Appendices - Resource Material Listings, Conversion Tables & Pesticide Toxicity Tables

Resource Materials

New England Extension Websites:

University of Connecticut - CT IPM Fruit Pages: http://www.ipm.uconn.edu/pa_fruit/

University of Maine - UMaine Extension Small Fruits Page: https://extension.umaine.edu/agriculture/small-fruits/

University of Massachusetts - UMass Fruit Advisor Page: https://ag.umass.edu/fruit

University of New Hampshire - Fruit & Vegetable Production Page: https://extension.unh.edu/programs/fruit-vegetable-crops 

University of Rhode Island - URI Plant Protection Clinic: http://web.uri.edu/ceoc/plantclinic/, Rhode Island Fruit IPM page: http://web.uri.edu/ipm/

University of Vermont - Vermont Vegetable and Berry Grower Pages: https://www.uvm.edu/vtvegandberry/


General References for all Berry Crops

Cornell Berries Page - for a wide range of excellent information and resources at: https://blogs.cornell.edu/berries/

Cornell Berry Diagnostic Tool - https://blogs.cornell.edu/berrytool/

Cornell Berry Soil and Nutrient Management; A Guide for Educators and Growers (2016) - https://blogs.cornell.edu/berries/productions/berry-soil-and-nutrient-management-a-guide-for-educators-and-growers/

Cornell Berry Webinar Series - eighteen archived webinars on all aspects of small fruit production. Go to https://blogs.cornell.edu/berries/ipm/berry-webinars/

Cornell Nursery Guide for Berry and Small Fruit Crops - for locating nurseries that sell specific cultivars of berry crops; https://blogs.cornell.edu/berrynurseries/

Cornell Pest Management Guidelines for Berry Crops - $28 https://cropandpestguides.cce.cornell.edu

Managing Cover Crops Profitably, 3rd Edition - 2007. An excellent resource on all aspects of using a wide variety of cover crops. https://www.sare.org/publications/covercrops/covercrops.pdf

Midwest Fruit Pest Management Guide - 2019-2020. The Midwest Fruit Workers Group. https://ag.purdue.edu/hla/Hort/Documents/ID-465.pdf.

Northwest Berry Foundation 'Small Fruit Update' - https://nwberryfoundation.org/small-fruit-update

Ontario Diseases, Pests, and Beneficial Organisms of Strawberry, Raspberry, and Blueberry Guide - www.apsnet.org/apsstore/shopapspress/pages/02301.aspx  (2013) - Available from APS Press. $59.

Oregon State University Berries, Table Grapes & Kiwifruit page - https://extension.oregonstate.edu/crop-production/berries

TunnelBerries Project - a collaboration among 10 Universities, USDA and others to advance knowledge about berry production in tunnels: https://blogs.cornell.edu/berries/productions/tunnel-production/

Weeds of the Northeast. 1997. R. H. Uva, J. C. Neal, and J. M. DiTomaso. Cornell University Resource Center, 7 Cornell Business & Tech. Park, Ithaca NY 14850. 607-255-2080. 397 pp. $29.95 https://www.cornellpress.cornell.edu/book/9780801483349/weeds-of-the-northeast/#bookTabs=1

 


Production Budgets:

Cornell Berry Budgets - Production budgets designed to help estimate production costs and returns; https://blogs.cornell.edu/berries/productions/berry-budgets/

Penn State Enterprise & Production Budgets - Ag Alternatives program listing of many useful budgets: https://extension.psu.edu/budgeting-for-agricultural-decision-making


References for Strawberry:

Growing Strawberries in Wisconsin - https://fruit.triforce.cals.wisc.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/36/2011/06/Growing-Strawberries-in-Wisconsin.pdf

High Tunnel Strawberry Production: - 2010. Brent Black, et al.  Utah State University Cooperative Extension: https://digitalcommons.usu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1709&context=extension_curall

Midwest Strawberry Production Guide - 2006. M. A. Ellis et al.  The Ohio State University Extension. https://extensionpubs.osu.edu/midwest-strawberry-production-guide-pdf/.

Ontario Strawberry Crop IPM - This is an excellent site for guidance on IPM practices in strawberry crop management.  www.omafra.gov.on.ca/IPM/english/strawberries/index.html

Season-Long Strawberry Production with Everbearers for Northeastern Producers- 2010. W. Lantz, H. Swartz, K. Demchak and S. Frick.  Available online at http://www.sare.org/Learning-Center/SARE-Project-Products/Northeast-SARE-Project-Products/Season-Long-Strawberry-Production-with-Everbearers-for-Northeastern-Producers.

