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The information communicated by UMass Extension's Turf Program is not presented as recommendations, but rather as research-based and expertly audited knowledge intended to help practitioners make informed decisions. The content authors make no guarantees and assume no liability as to the efficacy of outlined practices or listed materials. The user of this information assumes all risks and liability for personal injury and property damage.


Pest management guidelines assume a positive and accurate identification of the pest(s) in question.  For pest identification assistance please refer to the UMass Extension Plant Diagnostic Lab.

Pesticide materials are generally referred to by common (active ingredient) name in this on this web site. Where appropriate, common names are followed by trade names in parentheses. Trade names are used for identification and reference purposes only. No product endorsement is implied, nor is discrimination intended against similar materials.

All pesticides referenced on this web site have been registered and approved for indicated uses according to the best available information at the time of posting (for exceptions refer to 'Archived Materials' below). However, local, state and federal laws and regulations pertaining to pesticides are subject to change. Pesticide applicators are advised to stay current with laws and regulations governing pesticides and their use.

It is unlawful to use any pesticide in any manner other than the registered use. It is the responsibility of the applicator to verify the registration status of any pesticide for the intended use before applying it.

Some pesticides referred to on this web site may be classified “for restricted use only” in accordance with federal and/or state regulations. Persons using “restricted use” pesticides must be licensed and certified applicators.

When using pesticides, users are further cautioned to read and strictly follow all directions on the pesticide label. The pesticide label is the law. In the event that pesticide label information is in conflict with information contained on this web site, the label shall take precedence.

Archived Materials

Certain segments of this web site (including UMass Extension’s Turf Management Updates) contain information that is archived as it originally appeared, in an effort to preserve useful information and to illustrate changing management techniques and pest patterns over time. Some text may contain references to specific pesticide or fertilizer products. Due to the continually changing nature of the trade and of applicable regulations, some content may contain references to out-of-date practices or products that are no longer available and/or are no longer registered for use.