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Cover Crops & Green Manures

Cover Crops

Cover crops are grown to protect and/or enrich the soil rather than for short term economic gain. When turned into the soil, a cover crop is called a green manure, so the terms are reasonably interchangeable.

When a cash crop is not growing, it is wise to sow something to protect the soil from wind and water erosion, thus the term cover crop. It is also wise to “rest” your fields by occasionally rotating out of cash crop production, while at the same time growing something to improve soil fertility, thus the term green manure. Some green manure crops can also suppress weeds, by “smothering” them and starving them for light. Use high seeding rates if cover crops are grown for weed suppression.

Depending on their growing requirements, cover crops can be sown after vegetable harvest, between a spring and fall crop or by overseeding into a standing small fruit crop after a final cultivation.

In selecting a green manure crop, consider the following: seed cost, winter hardiness (if applicable), ability to fix nitrogen, suppress weeds, and suitability to soil conditions, tillage equipment and the crop to follow. Here is a list of some common cover crops in New England and a description of their uses.

Table 5. Typical carbon-to-nitrogen ratios.
Material Carbon:Nitrogen Ratio
Legume hay 15-19:1
Non-legume hay 24-41:1
Corn stalks 42:1
Oat straw 70:1
Rye straw 82:1
Cow manure 18:1
Finished compost 17-20:1
Agricultural soils 8-14:1
Hardwood sawdust 500:1


Sow when “free” nitrogen is desired for a subsequent cash crop with a high nitrogen demand. Legumes generally require good drainage and fertility. Most grow slowly at first so they do not compete much with weeds until well established. Drill seed for best stands. Mix seed with proper inoculant to insure nodulation. Often sown with a nurse crop such as oats, or in mixes with perennial grasses. When legumes are mowed, tarnished plant bugs may be driven into adjacent crops, such as strawberries or raspberries increasing the likelihood of damage.

Red Clover is a short-lived perennial that is somewhat tolerant of acid or poorly drained soils. Mammoth red clover produces more biomass for plow-down than medium red clover, but does not regrow as well after mowing. Mammoth will often establish better than medium in dry or acid soils. Sow in early spring or late summer.

White Clover is a low-growing perennial, tolerant of shade and slightly acid soil. Ladino types are taller than the Dutch or wild types. White clover is a poor competitor with weeds unless mowed. Suitable for use in walkways or alleys. Expensive seed.

Sweet Clover is a biennial (except for annual types like Hubam) that is deep-rooted and adapted to a wide range of soils. It is a good soil-improving crop with a strong taproot that opens up subsoil. Yellow sweet clover is earlier maturing and somewhat less productive than white sweet clover. Sow in early spring or late summer at 15 to 20 lb/acre. Heavy growth is produced in spring after overwintering. Incorporate in late spring or mid-summer at flowering. May deplete soil of moisture, which can be a problem for subsequent crops in dry years.

Hairy Vetch has become increasingly popular as a cover crop. It can fix tremendous amounts of nitrogen. Generally this cover crop is seeded in the fall after August 15 or before mid September in most areas. It should be allowed to grow at least until mid May before plow down. It is advisable to seed winter rye (30-40 lbs/acre) or oats (40-50 lbs/acre) with the vetch when seeded in the fall to take up unused nitrogen and to ensure a good ground cover for erosion control. Most growers prefer oats to winter rye because the oat will not overwinter and the vetch alone is easier to manage the following spring. Hairy vetch can also be seeded in early spring or summer. When seeded in early April it will produce significant nitrogen in time for a late seeding of sweet corn or brassica. When seeded in the summer it will usually winter kill and the following spring the nitrogen will become available for an early crop. Treat seed with a pea-type inoculant.

Alfalfa requires deep, well-drained soil with a pH near neutral for good growth. It is a long-lived perennial that is probably not worth the expense in a short-term rotation. Fixes large amounts of nitrogen if maintained for several years. Seed early spring or late summer at 15 to 25 lb/acre.


These are selected when nitrogen contribution to the soil is not a priority. They tend to grow more rapidly and thus are better at short-term weed suppression than legumes. Late-season grasses are useful for recovering leftover nitrogen after crops have been harvested.

Winter Rye is a common winter cover crop, sown after cash crops are harvested in the fall. It is very hardy, adapted to a wide range of conditions, and seed is inexpensive. The latest-sown cover crop, it produces a lot of biomass in the spring. This adds organic matter to the soil but may be difficult to incorporate prior to crop planting.