Low Tunnel Strawberry Production Guide - 2018. K. Orde, B. Sideman, M. Prittsand K. Demchak. University of New Hampshire Cooperative Extension Publication. https://extension.unh.edu/resources/files/Resource007429_Rep10703.pdf

Mitcham, E. (2014). Strawberry. In USDA Handbook 66: The Commercial Storage of Fruits, Vegetables, and Florist and Nursery Stocks. USDA ARS. p. 559-560. https://www.ars.usda.gov/ARSUserFiles/oc/np/CommercialStorage/CommercialStorage.pdf#page=569

 Nunes, M. C. N., Brecht, J. K., Morais, A. M. M. B., & Sargent, S. A. (1995). Physical and chemical quality characteristics of strawberries after storage are reduced by a short delay to cooling. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 6(1), 17–28. https://doi.org/10.1016/0925-5214(94)00048-W

Nunes, M. C. N., Brecht, J. K., Sargent, S. A., & Morais, A. M. M. B. (1995). Effects of delays to cooling and wrapping on strawberry quality (cv. Sweet Charlie). Food Control, 6(6), 323–328. https://doi.org/10.1016/0956-7135(95)00024-0

Boyette, M., Wilson, L. G., & Estes, E. (2017). Postharvest Cooling and Handling of Strawberries (No. AG-413-02). NC State Extension. Retrieved from https://content.ces.ncsu.edu/postharvest-cooling-and-handling-of-strawberries

 


References for Highbush Blueberry:

Compendium of Blueberry, Cranberry and Lingonberry Diseases. 2017. J. J. Polashock, F. L. Caruso, A. L. Averill and A. C. Schilder, editors. American Phytopathological Society. St. Paul. MN. 231 pp. $149.  www.apsnet.org/apsstore/shopapspress/Pages/45362.aspx

Highbush Blueberry Production Guide. 1992. Marvin Pritts and James Hancock, eds. Plant and Life Sciences Publishing (formerly NRAES). 200 pages (168 color photos) $42.  Order or download low resolution copy at: http://palspublishing.cals.cornell.edu/nra_order.taf?_function=detail&pr_id=26&_UserReference=3C4176C4FD4BA0C247BB1BEF

Perkins-Veazie, P. (2014). Blueberry. In USDA Handbook 66: The Commercial Storage of Fruits, Vegetables, and Florist and Nursery Stocks. USDA ARS. p. 559-560. Retrieved from https://www.ars.usda.gov/ARSUserFiles/oc/np/CommercialStorage/CommercialStorage.pdf#page=250

NeSmith, D. S., Prussia, S., Tetteh, M., & Krewer, G. (2002). Firmness Losses of Rabbiteye Blueberries (Vaccinium Ashei Reade) During Harvesting and Handling. Acta Horticulturae, (574), 287–293. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2002.574.43

Kozos, K., Ochmian, I., & Chełpiński, P. (2015). The effects of rapid chilling and storage conditions on the quality of Brigitta Blue cultivar highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.). Folia Horticulturae, 26(2), 147–153. https://doi.org/10.1515/fhort-2015-0006

Jackson, E. D., Sanford, K. A., Lawrence, R. A., McRae, K. B., & Stark, R. (1999). Lowbush blueberry quality changes in response to prepacking delays and holding temperatures. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 15(2), 117–126. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0925-5214(98)00075-1


References for Brambles:

Brambles-Production, Management and Marketing 1999. R. C. Funt, M. A. Ellis, and C. Welty, eds. The Ohio State University Cooperative Extension Publications, 2021 Coffey Rd., Rm. 216, Columbus Ohio 43210-1044, 614-292-1607. $18.25 https://extensionpubs.osu.edu/brambles-production-management-and-marketing/

Compendium of Raspberry and Blackberry Diseases and Insects. 1991. Michael A. Ellis, Richard H. Converse, Roger N. Williams and Brian Williamson, eds. American Phytopathological Society. St. Paul MN. 100 pp. $69 1-800-328-7560.

Growing Raspberries in Wisconsinhttp://learningstore.uwex.edu/Assets/pdfs/A1610.pdf

Raspberry and Blackberry Production Guide for the Northeast, Midwest and Eastern Canada. 2008. L. Bushway, M. Pritts and D. Handley, eds. Plant and Life Sciences Publishing (formerly NRAES). 157 pages (134 color photos) $37.  Order or download low resolution copy at: http://palspublishing.cals.cornell.edu/nra_order.taf?_function=detail&pr_id=171&_UserReference=52FF5204B2918649584F21B0

Perkins-Veazie, P. (2014). Blueberry. In USDA Handbook 66: The Commercial Storage of Fruits, Vegetables, and Florist and Nursery Stocks. USDA ARS. p. 530-532. Retrieved from https://www.ars.usda.gov/ARSUserFiles/oc/np/CommercialStorage/CommercialStorage.pdf#page=540

Perkins-Veazie, P., & Fernandez, G. (2013). Postharvest Handling and Storage of Blackberries and Raspberries. North Carolina State University.https://rubus.ces.ncsu.edu/rubus-postharvest-handling-and-storage-of-blackberries-and-raspberies/

 Pritts, M. (2013). Raspberries and Related Fruit. Cornell University.http://www.postharvest.biz/download/news/79270/6737/498813611/53682/cms/rasprelfru.pdf/

Samtani, J., & Kushad, M. (2015). A Longer Marketing Life for Blackberry and Raspberry Fruit. Virginia Cooperative Extension.http://pubs.ext.vt.edu/content/dam/pubs_ext_vt_edu/423/423-701/423-701-pdf.pdf


References for Grape:

Compendium of Grape Diseases, 2015. http://my.apsnet.org/ItemDetail?iProductCode=44792.   Wayne Wilcox, D. Gubler, and J. K. Uyemoto, editors. American Phytopathological Society. St. Paul, MN. 232 pp. $119.

