The information on this web site is not presented as recommendations, but rather as research-based and expertly audited knowledge intended to help practitioners make informed decisions. The user of this information assumes all risks and liability for personal injury and property damage.
Pest management guidelines assume a positive and accurate identification of the pest(s) in question. For pest identification assistance please refer to the UMass Extension Plant Diagnostics Lab.
Pesticide applicators are responsible for reading and following all directions on the pesticide label; the label is the law. Because state and local regulations vary and change over time, it is the responsibility of the applicator to verify the registration status of any pesticide and to insure that the material is cleared for the intended use prior to application. It is unlawful to use any pesticide in any manner other than the registered use. Neither the authors, University of Massachusetts Extension, nor the University of Massachusetts assume liability for pesticide-related information or pesticide use. The use of company or commercial product trade names is for the benefit of the reader and does not indicate or imply endorsement, nor does it indicate discrimination against comparable materials that are not mentioned.
Certain segments of this web site (including UMass Extension’s Landscape Message) contain information that is archived as it originally appeared, in an effort to preserve useful information and to illustrate changing management techniques and pest patterns over time. Some text may contain references to specific pesticide or fertilizer products. Due to the cotinually changing nature of the trade and of pesticide regulations, some messages may contain references to products that are no longer available and/or are no longer registered for use.