Oats are used as a winter cover crop to protect the soil without requiring intensive management in the spring, because they are frost-killed. Shallow incorporation of residues may still be necessary before crop planting. Enough growth is needed before first frost to adequately protect the soil, so plant by late August, at a rate of about 100 lb/acre. Oat residues left on the soil surface may chemically suppress weed growth, and act as a physical barrier. Oats are also a good cover crop to plant any time during the spring or summer when land is out of production. Unlike winter rye, oats grow vigorously and upright when seeded in the spring or summer and compete effectively with weeds. Can grow in soils with low pH (5.5).

Ryegrass is a low-growing cover crop that produces an extensive root system good at capturing leftover nitrogen. It is well suited to undersowing, after last cultivation of a cash crop, in order to establish a winter cover prior to harvest. Annual ryegrass is less expensive than perennial ryegrass, and is more likely to winterkill; however, it may overwinter in milder areas, and perennial ryegrass may winterkill in harsher zones. These crops form a dense sod that reduces erosion.

Sudangrass and Sorghum-sudangrass (Sudex) are fast-growing, warm season crops that require good fertility and moisture to perform well. Under such conditions, their tall, rank growth provides excellent weed suppression. Such heavy growth can be difficult to cut and incorporate. Due to its growth habit, sudan grass should be cut back when growth exceeds 20-25 inches or plowed down if a second growth is not desired.

Buckwheat is a fast-growing summer annual that can be used to protect the soil and suppress weeds for a month or two between spring and fall cash crops. It grows fairly well on acid and low phosphorus soils. It decomposes rapidly and is easy to incorporate, but does not contribute a lot of organic matter to the soil. Mow or incorporate at flowering, prior to setting seed so it does not become a weed in subsequent crops. Grows well in low soil pH. To smother weedy fields, some growers plant two successive crops of buckwheat followed by winter rye. Do not allow buckwheat to go to seed prior to plow-down.

Annual Field Brome: Winter annual grass. Establishes rapidly and has extensive fibrous root system contributing organic matter to soil. Plow down in spring. Seed not readily available so plan ahead.

Japanese Millet: Summer annual grass. Fast growing and competes well with weeds. Establishes faster than sudan grass on cool soils. Can be cut back and allowed to regrow after reaches 20 inches. Can reach 4 ft. in 7-8 weeks. Do not allow to mature and drop seed.

Mustards: This includes white or yellow mustard (Sinapis alba), brown or Indian mustard (Brassica juncea), and black mustard (B. nigra L.). Mustards produce glucosinolates, which are compounds that have broad activity against bacteria, fungi, insects, nematodes and weed seeds. Mustards are often considered “biofumigants”, and managed to try to benefit from these effects by mowing and incorporating into the soil immediately afterwards. 


Legumes and grasses are often mixed as cover crops to hedge against failure of one and to get some of the benefits of both. The grass will usually establish quickly, holding soil in place and “nursing” the legume along. By taking available soil N, the grass promotes N-fixation by the legume. Fertilization with N or the absence of mowing favors growth of grass over legume. Some common mixtures, in addition to vetch and rye described above, are red clover and oats (combine or mow oat heads, leaving established clover); ryegrass and white clover for mowed alleys. Timothy is often used as a nurse crop for alfalfa. It is advisable to trial unfamiliar cover crops or mixtures on a small scale to determine if they are suited to your climate and management resources before growing them widely.

Note: N fixed in root nodules moves to the leaves and stems of legumes. If hay is harvested from the field prior to plowing, very little N will be contributed to the subsequent crop.

Table 6. Pre-plant cover-crop seeding dates and rates.
Cover Crop Recommended Seeding Dates Seeding Rate
Alfalfa Early April to late May or Late July to mid August 14 - 20 lbs/A
Buckwheat Late May to early June or Late July to early August 60 - 75 lbs/A
Clovers (Alsike, Ladino, White) Early April to late May or Late July to mid August 4 lbs/A (alsike and white) 2 lbs/A (ladino)
Red Clover Early April to late May or Late July to mid August 8 - 10 lbs/A
Sweet Clover Early April to mid May or Early August 12 - 20 lbs/A
Hairy Vetch August to early Sept. 30 - 40 lbs/A
Annual Field Brome July and August 20 lbs/A
Japanese Millet Late May to mid July 20 lbs/A
Spring Oats Early to mid April or Mid August 100 lbs/A
Annual Ryegrass Early April to early June or Early August to early Sept. 30 lbs/A
Perennial Ryegrass August to mid Sept. 25 lbs/A
Winter Rye August to mid Sept. 80-100 lbs/A
Sudan Grass Late May to Early June 80 lbs/A
Sorghum-Sudan Grass Hybrids Late May to Early June 35-50 lbs/A
Mustards Late May to July 10-25 lbs/A