Utilizing food systems to improve nutrition without the need for artificial fortification of food or use of dietary supplements of mineral nutrients is important in ending malnutrition. Malnutrition from deficiencies of mineral elements is reported to be on the rise worldwide, even in the United States. It is estimated that half of the world population suffers from incidences of mineral nutrient deficiencies. These deficiencies limit the physical, intellectual, and mental health activities of the affected people. The deficiencies appear to derive from diminished contents of mineral nutrients in foods of plant (vegetables, fruits) or animal (meats, milk, cheese) origins. With fruits and vegetables, the decline in nutrients is related in part to depletion of nutrients from soils without adequate replenishment with fertilization. Some of the diminished nutrient contents in fruits and vegetables may be related to genetics of new cultivated varieties of produce. Research is needed to develop systems of food crop production that will supply adequate mineral nutrition directly through crop-related foods and from meats and dairy products from livestock and poultry that are provided with adequate mineral nutrition. The research proposed under this project will provide a foundation of data obtained through field, greenhouse, and laboratory research to enable the investigators to pursue studies in planning sustainable food systems for human nutrition and crop production. The research will allow the investigators to obtain data that will help to ascertain if the nutrient content of vegetables and fruits can be enhanced through selection of crop varieties and improved nutrition of crops through fertilization and soil amendments.