Effective Vineyard Sppraying - A Practical Guide for Growers (2nd Edition). 2017. Andrew Landers - http://www.oescoinc.com/effective-vineyard-spraying-andrew-j-landers.html

Grape IPM in the Northeast. Cornell University Resource Center, 7 Cornell Business & Tech. Park, Ithaca NY 14850. 607-255-2080. $30

Growing Grapes in Wisconsin –  http://learningstore.uwex.edu/assets/pdfs/A1656.pdf 

New York and Pennsylvania Pest Management Recommendations for Grapes. Publications Distribution Center, The PennState Univ., 112 Ag. Admin. Bldg., University Park, PA 16802. 814-865-6713. $5.

Northern Grapes Project - This is an excellent compilation of resources for growing grapes in colder climates.  http://northerngrapesproject.org

Ontario Grape Crop IPM - http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/IPM/english/grapes/index.html

Table Grape Varieties for Cool Climates. 1993. Bruce Reisch, et al., Cornell Cooperative Extension, Finger Lakes Grape Program, 110 Court St., Penn Yan NY 14527. $4.75.

VineSmith Vineyard Spray Guides - $64 Order at: http://www.vinesmith.com/spray-guides/

Wine and Juice Grape Varieties for Cool Climates. 1993. Bruce Reisch, et al., Cornell Cooperative Extension, Finger Lakes Grape Program, 110 Court St., Penn Yan NY 14527. $4.75.

Wine Grape Production Guide for Eastern North America (2008) - Tony Wolf, et al. Order at: https://www.cornellstore.com/PALS-Wine-Grape-Production-Guide-NRAES-145


References for Currants, Gooseberries and other Unusual Small Fruits:

Currants and Gooseberries Culture Guide, 1997. Monique Audette and Michel Lareau, CPVQ, 845 rue Marie-Vicorin, Saint-Nicholas Quebec, Canada. G7A 3S8 (418)831-7474. $10

Currants, Gooseberries and Jostaberries, A Guide for Growers, Marketers, and Researchers in North America, 2005. Daniel Barney and Kim Hummer, Haworth Press. $34.95.

Growing Currants, Gooseberries, & Elderberries in Wisconsin - learningstore.uwex.edu/assets/pdfs/A1960.PDF

Growing and Marketing Elderberries in Missouri, 2012. P. Beyers et al. University of Missouri Center for Agroforestry. www.sare.org/Learning-Center/SARE-Project-Products/North-Central-SARE-Project-Products/Growing-and-Marketing-Elderberries-in-Missouri

The Lingonberry: a versatile Wild Cranberry, 1996. Richard St. Pierre. Dept. of Hort Science, Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan Canada.

Lingonberry Production Guide for the Pacific Northwest, 2006. R. Penhallegon. Oregon State University. catalog.extension.oregonstate.edu/pnw583

Uncommon Fruits Worthy of Attention. 1991. Lee Reich. Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., Inc. $10.


Organic Small Fruit Production:

Strawberry -
ATTRA Organic Strawberry Production Guide - https://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/summaries/summary.php?pub=13
Cornell 2016 Organic Production and IPM Guide for Strawberries - https://ecommons.cornell.edu/handle/1813/42890
Blueberry -
ATTRA Organic Blueberry Production Guide - https://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/summaries/summary.php?pub=14
Cornell 2016 Organic Production and IPM Guide for Blueberries - https://ecommons.cornell.edu/handle/1813/42887
Raspberry/Blackberry -
ATTRA Organic Bramble Production Guide - https://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/summaries/summary.php?pub=15
Cornell 2016 Organic Production and IPM Guide for Raspberries & Blacberries - https://ecommons.cornell.edu/handle/1813/42889
Grape-
ATTRA Organic Grape Production Guide - https://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/summaries/summary.php?pub=5
Cornell 2016 Organic Production and IPM Guide for Grapes - https://ecommons.cornell.edu/handle/1813/42888
Ohio Organic Small Fruit Disease Mgt Guidelines - http://www.oardc.ohio-state.edu/fruitpathology/organic/

Field Supplies

Beneficial Organisms (partial list)

Beneficial Insectary
9664 Tanqueray Ct.
Redding, CA 96003
Phone: (530) 226-6300/(800) 477-3715
Fax: (530)226-6310/(888) 472-0708
Email: info@insectary.com
Web site: www.insectary.com
Retail Web site: www.greenmethods.com

Biobest Biological Systems
P.O. Box 506
McFarland, CA 93250
Phone: (855) 224-6237
Fax: (661) 792-6880
Email: info@biobest-use.com
Web site: www.biobestgroup.com

Biocontrol Network
5116 Williamsburg Rd.
Brentwood, TN 37027
(800)441-2847
Website: http://www.biconet.com

