Department of Veterinary and Animal Sciences
A male factor is responsible for about half of the cases of equine infertility: this fact highlights the need for a better understanding of the molecular basis of male equine infertility both at the genetic as well as at the biochemical level.This project is relevant for the study of male infertility from several perspectives: 1) results of the experiments will provide a significant advance in understanding at the molecular level the mechanisms of the causes of male infertility.
There is concern over the presence of pollutants in our water supply. Among the pollutants that have elicited the greatest alarm are those that can alter the development and reproduction of aquatic organisms and potentially harm human health. These chemicals, generally referred to as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), enter waterways as runoff from farms, effluent from wastewater treatment and manufacturing plants, and leachate from septic systems.
The sustainability of water resources and of green spaces will become increasingly important for quality of life in the future. The efficient utilization of turfgrasses to remediate organic pollutants in these efforts can be an important component of a sustainability strategy. Research has established that significant differences exist between plants in their remediation abilities: different abilities of plants to adsorb and absorb pollutants; different exudates being released from the root systems; and different microbial populations associated with roots of different plants.
Mitochondria are critical for production of ATP, the energy currency of a cell, but glucose utilization varies greatly among cell types. Inherited mitochondrial disorders affect neural tissues most prominently revealing the vulnerability of these tissues. In mice, prolonged exposure to mitochondrial toxins can lead to symptoms that mimic Parkinson's disease. The mammary gland is a tissue that, in its resting state, has relatively modest energy requirements.
Mitochondria are cellular organelles which are often referred to as the "powerhouse" of the cell. Their many functions include generating the chemical energy utilized by cells, as well as roles in cell signaling, differentiation, cell growth and even cell death. It has been shown that chronic exposures to organic pesticides such as Rotenone, which inhibits mitochondrial function, can result in pathological conditions such as Parkinson's disease.
Laminitis is a crippling disease that affects about one-percent of the more than nine million horses in North America. The cost of laminitis to the horse industry exceeds $1 billion annually, predominantly from loss of use of the affected animals rather than medical costs. Laminitis results from failure of the digital laminae, which suspend a horse's distal phalanx, and thus the axial skeleton and all that is attached to it, within the hoof capsule. The laminae are composed of a hoof wall-associated epidermal layer and a distal phalanx-associated dermal layer.
The genes within the genome (genetic code) of cattle need to be identified and defined before variability of these genes among cattle (individuals and breeds) can be identified. One goal is to determine whether such variations when found are associated with enhanced or decreased resistance to infectious diseases. The cattle genome has been largely sequenced (that is, the genetic code 'read'), and now one of the purposes of the international community effort is to annotate the bovine genome (define genes within the genetic code).