clover, weeds, or a combination of these. This cover is used primarily for erosion control and to improve trafficability in the field. With banding, less herbicide is needed in each acre. For example, a 3 foot band (1.5 feet on either side of the row) where rows are spaced 9 feet apart will require only one third the amount of herbicide normally required for a broadcast treatment.

Weeds can develop resistance to herbicides. The Weed Science Society of America (WSSA) developed a grouping system based on the mode of action of different herbicides. WSSA Group numbers can be used as a tool to choose herbicides in different mode of action groups so mixtures or rotations of active ingredients can be planned to better manage weeds and reduce the potential for resistant species.

Cultivation and mulching are sometimes used as weed management tools. All cultivations should be timely and shallow to minimize crop root injury, to minimize loss of soil moisture, and to avoid repositioning new weed seeds to the soil surface. Mulches that are free of weed seeds and placed thickly enough can be very effective at reducing or eliminating most annual weeds from the crop row. They are seldom effective on perennial weeds. If mulches are used in combination with herbicides, use the lowest recommended herbicide rate to avoid crop injury.

Table 58. Weed Management in Grapes

Table 58. Weed management in Grapes.
Preemergence
Weed Problem Material Rate/Acre (phi) Comments and Limitations
Annual and perennial grasses and broadleaves (dichlobenil)
Casoron CS
Casoron 4G
Group 20


1.4-2.8 gal (0)
100-150 lb (0)

Perennial weeds: Apply from Nov. 15 to Feb. 15 as a soil surface application. Can also be applied in late fall or early spring before May 1 and incorporated immediately.
Annual Weeds: Apply in early spring after cultivation before weeds emerge. Rain or irrigation is needed for activation. A shallow incorporation is recommended. Apply 4 weeks after transplanting after soil has completely settled.
Annual grasses and broadleaf weeds (indaziflam)
Alion 1.67
Group 29

3.5-5 oz
Use Alion only in established vineyards at least 5 years after planting and exhibiting normal growth and good vigor.  Apply as a directed spray to the base of the plants.  Ensure that the grapes have been planted at least 12 inches deep and that there is 12 inches of soil barrier between the soil surface and the major portion of the root system priot to using or injury may occur.  Do not use on grapes grown on sand or on soils with more than 20% gravel content.  More than one application can be made but do not exceed 5 oz/acre and allow a minimum of 90 days between applications.  Ideally use this product in the fall or in the spring prior to weed emergence.  Does not control perennial weeds.  See label for specific rates.
Annual broadleaves and suppression of grasses (flumioxazin)
Chateau SW
Group 14
6-12 oz (60) Do not apply after bloom unless with a hooded or shielded application. Apply alone preemergence or tank mix with Roundup or Gramoxone postemergence. Do not incorporate.
Do not allow drift to contact foliage or green bark. Always add a crop oil at 1% v/v or nonionic surfactant at 0.25% v/v. Max. rate is 24 oz per season. Min. 30 days between applications. Chateau also has postemergence activity.
Age restriction: Do not apply to vines established less than 2 years unless they are trellised at least 3 ft from the ground or are protected by nonporous wraps, grow tubes, or waxed containers.
(diuron)
Karmex 80DF
Group 5
2-6 lb (0) Age restriction: Use on vineyards established at least 3 years and trunks at least 1.5 inches diameter. Apply as a directed spray to soil under trellis in early spring prior to weed germination. Max. 1 application per year. On soils low in organic matter (1-2%), severe injury may result if heavy rainfall occurs soon after treatment.
(simazine)
Princep 4L
Group 5
 