IPM Laboratories, Inc.
980 Main Street
Locke, New York 13092
Phone: (315) 497-2063
FAX: (315) 497-3129
Email: ipminfo@ipmlabs.com
Website: www.ipmlabs.com

Koppert Biological Systems
28465 Beverly Road
Romulus, MI 48174
(734) 641-3763
e-mail: info@koppertonline.com
www.koppertonline.com

Rincon-Vitova Insectaries, Inc.
P.O. Box 1555
Ventura, CA 93002
Phone: (805) 643-5407/(800) 248-2847
Fax: (805) 643-6267
Email: bugnet@rinconvitova.com
Website: www.rinconvitova.com

IPM Traps, Lures, and Baits (partial list)

Great Lakes IPM
10220 Church St., NE
Vestaburg, MI 48891
(517)268-5693
http://www.greatlakesipm.com/

Gempler’s, Inc
211 Blue Mounds Rd., P.O. Box 270
Mr. Horeb, WI 53572
(800)332-6744
http://www.gemplers.com/

IPM Laboratories, Inc.
980 Main Street
Locke, New York 13092
Phone: (315) 497-2063
FAX: (315) 497-3129
Email: ipminfo@ipmlabs.com
Website: www.ipmlabs.com

Trece, Inc.
7569 Highway 28 West
P.O. Box 129
Adair, OK 74330
(866)785-1313
http://www.trece.com

Various Field Supplies

Orchard Equipment and Supply Co. (OESCO) (for hand tools, sprayer equipment and replacement supplies, respirators and personal protection equipment, and other farm supplies)
P.O. Box 540. Rte. 116
Conway, MA 01341
(800)634-5557
https://www.oescoinc.com/

BioQuip Products (for aspirators, sweep nets, beating sheets, vials, magnifiers, and other collection supplies)
17803 LaSalle Avenue
Gardena, CA 90248
(310)324-0620
http://www.bioquip.com/default.asp

Forestry Suppliers, Inc. (for magnifiers, optivisors, tally counters, and other field supplies)
P.O. Box 8397
Jackson, MI 39284
(800)752-8460
http://www.forestry-suppliers.com/

Bird-X, Inc. (scare devices, balloons, reflective tape, netting)
300 N. Elizabeth St.
Chicago, IL 60607
(800)860-0473
http://www.bird-x.com

Irrigation Supplies and Equipment

Brookdale Irrigation Supplies (drip irrigation supplies and design)
Trevor Hardy
41 Broad St.
Hollis, NH, 03049
(603)465-2240 x 3
tractortrv@aol.com
www.brookdalefruitfarm.com/irrigation/

Belle Terre Irrigation (drip irrigation supplies and design)
8142 Champlin Rd.
Sodus, NY 14551
(866)478-3747
http://www.dripsupply.com/

Charles W. Harris Co., Inc (drip irrigation supplies and design)
72 Tower Hill Rd.
Brimfield, MA 01010
(413)668-5006
jbpeeler@tmlp.com

Pollinators

Crown Bees
13410 NE 177th Place
Woodinville, WA, 98072
425-949-7954
email: info@crownbees.com
Website: https://crownbees.com/

Koppert Biological Systems, Inc.
8465 Beverly Road
Romulus, MI 48174-2497
(734) 641-3763
http://www.koppertonline.com

Entomo-Logic, Inc.
21323 232nd St. SE
Monroe, WA 98272-8982
(425) 280-0423
http://www.entomologic.com

International Pollination Systems USA
16645 Plum Rd.
Caldwell, ID 83605
208-990-1390
http://www.pollination.com/

Conversion Tables and Compatibility Notes

Common and Useful Conversion Factors

Table 59. Conversion factors to convert from one unit to another.
TO CONVERT FROM TO MULTIPLY BY
lb/A lb/100 sq ft 0.0023
tn/A lb/100sq ft 4.6
lb/A kg/ha 1.12
kg/ha lb/A 0.893
lb oz 16
qt of fruit lb of fruit 1.5
qt pt 2.0
pt qt 0.5
gal of liquid lb of liquid 8.3
STRAWBERRIES
lb/A lb/100 ft of row 0.008
yield in lb/100 ft of row lb/A 125
yield in qt/100 ft of row b/A 188
RASPBERRIES
lb/A lb/100 ft of row .0184
lb/A oz/plant 0.009
yield in lb/100 ft of row lb/A 55
yield in pt/100 of row lb/A 73
BLUEBERRIES
lb/A oz/plant 0.015
yield in lb/100 ft of row lb/A 44
yield in qt/100 ft of row lb/A 58
CURRANTS AND GOOSEBERRIES
lb/A oz/plant 0.012
lb/A lb/100 ft. of row 0.0184
Yield in lb/100 ft of row lb/A 55
Yield in pt/10 ft of row lb/A 73
 

Spray Mixture Compatibility Notes

This information is offered only as a general guide, and does not apply to pesticidal efficacy of mixtures. Read the label for specific crops or situations. Compatibilities indicated may be changed by certain adjuvants, different formulations, combinations of more than 2 materials, and environmental factors such as temperature and humidity.

