Foodborne illness is estimated to account for over 48 million illnesses (nearly 1 in 6 Americans) and over 3,000 deaths in the U.S. every year1, resulting in economic losses as much as $93 billion2. The results of this project will directly impact the food production and service industry by conducting research and extension that will inform control and reduction of foodborne disease for a large variety of food products, including low-moisture foods (especially spices, nuts, and dried fruits); fresh, minimally, and shelf-stable processed produce; nuts; spices; fruits; grains; dairy; fresh and further processed seafood, meat, and poultry products (including fully cooked and ready-to-eat products subject to post-process contamination), as well as other multi-component and processed foods. Additionally, the research and portion of this work will aim to reduce the risk for foodborne illness through food service and preparation environments, which are among the most implicated in foodborne norovirus transmission, as well as transmission of a number of other pathogens. Moreover, the threats and specific needs for food safety in the food industry are constantly evolving and require continued risk-based solutions in the face of these changes. Therefore, the project proposes risk-based solutions for the effective control of foodborne pathogens across food commodities in the U.S.