2-4.8 qt (0) Age restriction: Apply to soil under trellis between harvest and early spring before weeds emerge. Use on vineyards established at least 3 years. Apply alone to weed-free soil or tank mix with Roundup or Gramoxone. Max 1 application per year.
(rimsulfuron)
Matrix FVN
Group 2
4 oz (14) Apply as a banded application to the base of the vines. Best results are obtained when the soil is moist at the time of application and 0.5 inch of rainfall or sprinkler irrigation occurs within 2 weeks after application.
Age restriction: Do not apply to vines established less than one year. PHI=14 days.
Annual broadleaves and suppression of grasses cont. (oxyfluorfen)
Goal 2XL
Group 14
5-8 pt (b) Dormant application only: effective both preemergence and postemergence as a directed spray on weeds less than 4 inches. Do not apply from bud swell to harvest. Can be mixed with other preemergence herbicides, or with Roundup or Gramoxone. Max rate is 8 pt/A/year.
Age restriction: Do not apply to grapes established less than 3 years unless vines are on a trellis wire a minimum of 3 ft above ground.
Most broadleaves (isoxaben)
Gallery 75DF
Group 29
0.66-1.33 lb (1yr) Non-bearing only: May only be used on crops that will not be harvested within one year of application. Apply in late summer to early fall; or in early spring prior to weed germination or anytime immediately after cultivation. Do not apply to new transplants until soil has settled with no cracks present. Rainfall or irrigation of 0.5 inch is needed within 21 days of application. Not effective on germinated weeds. Min. 60 days between applications. Max rate is 4 lb/A.
Annual and perennial grasses and certain broadleaves (pronamide)
*Kerb 50WP
Group 3
2-8 lb (c) Apply as a directed spray in the fall after harvest prior to soil freeze-up, or early winter when temperatures are below 55˚F. Rainfall or irrigation are required to activate. Max. 1 application per year and 8 lb/A/year. Kerb also has early postemergence activity. Rate depends on soil texture.
Annual grasses and certain broadleaves (pendimethalin)
Prowl 3.3EC
Prowl H2O
Group 3
2.4 qt (1 yr) Non-bearing only: May only be used on crops that will not be harvested within one year of application. Do not apply if buds have started to swell . May be applied preplant incorporated, preplant surface, or preemergence. For best results, rain or irrigation is needed within 21 days of application. Not effective on germinated weeds. Do not allow spray to contact leaves, shoots, or buds. For new plantings, do not apply until soil has settled and no cracks are present.
(napropamide)
Devrinol 50DF
Group 15
8 lb (35) Apply from late fall (prior to soil freeze-up), to early spring (prior to weed emergence). If no rainfall of 1 inch or more occurs within 24 hours after treatment, cultivate or irrigate to activate. Apply alone to weed-free soil or in tank mix with Roundup or Gramoxone. Do not allow spray to contact fruit or foliage.
(oryzalin)
Surflan 4AS
Group 3
2-6 qt (0) Make a single band or broadcast spplication to the ground beneath vines before weeds emerge. Apply alone to weed-free soil or postemergence mixed with Roundup or Gramoxone. Min 0.5 inch of rainfall or irrigation is required for activation. Min 2.5 month between applications. Max rate is 12 qt per year.
Annual grasses and broadleaves and suppression of yellow nutsedge (norflurazon)
Solicam DF
Group 12
1.25-5 lb (60) Apply as a directed spray to settled and firm soil from fall to early spring before weeds emerge. Rainfall or irrigation is needed within 4 weeks of application. Do not contact fruit of foliage. Do not apply after bud break on sandy loam soils. Check label for maximum amount allowed per year depending on soil type.
Age restriction: Allow a minimum of 24 months after planting before first application.
Postemergence
Weed Problem Material Rate/Acre (phi) Comments and Limitations
Annual broadleaves (carfentrazone)
Aim 2EC
Group 14
1-2 oz (3) Apply any time during the season. Always add nonionic surfactant at 0.5% v/v or crop oil at 1% v/v. Mix with Roundup or Gramoxone or labeled preemergence herbicides for broader weed control. Max. 7.9 oz/A/year. Min. 14 days between applications.
Sucker management: Apply when suckers are green. Do not allow spray to contact desirable fruit, foliage, or green bark.

(pyraflufen ethyl)
Venue 1.7
Group 14
 

1 - 4 oz (0)

Apply as a directed spray to the base of the vines.  Can be used in-season, postharvest, dormant, or pre-bloom.  Provides contact burn down of existing broadleaf weeds.  Do not make more than 2 applications or exceed 6.8 oz/acre during the growing season.  Do not make more than 2 applications or exceed 6.8 oz/acre during the off-season.  Non-ionic surfactant at 0.5 to 2% is recommended.  Larger weeds will require the highter rate.  Avoid contact with green, uncallused bark of young vines established less than one year.  See label for other precautions.
Sucker control: Apply at a rate of 3 to 4 oz/acre.  Do not make more than 2 applications or exceed 6.8 oz/acre during the growing season.  Avoid contact with green, uncallused bark of young vines established less than one year.  See label for other precautions.