  • When potential compatibility is indicated, minimum agitation should be provided in all cases.
  • Designations apply to at least one formulation of specified products. In cases where compatibility differs among formulations, the most conservative designation has been given. Defer to respective labels in all cases.
  • Unless otherwise noted on the label, use soon after mixing, preferably in systems with continuous agitation.
  • Physical compatibility: Although there may be no chemical incompatibility between the active ingredients of 2 given pesticides, some formulations of these products may not be physically compatible. This is particularly true whenmixing at high concentrations and when mixing wettable powders with emulsifiable concentrates. It is recommended that a small batch of a proposed mixture be prepared before making tank combinations, to check for unacceptable physical reactions.

Suggested Mixing Sequence

Always mix different spray materials in the following order, starting with:

  1. water soluble bags (WS)
  2. water dispersible granules and dry flowables (WDG, DF)
  3. wettable powders (WP)
  4. liquid flowables (L, F, FC)
  5. sprayable concentrates (S, SC, LC)
  6. emulsifiable concentrates (EC)
  7. surfactants, oils, and adjuvants Do not add oils, surfactants, or emulsifiable concentrates prior to dry formulations, or lumping may occur.

Tips for Laundering Pesticide-Contaminated Clothing

Air

Hang garments outdoors to air.

Pre-rinse

Use one of three methods:

  1. Hose off garments outdoors.
  2. Rinse in separate tub or pail.
  3. Rinse in automatic washer at full water level.

Pretreat (heavily soiled garments)

Use heavy-duty liquid detergent.

Washer Load

Wash garments separate from family wash.
Wash garments contaminated with the same pesticide together.

Load Size

Wash only a few garments at once.

Water Level

Use full water level.

Water Temperature

Use hot water, 140 ̊F or higher.

Wash Cycle

Use regular 12-minute wash cycle.

Laundry Detergent

Use a heavy-duty detergent.
Use amount recommended on package or more for heavy soil or hard water.

Rinse

Use a full warm rinse.

Dry

Line drying is preferable, to avoid contaminating dryer.

Clean Washer

Run complete, but empty, cycle.
Use hot water and detergent.

Rewash

Rewash contaminated garments two or three times before reuse for more complete pesticide removal.

Other Tips

Remove contaminated clothing before entering enclosed tractor cabs.

Remove contaminated clothing outdoors or in an entry. If a granular pesticide was used, shake clothing outdoors. Empty pockets and cuffs.

Save clothing worn while handling pesticides for that use only. Keep separate from other clothing before, during, and after laundering.

Wash contaminated clothing after each use. When applying pesticides daily, wash clothing daily.

Never use the “sudsaver” feature on your machine when laundering pesticide-soiled clothes.

Clean gloves, aprons, boots, rigid hats, respirators, and eyewear by scrubbing with detergent and warm water.

Rinse thoroughly and hang in a clean area to dry.

Take these precautions when handling contaminated clothing:

  • Ventilate area.
  • Avoid inhaling steam from washer or dryer.
  • Wash hands thoroughly.
  • Consider wearing chemical-resistant gloves.
  • Keep out of reach of children and pets.

Toxicity of Pesticides to Pollinators and Beneficials

"Pesticide" is a general term used for a chemical designed to kill target pests such as insects (insecticide), mites (miticide), weeds (herbicide) and organisms which cause plant diseases such as bacteria (bactericide) and fungi (fungicide). Unfortunately, many agricultural pesticides may be toxic to bees. Each year many honey bee colonies are damaged or destroyed by pesticides, primarily insecticides. Such losses have a devastating impact on the beekeeper, who may have to relocate damaged hives or perhaps even be forced out of business. Growers of most insect-pollinated crops (apples, raspberries, cucurbits, alfalfa seed and many others) experience lower yields, and ultimately the consumer must pay higher food prices.

Potential Factors for Honey Bee Damage:

Many factors involving insecticide application affect the potential for honey bee losses. The most important factors are outlined below.

  1. Plant Growth Stage: Severe bee poisoning most often results from spraying insecticides directly on flowering plants. Insecticide applications are generally not recommended on blooming crops.
  2. Relative Toxicity of the Chemical: Pesticides vary in their toxicity to honey bees. Most fungicides, herbicides and miticides are relatively nontoxic to honey bees and can generally be used around them without serious harm. The biological insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis exhibits very low toxicity to bees. One group of insecticides which is highly toxic to honey bees cannot be applied to blooming crops when bees are present without causing serious injury to colonies. Among the materials in this high-risk category are diazinon, Imidan, malathion and Sevin.
  3. Choice of Formulation: Different formulations, even of the same pesticide, often vary considerably in their toxicity to bees. Dust formulations are typically more hazardous than sprays because they are picked up on bee hairs. A wettable powder such as Sevin 80S would usually remain toxic in the field for longer time than Sevin XLR Plus, an emulsifiable concentrate. However, granular insecticides are less hazardous to honey bees. Microencapsulated materials such as Penncap-M are particularly dangerous to use around bees because the capsules have a special tendency to adhere to bees due to their size and electrostatic charge, and because the contaminated pollen collected by bees in the treated fields is stored in the hive and remains toxic for an extended period.
  4. Residual Action: Residual activity of an insecticide is an important factor in determining its safety to pollinators. An insecticide which degrades within a few hours can generally be applied with minimum risk when bees are not actively foraging.
  5. Drift: Drift of spray applications can cause significant bee poisoning problems, particularly when drift reaches colonies or adjacent flowering weeds. In general, sprays should not be applied if wind speed exceeds 10 mph and favors drift towards colonies.
  6. Temperature: Temperature can have a substantial effect on the bee poisoning hazard. If temperatures following treatment are unusually low, insecticide residues can remain toxic to bees many times longer than if higher temperatures prevail.
  7. Distance from Treated Fields: The most severely damaged colonies are usually those closest to fields where insecticides are being applied. However, during periods of pollen or nectar shortage, hives within five miles of the treated area can be injured.
  8. Time of Application: Evening application of a short residual insecticide can greatly reduce any potential for bee damage.

