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Weeds

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The primary goal of weed management is to optimize yields by minimizing competition between the weeds and the crop. Weeds reduce yields by competing with the crop for water, light, and nutrients. Weeds also harbor insects and diseases and encourage vertebrate pests. Timely cultivation, wise use of herbicides, and never permitting weeds to go to seed are integral parts of a good weed management system. Many of the weeds found in these fields are difficult-to-control perennial weeds that are not common in annual crop culture. New plantings usually have fewer perennial weed problems than older plantings. Annual and biennial weeds can also exist in these fields. Fields should be scouted at least twice a year (spring and fall) to determine specific weed problems. The selection of a weed management tool should be based on specific weeds present in each field.

The most important weed management strategy is employed prior to planting that is, eliminating all perennial weeds. Fields that have been dormant or have been in pasture may have perennial weeds that at well established. Fields that have been in cultivation are less likely to have established perennial weeds in them. Common perennial weeds include common dandelion, Canada thistle, stinging nettle, field bindweed, field horsetail, goldenrod, and quackgrass. Once these perennial weeds become established or remain established in a berry field, they are very difficult to remove. The most common way to remove perennial weeds is with Roundup (glyphosate) applied in the fall prior to planting. Perennial broadleaf weeds should be treated after flowering but prior to a killing frost. Perennial grasses can be treated well into November.

Weeds can develop resistance to herbicides. The Weed Science Society of America (WSSA) developed a grouping system based on the mode of action of different herbicides. WSSA Group numbers can be used as a tool to choose herbicides in different mode of action groups so mixtures or rotations of active ingredients can be planned to better manage weeds and reduce the potential for resistant species.

Cultural weed management in blueberry plantings includes mulching, cultivation, and soil pH management. Mulching is a major weed management tool in blueberry production. Mulches that are free of weed seeds and placed thickly enough can be very effective at reducing or eliminating most annual weeds from the crop row. They are seldom effective on perennial weeds, however. Use of cultivation is difficult and often is counter productive in blueberry plantings. It destroys surface feeding roots and does not work well where mulches are used. All cultivations should be timely and shallow to minimize crop root injury, to minimize loss of soil moisture, and to avoid repositioning new weed seeds to the soil surface. The low pH soil that blueberry plantings thrive in is not a good environment for most weed species. Keeping the soil pH at the right level will help to reduce weed pressure.

The areas between the crop row is usually maintained with a mowed cover of sod, clover, weeds, or a combination of these. This cover is used primarily for erosion control and to improve trafficability in the field.