(oxyfluorfen)
Goal 2XL
Group 14
5-8 pt (b) See “Preemergence” section of this table for details.
Most annual and perennial grasses (fluazifop)
Fusilade DX
Group 1
16-24 oz (1yr) Non-bearing only: May only be used on crops that will not be harvested within one year of application. Apply as a directed spray to actively growing grasses before tillering. Always add crop oil at 1% v/v or nonionic surfactant at 0.25% v/v. Avoid contact with foliage. Rainfast in 1 hour. Max rate is 72 oz/A/year. Min. 5 days between applications.
(clethodim)
Select Max
Group 1
9-16 oz (1yr) Non-bearing only: May only be used on crops that will not be harvested within one year of application. Apply as a directed spray to actively growing grasses before tillering. Do not use if rain is expected within 1 hour. Always add nonionic surfactant at 0.25% v/v. Do not use crop oil. May be applied as a spot treatment at 0.32-0.64 oz per gallon. Max rate is 32 oz/A/year.
(sethoxydim)
Poast 1.5EC
Group 1
1.5-2.5 pt (50) Apply as directed spray to actively growing grasses before tillering. Always add crop oil at 1% v/v. Max 2.5 pt per application and 5 pt/A/year.
Annual and perennial grasses and broadleaves (glufosinate)
Rely 1L
Group 10
3-6 qt (14) Age restriction: Do not apply within 1 year of transplanting. Apply as a directed spray to actively growing weeds. Do not apply on desirable foliage or drift on foliage, green, or uncallused bark of vines. Max 18 qt/A/yr for bearing and 12 qt/A/yr for non-bearing vines. For spot applications, mix 1.5-4 oz per gallon.
Sucker control: a split application approximately 4 weeks apart at 4 qt/A is recommended or spot spray with 3 oz/gallon of water. Suckers should not exceed 12 inches long.
(pelargonic acid)
Scythe 4.2E
Fatty acid, Group 0
3-10% solution (0) For contact nonselective control or burndown of a broad spectrum of actively growing weeds. Use low rate for annual weed control and high rate for maximum vegetative burndown. Use as a directed spray or shielded spray. Can be mixed with Roundup.
Most annual grasses and broadleaves and top kill of perennial weeds (paraquat)
*Gramoxone SL 2.0
*Firestorm 3SC
Group 22

2.5-4 pt (0)

1.3-2.7 pt
Apply as directed spray to actively growin gweeds. Repeat applications are necessary to give sustained control. Avoid contact with desired new whoots, fruit or foliage. Apply as a coarse spray. Always add nonionic surfactant at 0.25% v/v or crop oil at 1% v/v. Best results with flat fan nozzles. Max. 5 applications per year.
Sucker management: Apply when suckers are less than 8 inches tall. Do not allow spray to contact desirable fruit, foliage, or green bark.
Annuals and some perennial grasses and broadleaves (glyphosate)
Roundup Ultra 4EC
Group 9
1-5 qt (14) Rate depends on weed species and stage of growth. See label for details. Apply as preplant broadcast application or in fall for control of roots and rhizomes of perennial weeds or as a directed spray or wiper application (20-100% solution) to actively growing weeds in established plantings. Always add ammonium sulfate 8.5-17 lb/100 gal in hard water or drought conditions (see label). Do not allow spray to contact any part other than mature bark. Does not provide residual control; can be mixed with labeled preemergence herbicides.
Where brand names for chemicals are used, it is for the reader’s information. No endorsement is implied, nor is discrimination intended against products with similar ingredients. Please consult pesticide product labels for rates, application instructions and safety precautions. Users of these products assume all associated risks.
*Restricted use pesticide; pesticide applicators license required. OMRI listed for organic production