Steps to Reducing Damage:

Reducing pesticide injury to honey bees requires communication and cooperation between beekeepers, farmers and applicators. It is important that beekeepers understand cropping practices and pest management practices used by farmers in the vicinity of their apiaries. Likewise, insecticide applicators should be sensitive to locations of apiaries, obtain a basic understanding of honey bee behavior, and learn which materials and application practices are the most hazardous to bees. While it is unlikely that all poisonings can be avoided, a balance must be struck between the effective use of insecticides, the preservation of pollinators and the rights of all--the beekeeper, farmer and applicator. In most cases, bee poisonings can be avoided by observing the following practices.

  1. Do not treat fields in bloom. Be especially careful when spraying crops such as alfalfa, soybeans, and other legumes and pollinating crops. The label of certain insecticides expressly prohibits their application to flowering crops.
  2. Examine fields and field margins before spraying to determine if bees are foraging on flowering weeds such as milkweeds, smartweed or dandelions. Where feasible, eliminate weeds by mowing or tillage.
  3. Choose short residual materials and low-hazard formulations if insecticides absolutely must be applied during the flowering period to save the crop. Notify local beekeepers as far in advance as possible.
  4. Avoid spray drift. Give careful attention to position of bee colonies relative to wind speed and direction. Changing spray nozzles or reducing pressure can increase droplet size and reduce spray drift.
  5. Apply insecticides when bees are not foraging. Some insecticides can be applied in late evening or early morning with relative safety. In the case of corn, where bees collect pollen which is shed by tassels in the early morning, short residual materials could be applied from late afternoon until midnight to reduce the bee hazard.
  6. Adjust spray programs in relation to weather conditions. Reconsider the timing of insecticide application if unusually low temperatures are expected that night because residues can remain toxic to bees which enter the field the following day. Cease applications when temperatures rise and bees re-enter the field in early morning. Avoid treating during hot evenings if beehives are very close to the target field and honey bees are clustered on the outside of the hives. Be especially careful that spray does not contact hives.
  7. Read the pesticide label. Carefully follow listed precautions with regard to bee safety.

 

Table 60. Poisoning hazard to honey bees of common small fruit pesticides.
Active Ingredient
(common product names)**
DURATION OF HAZARD TO HONEYBEES (Residual Toxicity) Active Ingredient
(common product names)**
DURATION OF HAZARD TO HONEYBEES (Residual Toxicity)
EXTREMELY to Highly TOXIC: DO NOT APPLY ON BLOOMING CROPS OR WEEDS
*Beta-cyfluthrin
(*Baythroid, *Leverage, *Tempo)

1 day RT§
> 1 day ERT§§
 

Lambda-cyhalothrin
(Warrior, Voliam)
> day ERT
> day ERT for encapsulated formulation
*Bifenthrin
(*Brigade, *Sniper)
< 1 day RT
> 1 day ERT
Malathion
(Malathion, Cythion)
2-6 hrs RT
2-5 days ERT
Carbaryl
(Sevin)
< 1 day RT
2-14 day ERT
*Methomyl
(*Lannate, *Nudrin)
2 hrs RT
1.5 days ERT
*Chlorpyrifos
(*Dursban, *Lorsban)
2 hrs RT
4-6 days ERT
*Naled
(*Dibrom)
2 hrs RT
1-1.5 days ERT
Clothianidin
(Belay, Clutch)
? RT
> 5 days ERT
Phosmet
(Imidan)
3-5 days ERT
Copper Sulfate + Lime
(Bordeaux Mixture)
? Pyrethrin
(Azera, Pyganic, Pyrenone)
< 2 hrs RT
*Cyfluthrin
(*Baythroid, *Tombstone, *Tempo)
? RT
> 1 day ERT
Pyridaben
(Nexter, Pyramite, Sanmite)
< 2 hours RT
> 8 hrs ERT
*Diazinon
(*Diazinon)
? RT
2 days ERT
Sabadilla
(Veratran-D)
1 day ERT
Dinotefuran
(Venom, Scorpion)
? RT
39 hrs ERT
Sulfoxaflor
(Closer)
3 hrs RT
*Esfenvalerate
(*Asana)
< 1 day RT
1 day ERT
Thiamethoxam
(Actara, Platinum, Voliam)
7-14 days ERT
*Fenpropathrin
(*Danitol)
< 1 day RT
1 day ERT
*Zeta-cypermethrin
(*Mustang, *Hero, *Mustang Max)
> 1 day ERT
Imidacloprid
(Admire, Brigadier, Merit,
 Pasada, Provado)
8 hrs RT
> 1 day ERT

 

 

Indoxacarb
(Avaunt)

     
MODERATELY TOXICA: APPLY ONLY DURING LATE EVENING, NIGHT, OR EARLY MORNING IF BLOOMING PLANTS ARE PRESENT.
Acetamiprid
(Assail)
2 day ERT Copper Hydroxide
(Badge, Champ, Kocide, Nu-Cop)
?
Azadirachtin
(Neemix, Aza-Direct, Azera)
2 hr RT Horticultural Oil
(Superior, Dormant, Summer)
< 3 hr RT
Beauvaria bassiana
(Mycotrol, Botaniguard)
? Novaluron
(Rimon)
?
Bifenzate
(Acramite)
? Oxydemetonmethyl
(Metasystox-R)
< 2 hours RT
Capsacin
(Hot pepper wax)
? Petroleum/Paraffinic Oil
(JMS Stylit Oil)
< 3 hours RT
Chlorfenapyr
(Phantom, Pylon)
< 4 hr RT
> 2 day ERT
Spinetoram
(Delegate, Radiant)
3 hour RT
Spinosad
(Entrust, Success)
?
Chromobacterium subtsugae
(Grandevo)
? Spirotetramat
(Movento)
?
SLIGHTLY TOXIC OR NONTOXIC: CAN BE APPLIED AT ANY TIME WITH REASONABLE SAFETY TO BEES.
Acequinocyl
(Kanemite)
  Lime Sulfur
(Lime Sulfur)
 
Aluminum tris O-ethyl phosphonate
(Alliette, Fosetyl-Al)
  Mancozeb
(Dithane, Gavel, Manzate, Penncozeb, Ridomil Gold MZ)
 
Azoxystrobin
(Abound, Quadris)
  Mefenoxam
(Maxim, Ridomil)

 

Bacillus subtilis
(Rhapsody, Serenade, Cease)
Laboratory tests suggest potential effects on bumble bees. Metaldehyde bait
(Deadline)
 
Bacillus thuringiensis
(BT, Agree, Javelin, Thurcide)
  Metconazole
(Quash)
 
Boscalid
(Endura, Pristine)
  Methoxyfenozide
(Intrepid)
 
Calcium Polysulfide
(Lime Sulfur, Sulforix)
  Metrafenone
(Vivando)
 
Captan
(Captan, Captec, Captevate)
Up to 7  day ERT for mason bees. Effects on honey bee brood in laboratory, but not in field tests. Myclobutanil
(Rally, Sonoma)
No impact on bumble bees.
Chlorantraniliprole
(Altacore, Coragen, Grubex)
No impact on bumble bees. Neem oil
(Trilogy)
Must be ingested to be toxic.
Chlorothalonil
(Bravo, Echo)

Tentatively associated with “entombed pollen”. Common contaminant of beeswax.

Oils: Cottonseed, Clove, Garlic
(Pest Out, GC-mite)
 
Clofentezine
(Apollo)
  *Paraquat
(*Paraquat)
Although no PS on label, laboratory studies suggest effects on honey bee larvae, and paraquat has been associated with colony losses.
Cyflufenamid
(Miltrex, Torino)
  Penthiopyrad
(Fontelis)
 
Cymoxanil
(Tanos)
  Phosphorous acid, mono and di-potassium salts
(Fosphite, Prophyt)

 

Cyprodinil
(Switch, Vanguard)
No impact on bumble bees. Polyoxin D zinc salts
(Oso, Ph-D, Tavano)
 
Dicofol
(Dicofol)
Mixing with insecticides increases hazard to bees. Potassium bicarbonate
(MilStop, Greencure, Kaligreen)
No impact on bumble bees.
Difenoconazole
(Inspire, Quadrus, Revus)
 
Progargite
(Omite)

Mixing with insecticides increases hazard to bees

Dodine
(Syllit)
  Propiconazole
(Propicure, Quilt, Tilt)
Mason bees more sensitive than honey bees. If mixed with lambda- cyhalothrin, may increase toxicity.
Etoxazole
(Zeal)
3 days ERT for bumble bees Pyraclostrobin
(Cabrio, Pristine)
 
Famoxadone
(Tanos)
  Pyrimethanil
(Luna, Scala)
 
Fenarimol
(Rubigan, Vintage)
 

Pyriproxyfen
(Esteem)

≺2 hours RT for alfalfa leafcutting and alkali bees. May be toxic to bumble bee larvae. Avoid direct application or spray drift to honey bee hives (per label).

No PS on label, other sources suggest ERT to bees.

Fenbuconazole
(Indar)
  Quinoxyfen
(Quintec)
 
Fenbutatin-oxide
(Vendex)
 

Reynoutria sachaliensis
(Regalia)

 
Fenhexamid
(Elevate)
  Spiromesifen
(Oberon)
Structure and mechanism of action similar to spirodiclofen and spirotetramat, which are potentially toxic to honey bee larvae.
Fenpyroximate
(Fujimite, Akari)
  Streptomyces lydicus
(Actinovate)
 
Flonicamid
(Beleaf)

Possible effects on honey bees, further research needed. Short RT for alfalfa leafcutting bees and alkali bees. Short RT for bumble bees.

Sulfur
(various products OMRI classification varies by product)

See also lime sulfur. While most sources say sulfur poses little risk for bees, other sources suggest sulfur may cause toxicity for bees for up to a day and a half.

Flubendiamide
(Belt, Tourismo, Vetica)
Possible effects on honey bee larval development, further research needed. Tebuconazole
(Adament, Luna, Orius)
2 days ERT for bumble bees.
Fludioxonil
(Switch)
No impact on bumble bees. Tebufenozide
(Confirm)
 
Fluopicolide
(Presidio)
 

Tetraconazole
(Mettle)

1 day ERT for bumble bees
Fluopyram
(Luna)
  Thiacloprid
(Calypso)
Less toxic to bees than most other neonicotinoids. 1-2 days ERT for bumble bees.
Hexythiazox
(Onager, Savey)
≻2 hours RT for alfalfa leafcutting and alkali bees Thiophanate-methyl
(Topsin-M)
 
Iprodione
(Rovral)
Laboratory studies suggest effects on honey bee larval development, field studies needed. Triflumizole
(Procure)
May increase toxicity of certain neonicotinoids.
Kaolin Clay
(Surround)
  Ziram
(Ziram)
Laboratory studies suggest effects on honey bee larval development, field studies needed.
Kresoxim methyl
(Sovran)
     

Sources: 2010 New England Apple Pest Management Guide and Oregon State University Bulleting PNW591 ‘How to Reduce Bee Poisoning from Pesticides’.
§ Residual Toxicity - The length of time the residues of the product remain toxic to bees after application.
§§ Extended Residual Toxicity - Residues D are expected to cause at least 25 percent EC mortality for longer than 8 hours after F application.
a Late evening means after 6-8 PM and assumes that evening temperatures are not unusually high and that bees have stopped foraging. Late evening, night or early mornings means after 6-8 PM, and before 4-7 AM, depending on temperature. Shift time if abnormally high temperatures cause bees to start foraging earlier or continue later than ususal (5:30 AM to 8:00 PM). Few honeybees forage when springtime temperature is below 51˚F. Maximum foraging activity occurs at temperatures above 63˚F. Evening applications are generally less hazardous to bees than early morning applications.
**Where trade names are used, no discrimination is intended and no endorsement by Cooperative Extension is implied. Not a complete list.
*Restricted use pesticide; pesticide applicators license required. OMRI certified for organic production

Table 61. Toxicity of pesticides to birds, fish, bees, and beneficials.
(SOURCE: 2010 THE MID-ATLANTIC BERRY GUIDE FOR COMMERCIAL GROWERS)
  TOXICITY TO:
    MITE PREDATORS APHID PREDATORS
PESTICIDE BIRDS FISH BEES N. FALLACIS Z. MALI
INSECTICIDES
Actara Na N H N N H
Admire M M H M S S-M
Asana N H H H M H
Aza-Direct -- H N -- -- S
Brigade/Capture M H H H M H
Confirm S H M N N N
Danitol H H H H M H
Diazinon H H H M S M
*Dibrom -- -- M -- -- --
Dipel (B.t.) N N N N N N
Entrust/Spintor H -- H S N N
Esteem -- -- N S N N
Imidan S H H S S S
Lannate H H H H M H
*Lorsban M H H M M H
Malathion M H H S -- M
M-Pede N N N S S --
Mustang Max -- H H H M H
Platinum -- M -- -- -- --
Provado M M H S S M
Sevin XLR S N H M M M
*Thionex H H S S N M
MITICIDES
Acramite -- -- H M M S
AgriMek N N H H M --
Kanemite -- Hb -- S S S
Kelthane/Dicofolc M H N H S S
Oberon -- H -- -- -- --
Savey -- H N S S N
Vendex M M N M M H
Zeal -- -- N M S M

a N = reasonably safe (for bees, apply anytime); S = slightly toxic (for bees, apply in evening after bees have stopped foraging until early morning before they start foraging); M = moderately toxic (for bees, apply in evening after bees have stopped foraging); H = highly toxic (for bees, do not apply to blooming plants); — = insufficient data
b Toxic to invertebrate aquatic organisms such as oysters.
c Kelthane use is being discontinued. Growers may continue to use existing stocks for strawberries. VA’s 24C label for Kelthane on brambles is no longer in effect.

*Restricted use pesticide; pesticide applicators license required. OMRI certified for organic production